ПОСТРОЕНИЕ МОТИВАЦИИ ПРИ ОБУЧЕНИИ ПОСЛЕДОВАТЕЛЬНЫМ ПЕРЕВОДОМ

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Abduganieva Д. (2019). ПОСТРОЕНИЕ МОТИВАЦИИ ПРИ ОБУЧЕНИИ ПОСЛЕДОВАТЕЛЬНЫМ ПЕРЕВОДОМ. in Library, 19(3), 95–101. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/11434
Jamilya Abduganieva, O‘zbekiston davlat jahon tillari universiteti

Pedagogika fanlari bo‘yicha falsafa doktori

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Аннотация

Данная статья посвящена проблеме формирования мотивации в процессе обучения последовательному переводу. Целью статьи является описание понятия 'мотивация' в целом как с психологической, так и с практической точки зрения, а также изучение использования данного понятия в обучении. В статье рассказано о необходимости применения методов, принципов и техник преподавания, а также информационных технологий в процессе обучения последовательному переводу.

Похожие статьи


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Djamilya Abduganieva (Uzbekistan State World Languages University)

BUILDING THE MOTIVATION IN CONSECUTIVE INTERPRETATION TEACHING

Аннотация

.Ушбу мақола изчил таржимани ўқитишда мотивация яратиш масала-

сига бағишланган. Мақоланинг асосий мақсади “мотивация” тушунчасини ҳам психоло-
гик, ҳам амалий жиҳатдан тасвирлаш ҳамда ушбу тушунчани ўқитиш жараёнида қўл-
лашдан иборат. Мақолада, шунингдек, изчил таржимани ўқитиш жараёнида методлар
қўллаш, ўқитиш тамойиллари ва техникаси ҳамда ахборот технологияларининг аҳамия-
ти ҳақида сўз боради.

Аннотация

. Данная статья посвящена проблеме формирования мотивации в про-

цессе обучения последовательному переводу. Целью статьи является описание понятия
‘мотивация’ в целом как с психологической, так и с практической точки зрения, а так-
же изучение использования данного понятия в обучении. В статье рассказано о необходи-
мости применения методов, принципов и техник преподавания, а также информацион-
ных технологий в процессе обучения последовательному переводу.

Annotation

. This article is devoted to the problem of building the motivation in consecu-

tive interpretation teaching. The aim of the article is to describe the notion ‘motivation’ from
both psychological and practical points of view and also the use of the notion while training. The
article tells about the necessity of application of methods, principles and techniques of teaching
and the information technologies while consecutive interpretation training.

Калит сўзлар:

изчил таржимон, мотив, мотивация, таълим мотивацияси, ўрга-

тиш, ўқитиш, мотив турлари, техника, метод, тамойил, ўрганиш ҳаракати, мулоқот
маҳорати.

Ключевые слова:

последовательный переводчик, мотив, мотивация, учебная моти-

вация, обучение, преподавание, типы мотивов, техника, метод, принцип, учебная дея-
тельность, коммуникация, навыки.

Key words:

consecutive interpreter, motive, motivation, educational motivation, training,

teaching, types of motives, technique, method, principle, learning activity, communication, skills.


Political, socioeconomic, organizational transformations taking place in any modern soci-

ety require constant changes in the training of future specialists. Each country needs people with
a high level of general development and professionalism, initiative and enterprise, creativity. The
basis for the successful study of any student is a high level of motivation for learning activity.
The problem of studying the motivation of educational activity is one of the most important in
psychology and pedagogy, as evidenced the numerous works devoted to this topic. Recently, the
problem of motivating the educational activity of student youth has been identified. Motivation,
contributing to the success of student learning, is the basis for the effective implementation of
the learning process.

It is known that students are encouraged to learn by a whole set of motives. The results of

studies of the educational motivation of students from different CIS countries (Ilyin E.P.,
Vasilkova A.M., Ivanova S.S., etc.) helped to identify problems such as the devaluation of higher
education: the value is not in knowledge, education as a whole, but only in availability of a
diploma. In addition, it is noted that in the process of studying at a university, the strength of the
motivation and learning motivation of the chosen specialty is reduced.

1

The problem of motivation of educational activity is one of the basic problems of the

psychology of training. Such status of it is explained, on the one hand, by the fact that motivation

1

Кравченко Ю. О. К проблеме формирования учебной мотивации студентов. Психология в России и за ру-

бежом. Mатериалы междунар. науч. конф., СПб., “Реноме”, 2011, c. 104.


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96

is the main psychological characteristic of any activity, including training.

