Семантико-стилистические характеристики военной лексики Второй мировой войны

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Kurganov А. (2019). Семантико-стилистические характеристики военной лексики Второй мировой войны. in Library, 19(4), 2071–2080. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/12216
Anwar Kurganov, Академия МВД Республики Узбекистан

Заместитель начальника Управления языковых исследований МВД Республики Узбекистан

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Аннотация

Статья посвящена профессиональному употреблению военной лексики в годы Второй мировой войны, всем лексико-семантическим процессам, связанным с выражением специфических признаков в общелексике, а также специфике военной лексики в использовании общелексики для репрезентации военной действительности.

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Semantic and Stylistic Characteristics of The Military Lexics of The

Second World War

Kurganov Anvarjon Mukhtorovich,

Deputy head of the chair for learning languages of the Academy under the Ministry

of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Uzbekistan

Tel.: (97) 700-54-10

e-mail: anvarjon74_74@mail.ru

Annotation:

The article is devoted to the professional use of military lexis

during the Second World War, all lexical and semantic processes associated with the
expression of specific features in general vocabulary, as well as the specifics of
military lexis in using a generallexis to represent military reality.

Keywords:

World War II, military lexis, linguoculturological, comparative

construction, army, war, general military, military actions, concept, military jargon,
military term.

It is known that during the centuries our people participated in different battles

and wars, came across with several countries, exchanged experience in military field
and accepted novelties in the field, as well as vocabulary of our language has been
enriched. That’s why if it provides an opportunity to identify and analyse the origin
of military terms, on one hand, and make opinions on historical relations of our people
with the representatives of other languages, on the other hand, it also studies the origin
of military deeds and follows its evolutionary development.

During the Second World War there has been made many inventions regarding

the military techniques used in the battles, which was the common property of all
nations being in the structure of former Soviet Union. Most party of concepts and
terms in this field has been acquired from Russian language

(“Katyusha”, “tank”)

or

has been adopted and observed into Uzbek language grammar. As a result a lot of
international words appeared in the language. In other words, participation of Uzbek
people in the Second World War was in the form of separate structures and general
call at the initial stage, but later impacted to the general stream in a certain degree.
Thus, national identity of military affairs began to disappear gradually.

It is worth to state that the military topics provides with such huge language

materials on army, military operations, military weapons, etc. Undoubtedly, the
military lexis remains its marks for each period. At this point Mirtov states:“In the
process of continuous speech practice of people the language enhances its norms,
develops more specific means of the expression. Moreover, one shouldn’t forget
about separate social tewsions being reflected in the language because the tendencies


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of changes occurring in the speech practice emerges in this period and appears clearly
before the eyes of the observer. The Second World War years are considered as one
of such periods” [1. 102].

Many researchers state that terms differ from the words of general use. But,

they use different approaches in differing terms in the content of the vocabulary. The
functional approach to separating the term from the word, in fact, is considered as
traditional approach. Views of G.O. Vinokur lies on the basis of this approach, he
states that the term is not a special word but a word with special task [2. 3-54].

That’s why linguists separate the vocabulary of the language into general and

special lexis and based on the artifical origin of terminology they considering it as
secondary one in regard to the general lexis enter it into the special lexis. However,
the opinion that these terms consist of other sounds or disobey the grammatical rules
of the language doesn’t justify itself.

The terminology of each field of science -is an integral part of vocabulary of

the language. It doesn’t develop separatelybut enters into contact with other lexical
units. Thus, in its turn, lexical-semantic processes will occur, i.e. this feature occurs
retaining its peculiarities in the general vocabulary. “Studying one of the fields of
terminology connected with an activity brings into effect some advantages connected
with the details in studying lexical elements, it provides an opportunity to make the
“deep” glance into the certain small system of vocabulary, as well as understand the
internal relations comprising its lexical units as a result of increase in the number of
special vocabulary” [3. 4.].

Terminology consists of terms-synonyms,polysemantic terms, separate-

individual author’s terms [4. 120].