1

On the other hand,

the management of the motivation for training (or, more accurately, the motivational and deman-
ding sphere of training) makes it possible to manage the learning process, which is very impor-
tant for achieving its success.

2

Educational motivation is defined as a particular kind of motivation included in the activity

of teaching educational activity.

3

Being the first component of the structure of educational ac-

tivity, motivation is an essential characteristic of the subject of activity.

Educational motivation is determined by a number of factors: the educational system, the

educational institution where the training activity is carried out; the organization of the educa-
tional process; personal traits of the learner (age, gender, intellectual development, ability, level
of aspiration, self-esteem, his/her interaction with other students, etc.); personal features of a
teacher and, above all, the system of his/her relations to a student, to the case; specificity of the
subject.

4

Educational motivation is systemic and is characterized by directivity, stability and dyna-

mism.

5

E.Yu. Patiaeva shares the types of educational motivation based on different types of

learning situations.

6

The motivation of the teaching is based on actions that a student was told to perform. The

given teaching is common to “doers” who are not able to determine independently the general
direction of their actions, to reflect the bases of their actions and actions of others, to carry out
productive interaction with others.

7

The motivation of spontaneous teaching is based on the actions of a student “at will”,

based on his/her natural curiosity. According to E.Y. Patyayeva, this type of exercise can be
unstable and unsystematic, since it does not teach you to set goals and achieve them, to over-
come diffi-culties on their way to achieving them.

A special type of motivation is characterized by a self-determined learning activity. The

student's ability of self-determination includes the recognition of the motives and values, the
ability to make decisions in a situation of conflict of motivations and feelings, formulation of
position, justifying and defending it, making a decision taking into account different positions,
acting arbitrarily and purposefully.

8

There are also positive and negative cognitive motivations associated with awareness of

the negative consequences that may arise in connection with the performance and failure of a
certain action.

9

1

Воронкова, Н.Ю. Динамика развития профессиональной мотивации студентов новых специальностей в

процессе вузовской подготовки. Автореф… канд. психол. наук, 19.00.07. М., 2008, c. 25;Гальперин, П.Я. К
вопросу о внутренней речи. Хрестоматия по педагогической психологии. М., “Высш. шк.”, 1995, c. 2–20.

2

Лях Т.И. Педагогическая психология. Учебное пособие для студентов, обучающихся по специальности

031900–Специальная психология. Тула, изд-во Тул. гос. пед. ун-та им. Л.Н.Толстого, 2005, 295 с.

3

Зимняя, И.А. Педагогическая психология. Учебник для вузов, М., “Логос”, 2003, 384 с.

4

Гребенюк Е.Н., М.Каракоч. К проблеме мотивации исследовательской деятельности студентов вуза. “Мо-

лодой ученый”, 2014, № 13, c. 233.

5

Зимняя, И.А. Педагогическая психология. Учебник для вузов, М., “Логос”, 2003, 380 с.

6

Бугрименко А.Г. Внутренняя и внешняя мотивация у студентов педагогического вуза. “Психология в вузе”,

2006, № 3, с. 17.

7

Гурова Н.А. Мотивация студентов к учебной и научной деятельности (Электронный ресурс). Личность,

семья и общество: вопросы педагогики и психологии: сборник статей по материалам XLVII междунар. науч-
но-практической конф. (15 декабря 2014 г.), c. 106. URL: http://sibac.info/17033.

8

Jakobovits L. Foreign Language Learning: a Psycholinguistic Analysis of the Issues. New York, Rowley, 2000,

248 p.

9

Бугрименко А.Г. Внутренняя и внешняя мотивация у студентов педагогического вуза. “Психология в ву-

зе”, 2006, № 3, с. 20.


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Studying the educational motivation, the central question becomes the question of the

types of motives of the teaching.

The motive of the teaching is understood as the orientation of the activeness (operation) of

a student on certain aspects of the educational activity.

1

There are several classifications of

teaching motives. According to L.I.Bozhovich, the motives of the teaching are divided into ex-
ternal (not related to the educational process) and internal (derived from various characteristics
of the teaching).

2

A.N.Leontiev singles out “motives-incentive” and “sense-forming” motives.

“Some motives, while stimulating activity, at the same time give it a personal meaning; we call
them sense-forming motives. Others, coexisting with them, acting as the motivating factors (po-
sitive or negative) – sometimes sharply emotional, effective – are devoid of meaning-forming
functions; we will conditionally call such motives motives – incen-tives” (A.N.Leontiev).

3

Also

A.N.Leontiev’s motives are divided into “known” (“understood”) and “really cting”.

The most complete classification of the motives of the teaching was proposed by A.K.

Markova. It identifies two groups of motives for learning: cognitive motives and social motives.

Cognitive motives are aimed at the process of cognition, increasing the effectiveness of its

results – knowledge, skills, as well as methods of cognition and acquisition of knowledge, tech-
niques and methods of teaching, improving the effectiveness of these methods and methods of
cognition. Their levels: broad cognitive motives – the focus on knowledge; educational and cog-
nitive – the focus on ways of obtaining knowledge; motives for self-education – the focus on the
ways of self-replenishment of knowledge.

Social motives characterize a student’s activity in relation to one or other aspects of

interaction with another person in the course of teaching, to the results of joint activities and the
methods of these interactions, to an increase in the effectiveness of the results and methods of
these interactions. Their levels are broad social motives – duty, responsibility; narrow social or
positional motives – the urge to get the approval of others; motives of social cooperation – the
desire to master the ways of interaction with surrounding people.

4

A number of researchers (L.I.Bozhovich, P.M.Yakobson) postulate the necessity of the

presence of both components (cognitive and social motives) for the effectiveness of learning
activity.

Starting the education at a higher educational institutions, the former schoolchild faces a

number of changes: first, the level of external control over the student’s activity is sharply redu-
ced; secondly, the structure of the educational activity itself is changing – the motives of the tea-
ching are supplemented and closely intertwined with professional motives; thirdly, there is an
entry into a new social community – the “student div”.

5

In the light of such changes, the ques-

tion of the motivation of students' learning activities becomes especially important.

Different authors define the different motives for admission to higher education, which lar-

gely depends on the angle of studying this issue, the social and economic situation in the state.

6

The main motivations for entering the university are: the desire to be in the circle of student’s
community, the great social importance of the profession and the wide scope of its application,
the relevance of the profession to interests and inclinations and its creative capabilities. There are
differences in the significance of the motives of girls and boys. Girls often note the great social
importance of the profession, the wide scope of its application, the opportunity to work in large
cities and scientific centers, the desire to participate in student artistic amateur performances, a

1

Маркова А.К. Формирование мотивации учения. Кн. для учителя. М., “Просвещение”, 1990, 191 с.

2

Лях Т.И. Педагогическая психология. Учебное пособие для студентов, обучающихся по специальности

031900 – Специальная психология. Тула, изд-во Тул. гос. пед. ун-та им. Л.Н.Толстого, 2005, 295 с.

3

Леонтьев А.Н. Деятельность. Сознание. Личность. М., “Смысл”, 2005, 153 с.

4

Маркова А.К. Формирование мотивации учения. Кн. для учителя. М., “Просвещение”, 1990, 191 с.

5

Le Boterf, G. Développer la compétence des professionnels. Paris, Ed. d’Organisation, 2002, 312 p.

6

Wilson E.O. On Human Nature. Cambridge, University Press, 2002, 512 p.


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good financial security of the profession. Young men often say that the chosen profession meets
interests and inclinations. Also they refer to the family traditions.

1

In the motivation of students’ learning activities, the teaching and professional components

themselves are constantly combined. In line with this, the motives of the teaching and profess-
sional motives can be identified in the structure of the doctrine as “internal motives that deter-
mine the direction of human activity in professional behavior in general and the person's orienta-
tion to different aspects of the most professional activity”.

2

Professional motives are also defined

as “motives that move the subject to improve his/her activities – its ways, means, forms, me-
thods, etc.”, “motivation for growth, realizing the activity in the direction of production, rather
than consumption”.

3

In the framework of the activity approach, according to D.B.Elkonin and V.V.Davydov the

educational and professional activity of students is basic. Its motivation, according to T.I. Lyakh,
includes two groups of motives: educational and social. Each of these groups in its development
passes three levels. Levels of formation of educational and professional motives (from the lowest
to the highest) are: a wide educational and professional; motive of professional self-education.
Levels of the formation of social motives for educational and professional activities at the uni-
versity (from the lowest to the highest): a wide social motive; narrow social, positional motive;
motives for professional cooperation. By the end of the training at the pedagogical university,
undergraduates, influenced by the system of educational work of the university, should form the
motives of professional self-education from the group of educational and professional motives,
and the motives of professional cooperation from the group of social motives.

Considering the process of oral consecutive interpreting and studying the motives of lear-

ning while training the consecutive interpreters, it is necessary to refer to the term “oral bilin-
gual discourse”, which is defined as “a kind of discourse that includes the structural components
of the translation process (communication components with translation) and cognitive processes
that evolve according to their own rules, represent a complex self-organizing system”.