Terminology system - is a result of purposeful, obligatory fulfillment[5. 192].
Terminology gradually changes into terminology system. “Terminology

system - comprises terms ordered by the registered relations among the terms” [6. 35-
40].

Y.V. Slojenikina separates terms, professionalism and jargons from among

words, the circle of use of which is limited in some extent.In its turn, the military
terms we are studying belong to professionalism.

“Terms, words and phrases of general use are capable of expressing things-

items, moreover, they can give anidea in spite of the field and communicative task
they serve for” [7. 39].

When speaking about the military terms and lexis belonging to the period of

the Second World War, under the military term we certainly refer to the special


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titles having simple or complicated official structure belonging to the field of military
work (military science-education, technique, industry, activity of troops), words
having the sema as “military”, “combative” in their semantic structure.

We can refer military jargon and slangs - colloquial and simple lexis into the

non-terminological military lexis. Such group of military terms consist of emotionally
colored elements of military lexis considered as synonyms by stylistic features, as
well as lexical units. But they comprise task-semantic criteria of unofficial
professional communication sphere.

Stylistic neutrality is determined by the independence of military words from

literary context. The term is indifferent to the context, it is «not connected to the
context but to the terminological field» [8. 51].

In the literary works about the Second World War the military terms fulfilled

nominative tasks, still they can be used in their appropriate meaning as well. Stylistic
tasks fall on the word of general use, the term lies around it.

If we look at the military terminological lexis as lexis of popular language, we

can observe their mutual deep relations: For instance,

—the front of defense”

we mean

the conditional lines (sites) combining trenches for shooters and weapons for shooting
close to the enemies or the division of the 1

st

echelon and fighting machines (armored

troop carrier-armored machines) of tank and infantry divisions [9. 282].

To the front

of the defense - front line (position) of the defense, defense line, front line of the front,
first line

can besynonyms. If we take the

term round

- meaning

—continuousturn of

the fire from machine gun, mortar or automate (automatic gun),

it has a wide range

of synonymic word and phrases in the fiction: one can observe

stream of gun

machines, machine gum mask, airborne bullets, storm of bullets, attack of bullets,
bullet track (way, mark)

. As we often hear and read the words and expressions

determining the military activities of troops in the radio, newspapers and journals,
these notions and terms coinciding with them were comprehensible to everydiv
(even for those not belonging to Russians). Because the language in need for
communication, in its turn, leads to the formation of professional lexis.

Differing from other terminologic systems, it is easier to study changes in

military lexis of the certain period. As a result of such changes the number of
vocabulary increases on account of new words, borrowings from foreign languages
instead of old ones. Some words have the same meaning in terminology, public
speech and fiction. In general, the principle of task limitations in the usage of one or
other lexic unit is made on the basis of difference in the military lexis. Thus, A.N.
Kolgushkin separates the structure of military lexis into the lexis of general use,
military (special) and national one [10. 10].

When speaking about the professional (military) terminology in colloquial

speech one cannot reject the opinion of S.D. Shevelov. He states that professional


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lexis in colloquial speech differs by absence of norms, existence of emotional
connotations [11. 76-87].

For instance, one can meet such words as

limonka (hand grenade in the form

of lemon), grazhdanka(the

area free of military actions) in our colloquial speech. We

often use short forms of words: commander

(head) - commander of division or

battalion; chief(head) - chief of headquarter.

We can meet verbal lexis in general use.

For instance, there are such synonyms of the term

fire: roar(roar the cannon), kill,

eliminate, roll up.

As we see from the examples, the military terminology wasn’t

separated during the Second World War, instead it was accepted through historical
and social conditions of the language society. Thus, terms are not always been
monosemantic, in real life they can be polysemantic and synonymic.

In analyzing the semantics of comparative expressions covering military lexis

it is necessary to state that in most cases the following constituents of classifications
groups can be analysed: 1) “Type of military activity (

armament/weapon, division,

type of military service, military specialty and attitude to the specialty

) and words

determining the qualifications according to the job titles of military servants; 2)
Words expressing the list of military titles

(majorgeneral);

3) names of

enemies/rivals

(German, fascist, Hitler, etc.);

4) Words expressing military, including

combat equipment and techniques; 5) Words expressing enemies, their military
technique, weapons (

rifle, automatic gun, cold steel arms/arme blanche

) and

weapons against troops; 6) Weapons and their constituents (it means weapons directly
eliminating targets or the weapons providing the actions of troops (forces).

The comparative constructions are less formed in thematic and lexical-

semantic groups where military lexis participate. A.N. Kozhin wrote:

“The Second

World War left the deep trace in the Russian language, which played an important
role in mobilizing all the power of people in the just war against German-fascist
troops [12. 3].

A.N. Kozhin differentiates the following groups of general military terms: [13.

48-58]

1.

Words expressing the person in regard to the type of combat activity

(attitude to the weapon, division, type of military service and military specialty):

automatic gun holder

- the warrior armed with automatic gun;

artilleryman

(

gunner

)

- the warrior serving in artillery division;

miner

- mine expert;

mortar

- the person

serving in mortar divisions or sections;

machine gunner

- person serving in the

machine gun division or the person serving machine gun;

sapper

- the person serving

as sapper in military-engineering militant divisions;

sniper (sharpshooter

) - the

sharpshooter (the person firing without fail);

signalman

- person serving in

communication troops;

tanker

- the person serving in tank troops, the member of tank

crew (staff).


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2.

Words

expressing

military

troops:

batallion,brigade,

division

(detachment, unit, squadron), division (military unit), battery (detachment), unit
(detachment, unit), platoon (unit of soldiers), regiment (troop), coy, escadrille (unit
of military air fleet).

3.

Words of specialization expressing job-position of military servants

(militants):

ordinary soldiere, sergeant, starshina (senior sergeant), lieutenant,

captain, major, lieutenant-colonel, colonel, general, admiral, commander (chief).

4.

Words expressing military weapons, military equipment: automatic gun

,

rifle, grenade launcher (weapon firing grenade), mortar, fire gun (gun fire), machine
gun, bomber, fighter -

fighter-aircraft,

destroyer (warship armed with torpedoes),

reconnaissance aircraft, aircraft with cannon, tank, trawler (trawler - minesweeper)
-

warship.

5.

Words expressing the antitarget weapons:

airbomb, bomb, grenade, mine,

bullet, shells, fugas - exploding bullet having heavy destroying power

,

sharapnel

(artillery shell filled with round-shape bullets) - artillery shell eliminating the power
of enemies

.

6.

Words expressing operational-tactical concepts of troops’ combat activities:

attack -

counter strikeagainst the powers and weapons used to eliminate the

enemy;bombing, firing -

the attack by bomber aviation against the objects of the

enemy;

battle -

decisive collisionof units, detachments of warring parties to gain the

victory;

counterattack (counter attack) -

attack ofdefense troops against the invading

enemy;

march (military march) - organized move of unit troops to the area indicated

by the commander

;

defense -

martial actions to repel the attack of invading enemy,

maintaining the occupancy and preparation for decisive attack;

withdrawal(retreat) -

martial actionstaken by the order of the captain aimed at withdrawing the troops from
the occupied area to carry our certain operational- tactical tasks;

combatintelligence

(search) -

intelligence actions taken to enter into direct communication with the

enemy;

shooting -

shooting with an aim of eliminating the enemy with the help of fire

arms, mortar, artillery.

7.

Fortification

facilities:

blindage

(funk-hole)

(field

fortress)

-

theconstruction to protect soldiers and military equipment from bullets, shells, mines,
aviabombs;

dot (the long standing shooting point) -

theshooting point for a longer

period;

trench -

the construction to hide soldiers and military equipment, as well as

the place for shooting;

position (site) -

thearea occupied by the troops;

ditch

(entrenchment) -

defense facility in the form of narrow, long and deep entrenchment;

slit -

temporaryhiding entrenchment from the spalls of shells in the form of the narrow

trench.

As one can see from the given examples, many military words from the period

of the Second World War are used in the original form even nowadays and they are


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more comprehensible in their original meaning than their translation into Uzbek.