4

There-

fore, when studying oral bilingual discourse, it is necessary to consider not only the text of the
source language, which is intended for transmission to the final addres-see, and the translated
text of the translation language, the speech situation, but also take into account all components of
the communication act with the translation in the current situation of speech communication (two
speech situations, two message sources, two speech products, two recipients, a code and various
types of information (background information, structure information, semantic and situational
information).

Considering oral bilingual discourse as one of the varieties of discourse presented in mo-

dern linguistic science, following S.K.Gural, we assume that it has the following basic cate-
gories: proposition, reference, explication, implicature, inference, presupposition, mental lexi-
con. Only taking into account the characteristics and features of all the components presented
above the process of training an oral consecutive interpreting can be intensified.

So, to form the motivations while the consecutive interpretation training, it is necessary to

use the special methods and technologies. Furthermore, the use of the information technologies
is becoming obligatory.

Informatization of higher professional education, as well as an interdisciplinary approach,

requires the emergence of new methods for teaching the consecutive interpretation. The open-

1

Леонтьев А.Н. Деятельность. Сознание. Личность. М., “Смысл”, 2005, 352 с.

2

Маркова А.К. Формирование мотивации учения. Кн. для учителя. М., “Просвещение”, 1990, 191 с.

3

Вербицкий А.А. Развитие мотивации студентов в контекстном обучении. М., Исследовательский центр

проблем качества подготовки специалистов, 2000, 200 с.

4

Тихонова Е.В. Компоненты устного билингвального дискурса (на материале китайского языка). “Молодой

ученый”, 2015, № 10 (90), c. 1.


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ness of linguistic education only in conjunction with information and communication technolo-
gies makes it possible to create an environment for teaching oral bilingual discourse.

Analyzing the experience of practitioners, we can conclude that at present information and

communication technologies are given a lot of attention, including in the teaching of various
areas of a language. However, a rapidly changing society requires new methods and approaches
in the training of future translators in the field of oral consecutive interpretation.

Successful achievement of this goal requires a closer interconnection of the education sys-

tem with future employers, specialists in various fields, and the development of professionally
oriented education for schoolchildren, which is certainly more accessible in a virtual environ-
ment. The search for new opportunities in the design of the linguistic educational environment is
aimed at the formation of information and communication competence, the development of the
ability to adapt to new conditions of foreign speech activity, to strategies to overcome commu-
nicative barriers in the situation of intercultural communication and to the conditions of com-
puter-mediated communication.

1

Currently, a fairly large number of Internet technologies can be used in the classroom for

oral consecutive interpreting when teaching consecutive interpreters. These are training Internet
resources, MEP, Moodle, scratch-, tagcloud-, flipped classroom technologies (we presented in
the table below), etc. However, each of them is able to provide only some specific tasks, but not
to achieve the set goal (the formation of skills and competences, which are necessary for the
implementation of oral consecutive interpretation). Only they all together provide a solution to
the problem of motivating the students.

The application of new technologies in the consecutive interpreting training

Name of

technology

Peculiarities/characteristics

Knowledge and skills



Moodle

The global development project,

guided by "socially constructive

pedagogy", intended for computer

support of the structural basis of the

socially creative education system

[10], which is able to meet the needs

of students in the course of oral

consecutive interpreting [11-131]

Ability to organize the personal

training / translation activities; self-

regulation: ability to translate from a

sheet; ability to translate precision

vocabulary

MOOC

Mass open online course, which

includes video lectures, presentations,

verification tasks and tests

Skills of note-taking; the ability to

automate decision-making for

translation; forecasting of the speaker's

speech; development of emotionally-

empathic competence; translation

skills of precision vocabulary; ability

to translate different dialects


Scratch-

technology

A programming environment that can

create interactive stories of students'

day in one direction or another

Expansion of the mental lexicon of

students, the volume of the thesaurus

(using the quest game, tests, crossword

puzzles, etc.), additional background

knowledge (using a virtual tour)

Flipped

classroom –

technology

Inverted classes, the opportunity to

give theoretical and practical material

for extra-curricular time

Ability to analyze and use in practice

the material by themselves

1

Битянова М.Я строю свою работу или работа «строит» меня. “Школьный психолог”, 2008, №11, с. 40.


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Tagcloud -

technology

Providing ubiquitous and convenient

network access on demand to the

overall content

The ability to find the necessary

information at any time; IT

Competency of the student

Campus

course

Additional access to educational

programs of different departments,

faculties and institutes, the possibility

of free movement within the

framework of the variable part of the

educational program in the space of

the whole university campus

Expansion of knowledge in all fields

of science in the framework of the

humanities, natural sciences, physics

and mathematics of the classical

university

Besides the methods and technologies of teaching, a trainer should consider the principles

which are crucial for creating the proper atmosphere of education. There are several didactical
principles of training interpreters, such as a principle of strength, a principle of coherence, a prin-
ciple of innovativeness, a principle of individualization, a principle of functionality, an activity
principle.

One of the fundamental principles of modern learning is the activity principle. This prin-

ciple is based on the ideas of the theory of activity developed by L.S.Vygotsky, I.A.Winter, A.R.
Luria, A.P.Leontiev, A.Leontyev, and others. In activity, its internal structure is singled out, the
action – as a unit of this activity and operations – as ways of accomplishing these actions. Pro-
fessional activity is a complex, multilevel, dynamic structure that includes two components: the
subject of work (in this case, the interpreter) and the object of labor (in this case, the speech),
"these components can be considered as subsystems of professional activity, normatively inter-
connected by socio-technical tasks”.

1

Professional competence of an interpreter includes know-

ledge, skills and abilities, with the help of which it is possible to perform professional tasks. To
the full extent, the components of professional competence can be manifested and formed only
when performing tasks assigned to a professional. Consequently, the content of this principle in
the teaching of translation will be realized through awareness of the content of this profession
(subject, means, and result) and its external structure, including actions and operations.

According to many researchers, the first and mandatory stage in the formation of mental

actions is the motivation of students, which can be formed in the learning process.

Motivational sphere of professional activity of an interpreter is not the same at different

stages of professionalization. At the stage of choosing a profession, students are interested in the
content of the future profession, awareness of the importance of the profession and professional
vocation, the desire to enter a certain professional community, professional expectations arise. In
the process of actual professional training begins the adaptation of the individual to the
profession, the specification of their professional claims. From the foregoing it follows that the
principle of professional motivation will be implemented at all stages of the training interpret-
tation.

Technologies aimed at developing the personality of a professional translator assume not

only the acquisition of knowledge, the formation of skills, but also the self-organization of the
future specialist. The activity of a specialist interpreter requires his/her constant self-education,
self-development throughout his/her working life. To this we should add that the preparation of
students of language universities to the activities of an interpreter is carried out in a rather short
time, and, therefore, requires special attention to the organization of independent work of
students. Hence follows the following principle of training – its orientation to the development of
the self-educational activity of a future professional translator.

1

Парыгин Б.Д. Основы социально-психологической теории. М., “Мысль”, 1987, 63 с.


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Another didactic principle, which is aimed at forming the students motivation, is the

principle of individualization. The principle of individualization plays an exceptional role in
teaching a foreign language and as it follows, the interpretation. Communication is characterized
by a set of individual features of a person, his/her individual, subjective and personal qualities,
which are of great importance in the learning process. Abilities help master the learning material,
skills accelerate and facilitate the learning process, and personal qualities contribute to the emer-
gence of motivation for learning, its effectiveness. The use of all the properties of individual-
lization presupposes the paramount importance of personal individualization, which determines
the selection of educational material depending on the individual characteristics of the trainees.

The development of the professional skills of an interpreter presupposes an advanced, ace-

lerated development of the language personality. Increasing the vocabulary (including in the
native language), replenishing the cognitive thesaurus, assimilation of various models of recep-
tive, productive, interactive speech behavior should occur with an intensity exceeding the normal
rate of language development of the individual at a comparable stage of its formation.

We believe that the motivation set-up, formed under the influence of such factors as the

image of the profession and its value component, the example of the instructor-tutor and the
impact of professional reference groups, the competitive striving for professional self-affirma-
tion, contributes to the successful formation of these tasks during the training. An essential role
in this is played by such a personal quality, as initially conscious, and then a subconscious desire
to improve skills and acquire knowledge. Without the ability to continuous self-improvement,
the achievement of high professionalism in translation is impossible.

In conclusion, we can say that it is very important to motivate students during the teaching

process. Today there are a lot of opportunities to do this, and we have studied some of them. A
teacher plays a great role in the formation of future specialists that is why the problem of
students motivating must be discussed.


Библиографические ссылки

Кравченко IO. О. К проблеме формирования учебной мотивации студентов. Психология в России и за рубежом. Материалы мсждуиар. науч, конф., СПб., “Реноме”, 2011, с. 104.

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