L.B. Oblyadykova added 2 more groups to the classification of A.N. Kozhin:

1) words expressing warrior’s armor

(pea jacket/monkey-jacket -

sailor’s jacket,

uniform

- military uniform) and 2) awards

(medal, order)

[14. 79-80].

Y.V. Brysina gives the following classification of military-terminological lexis

in her research [15. 40-42]:

1.

Words expressing the situations related to lining of troops, change of

location or place and their structure

(line, wing, front, row, rank (line, row), line

(row), vanguard (military uniy, detachment staying in the forefront of main forces),
outpost (frontpost, fortress); march (walking), maneuver, silty, campaign; reserve.

2.

Words expressing martial actions, methods and the battle order, providing

military, combat and operational actions (

attack, break through, to go through,

retreat/withdrawal, strain (severe attack), fierce attack, defense, shooting, landing
soldiers, volley (simultaneous shooting), occupation (invading, conquest), blockade
(siege, blockade), battle, attacking (attack), shooting, strike, make pressure, trench
(underground path), strike, bombing (bomb), reconnaissance, ambush, inspection,
hideyhole/shelter, protection, attack with torpedo, take over (invade), hit (cause
damage), surround, pass through water, disarm, shoot, surrending, cut (slaughter),
kill by shooting (kill), be armed).

3.

Words expressing the elimination of enemy’s soldiers, technique and

fortresses; notions related to firearms

weapon, cannon, mine, bomb, dynamite,

gunpowder (for rifle), bullet, nise, arrow, sword, shiled, target, shoot, ammunition.

4.

Words expressing the areas for provision of military actions and troops

(position (site/area), state border, point (place, point, site), front position (front line),
guard, front back (rear), post (guard)).

5.

Words expressing the names of the warrior:

а) according to the type of service

(gunner (person holding weapons), shooter

(sharpshooter), guard (guard, duty officer), drummer, cavalry, machine gunner,
watch/patrol

);

б) according to the rank and position

(sniper (sharpshooter), ordinary soldier,

general, major, lieutenant, second lieutenant, chieftain

);

в) according to the attitude to the service period

(retired, soldier-newcomer);

г) words related to the experience in military work (shot

(fired), person who

has seen the war, hardened or not hardened in battle

).

It is worth to state that military concepts describe the truth in reality but the

truth relies on the conscience. Thus, it is necessary to refer to the military concepts
not only as the product of conscience (in its cognitive interpretation) but as a cultural
concept as well, this is closely connected with the actual field of modern science on
the language -

linguistic cultureology

(linguoculturology).


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Here, the concept (notion) reflects one complexs phenomena, separate marks

separate from its structure, however, the peculiarity of the concept is that the marks
having the primary importance in one case change into secondary in the other case.
For instance, the military jargon belonging to the period of Second World War,
military situation preserved during several years will impact on the emergence of
some words describing the combat reality.

In general,

linguocultural concept -

is considered as the semantic form of high

level abstractness.

“The process of determining the concept, as states Stepanov, develops

according to the different stages, ethimology, semantics with the difference in the
time of its formation” [16. 60].

Everything mentioned above promotes the essence of studying military

concepts (notions) not only as the product of conscience (in its cognitive
interpretation) but as a cultural phenomena (together with cultural interpretation), this
determines the actuality of the modern science on the language -

linguoculturology

.

Influence of the language to the war has different forms, says H.Y.Chernykh

“the new words emerged in connection with the conditions of the war period, new
things emerged from the lexical point of view doesn’t know any borders”.

During the period of war one can observe the activation of military terminology

in all functional-methodological forms of the speech in the vocabulary system of the
language, appearance of new terms, changes in the meaning of some words asa result
of semantic changes, emergence of neologisms, Урушнинг турли кўриниши
даврида семантик ўзгаришлар туфайли тилдаги айрим сўз маъноларининг
ўзгариши, неологизмларнинг юзага келиши, the assimilation of words from the
language of the enemy.

Along with activation of the process of assimilation of words from the language

of the enemy during the war period one can see the reverse - “nationalization” of
military terminology vocabulary, i.e. change of number of terms from the other
language into the national words. This, in its turn, is indeed connected with the
process of participation of wide public in the war.

As to the opinion of P.Y. Chernykh and other researchers, most of the changes

that took place during the war period in the language, especially in its lexical
structure, have temporary character, as the society shifts to peaceful life they go
beyond general use.

However, in the process of communication in military social-professional

sphere these new assimilations will hold solid place and change into speech tradition
in professional-communicative system. That’s why we have the right to state the
professional-communicative system providing communication in the military
professional activity will further develop under the influence of holistic harmony of


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extralinguistic factors, we can name the following from among them: peculiarities of
the activity, degree of participation of wide public in the war and certain degree of
reconstruction of life style connected with the commonness of all languages in the
military sphere, the social type of the war.

Peculiarities of military professional filed of the activity, firstly, is determined

by its escalation in hazardous conditions, and the life of the warrior team will be
connected with the speed of actions, their precision and appropriateness.

Moreover, the peculiarity of this activity requires the shortness, precision,

acuteness and clearness of the speech, it rejects any double meaning.

The military language is considered as the culture of speech of militants and it

is an important tool of communication in the battle, military service (studies). It
depends on the operational-tactical thinking and wit of commanders. The decisive
feature of modern general battle, its quick completion, drastic change of situation
during the battle puts forward high demands on military language and its terminology.
As to the opinion by P. Trifonov, “shortness, acuteness, comprehensiveness and bulk
definitions are specific to the military language today, here each word has not only to
explain but also convince in it”.

The military lexis forms the core of this professional communicative system.

The existence of this very military lexis serves as an initial and reliable enough
principle providing the entry of this or that information into the professional speech
of military personnel, i.e. it makes it specialized as a military text.

At this point, if we take the term

“sergeant”,

it is being considered as military

term, the sema “military” lies in its semantic structure; sergeant - firstly is a military
rank, if we use it with an attitude as it is a denotationof other field, in this case we
will have to make the sema “military” neutral. In this case, for instance, the sema on
the phrase

“sergeant of militia”

will be neutral in regard to the denotation“militia”.

On the contrary, the term

“plane”

widely used in different military texts -

aircraft with missiles, anti-ship aircraft, fighter aircraft, aircraft-target

in connection

with the determinants will remain as military term. In the first three word
combinations, determinants -

...with missiles, anti-ship ..., fighter

... there is the sema

“military”, in the word combination

aircraft-targetthe

military sema appears only in

case if both components come together, if they are given separately then it will not
have this sema.

As a result the new semantic structure appears here: 1-component:

aircraft

+2-

component:

target

=

aircraft-target(the

essence of two-component military term-

flying object registering the target to strike it with a weapon).

We can meet such kind of semantic process in the word

“base station”,

it

means the part of defense point (position) connected with engineering facilities
having firefighters. Components of this military terminology are: if the words

base


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and

station

are given separatelywe don’t observe“military” sema. For instance, we

can use the word

base

-

base (main) column, base point,

vice versa the word

station

-

medical station, the first point

can be used.

As one can see from the examples, words used in military lexis has omonymity

and it gives an opportunity to come into contact with other words having no military
sema, which can be met in social life.

The speech stylistics studies the possibilities of expression of language tools,

the cases of their use in the text of the speech. We can meet this situations in such
comparative forms as

the basement - the dog house, the shelter for the dog; the tank

- the box; the airplane - the bird.

During the years of the Second World War the lexis connected with the

ordinary colloquial language as the life style of the army and military actions, the rare
was actively assimilated with our language. As time passed we forgot some of these
words (katyusha) but others remained in the life of army. For instance, the word

appendicitsstiW

used in sphere of medicine, however, during the war it meant

—the

complex area of defense that could be handed over the disposal of the enemy”, the
collective
" unit, detachment”, small coin “front, small area of defense”, attempt “the
maneuver (the trick) of the aircraft to throw a bomb.

Besides, during the war years the word

sabantoy

(special jargon) meaning

“banquet, party, riot” having emotional-colorful features in ordinary speech,appeared
[17. 475].

The original meaning of this word being plow or plougher holiday (from

Turkish

saban

- plow and

toy-

holiday), means the holiday of tatar and bashkird

people dedicated to the completion of spring works in the fields. But during the war
it was used to describe severe war, strong noise, riot. The battle for the victory also
meant “

sabantoy-holiday ”

for the troops, i.e. it was considered as “bloody feast” for

the enemy [18. 61].

Moreover, archaic words having strong stylistic colors also were used actively

and restored. For minstance, the

guard, the commander-in-chief, the troops, the

commander, the warrior, the oppression, the cruelty, a brave

are among them.

As we see from the examples, during the Second World War the military lexis

was not separated from other words in its professional use, but it undergone all
lexical-semantic processes connected with the expression of peculiarities in general
lexis.

Thus, using the words of general use in describing military phenomena remains

as peculiarity of military lexis.

Used literature:

1.

Mirtov A.V. From observations of the Russian language in the era of World

War II//Problems of Linguistics. - 1953. - No. 4. -p. 102.

2.

Vinokur G.O. About some phenomena of word formation in Russian


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technical terminology//Works of Moscow Institute of History, Philosophy and
Literature. V. 5 .: collection of articles on linguistics. - M., 1939. -pp. 3 - 54.

3.

Ledyaeva S.D. Essay on the historical lexicology of the Russian language. -

Kishinev: Shtiintsa, 1980. -p. 4

4.

Slozhenikina Y.V. Basics of terminology: Linguistic aspects of the theory of

the term. - M .: Librocom. - 2013. p.120.

5.

Leichik V.M. About the methods and principles of designing terminological

systems/Semantics of natural and artificial languages in specialized systems. - L.:
Publishing House of Leningrad State University, 1979. - p. 192.

6.

Kobrin R.Y. On the concepts of “terminology” and “terminological

system”/B.A. Tatarinov. History of Russian terminology: in 3 volumes. - V 3. -M.:
Moscow. Lyceum, 2003 .—pp. 35-40.

7.

Golovin B.N., Kobrin R.Y. Linguistic basis of the doctrine of terms. -M .:

Higher. School, 1987. - p. 39.

8.

Reformatsky A.A. What is the term and terminology//Questions of

terminology. - M .: Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1961.
- p. 51.

9.

Soviet Military Encyclopedia, Volume 6, p. 282

0. Kolgushkin A.N. Linguistics in military affairs. - M.: Military Publishing,

1970.- p. 10.

11.

Shelov S.D. Terminology, professional lexis and professionalism//

Questions of linguistics. - 1984. - No. 5. -pp.76 - 87

12.

Kozhin A.N. On the development of the Russian literary language in the era

of World War II//Philological Sciences. - 1975. - No. 3. -p. 3.

13.

Kozhin A.N. On the development of the Russian literary language in the era

of World War II//Philological Sciences. - 1975. - No. 3. -pp. 48-58.

14.

Olyadykova L.B. Military vocabulary in works of art about the Great

Patriotic War studied at school//Word and conceptual model of the world in literature
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Slozhenikina Y.V. Basics of terminology: Linguistic aspects of the theory of the term. - M .: Librocom. - 2013. p.120.

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Olyadykova L.B. Military vocabulary in works of art about the Great Patriotic War studied at school/ZWord and conceptual model of the world in literature about the Great Patriotic War: Matcrialsof all-RussiaN Conference. (May 18-19, 2000). - Lipetsk, 2000. PP. 79 - 90.

Brysina E.V. Phraseological activity of military vocabulary: dissertation of candidate of philological sciences. - Saratov, 1993 .-pp. 40-42.

Stepanov A.V. The metalanguage and metastyle of war in military memoirs and fictionsZZRussian Language Speech. - 2006. - No. 6. - p. 60.

General linguistics, 1970, p. 475.

Skvortsov L.I. From the history of words and expressions of the period of the Great Patriotic War (Russian language of the era of 1941-1945 as one of the sources of replenishment of modern literary and colloquial vocabulary and phraseology)//Philological Sciences. - 1975. - No. 3. -p. 61.

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