The impact of CPD (continuous professional development) on novice teachers in Uzbekistan

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Караматдинова, Г. (2023). The impact of CPD (continuous professional development) on novice teachers in Uzbekistan. Ренессанс в парадигме новаций образования и технологий в XXI веке, 1(1), 21–25. https://doi.org/10.47689/XXIA-TTIPR-vol1-iss1-pp21-25
Г Караматдинова, Линкольнский университет

Магистр искусств в области преподавания английского как второго языка

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Аннотация

In an era characterized by unprecedented global interconnectedness and communication, the acquisition of proficient English language skills has evolved from a desirable attribute to an essential requirement for individuals navigating the complexities of a borderless world. In the specific context of Uzbekistan, a country poised at the crossroads of cultural, economic, and technological transformations, the significance of English language proficiency has been amplified, making the quality of English language education a matter of paramount importance. As Uzbekistan strives to cultivate a populace capable of effective cross-cultural communication, the role of English language teachers becomes pivotal in shaping the linguistic competencies of the younger generation.

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THE IMPACT OF CPD (CONTINUOUS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT) ON

NOVICE TEACHERS IN UZBEKISTAN

Karamatdinova G.

Nukus, Uzbekistan

MA-TESL, Lincoln university, Malaysia

Key words:

CPD (continuous professional development, teaching English, novice

teachers.


In an era characterized by unprecedented global interconnectedness and

communication, the acquisition of proficient English language skills has evolved from a
desirable attribute to an essential requirement for individuals navigating the complexities
of a borderless world. In the specific context of Uzbekistan, a country poised at the
crossroads of cultural, economic, and technological transformations, the significance of
English language proficiency has been amplified, making the quality of English language
education a matter of paramount importance. As Uzbekistan strives to cultivate a
populace capable of effective cross-cultural communication, the role of English language
teachers becomes pivotal in shaping the linguistic competencies of the younger
generation.

Novice teachers, in particular, form a crucial cohort within the realm of English

language education. Their initial steps into the teaching profession are often characterized
by a blend of enthusiasm, innovation, and challenges that stem from limited practical
experience. As these fledgling educators embark on their teaching journeys, providing
them with the necessary tools, support, and professional growth opportunities becomes
instrumental in not only enhancing their individual pedagogical capabilities but also in
elevating the overall quality of English language education in the country. In this vein,
Continuous Professional Development (CPD) emerges as a cornerstone of educational
enhancement, offering a platform through which novice teachers can continually refine
their instructional practices, gain a deeper understanding of effective teaching
methodologies, and bolster their confidence in classroom management and engagement.

The significance of English language

The role of English language proficiency in global communication and economic

development has led many countries, including Uzbekistan, to recognize the importance
of high-quality English language education. As globalization and international
cooperation continue to expand, proficiency in English is increasingly viewed as a crucial
skill for participating in various spheres of the global economy and culture. Uzbekistan’s
educational landscape has witnessed substantial reforms in recent years, aiming to align
its educational practices with international standards and to equip its citizens with the
skills necessary for successful engagement in the globalized world.

In this context, the professional development of English language teachers holds

significant implications for the effectiveness of language education. Continuous
Professional Development (CPD) initiatives have gained prominence as a means to
enhance teaching quality and, by extension, student learning outcomes. Novice teachers,
while bringing fresh perspectives and innovative approaches to the classroom, often lack


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the pedagogical experience required to navigate the complexities of diverse classroom
settings. Research indicates that tailored CPD programs can play a pivotal role in
fostering the growth of novice teachers, enabling them to adapt their instructional
strategies, gain confidence, and improve their overall teaching performances (Ingersoll &
Strong, 2011).

Several studies have highlighted the positive correlation between effective CPD

and improved teaching practices. In a study conducted by Darling-Hammond et al.
(2009), it was found that sustained and collaborative professional development
experiences positively influenced teacher practices, leading to enhanced student
achievement. In the specific context of English language education, research by Johnson
(2015) suggests that CPD initiatives targeting language teachers can lead to improved
language proficiency among students.

However, while the benefits of CPD are widely acknowledged, the

implementation of effective CPD programs tailored to the unique challenges and needs of
novice English language teachers in Uzbekistan remains an area warranting further
investigation. The cultural, contextual, and institutional factors that shape the efficacy of
CPD initiatives in this region necessitate localized research to ensure that CPD programs
are not only adopted but also effectively integrated into the teaching practices of novice
educators.

The development of novice teachers is a complex and crucial aspect of the

education system. Novice teachers often face challenges as they transition from
theoretical training to actual classroom practice. Understanding the dynamics of novice
teacher development is essential for designing effective Continuous Professional
Development (CPD) programs that address their unique needs.

Ingersoll and Strong (2011) emphasize the importance of induction programs and

mentoring for novice teacher development. These programs provide structured support,
guidance, and opportunities for novice teachers to learn from experienced colleagues.
The authors advocate for sustained, job-embedded professional development that focuses
on classroom realities, aligning with the principles of effective CPD.

Research by Johnson and Birkeland (2003) identifies key characteristics of novice

teachers, such as limited classroom experience, a steep learning curve, and a need for
practical strategies. Novice teachers often struggle with classroom management, lesson
planning, and adapting to diverse student needs. Effective CPD should address these
challenges through interactive workshops, peer collaboration, and opportunities for
reflective practice.

Darling-Hammond (2017) argues that novice teacher development should be

viewed as a continuum rather than a discrete phase. CPD efforts should continue beyond
the initial years to promote ongoing growth and professionalism. This perspective aligns
with the notion that effective CPD is a lifelong process that supports teachers at all career
stages.

Furthermore, Feiman-Nemser (2001) emphasizes that CPD for novice teachers

should facilitate the integration of theory and practice. Novice teachers benefit from
opportunities to apply pedagogical theories in authentic classroom contexts. CPD
programs that encourage reflective practice, peer observation, and collaborative inquiry
contribute to novice teachers’ professional growth.


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English language teaching in Uzbekistan

English language teaching (ELT) in Uzbekistan has undergone a significant

transformation since the country gained independence in 1991. Prior to this period,
Russian was the dominant foreign language taught in schools due to the influence of the
Soviet Union. However, with Uzbekistan’s emergence as an independent nation, there
was a conscious shift towards the teaching and learning of English as a tool for
international communication and engagement (Alimov, 2019). The government’s
recognition of the importance of English proficiency in global contexts, including
diplomacy, trade, and technology, led to the development of policies and reforms aimed
at enhancing ELT practices.

The Uzbekistan government has placed a strong emphasis on promoting English

language proficiency among its citizens. This commitment is evident in various policy
documents, including the «State Program for the Implementation of the Strategy of
Actions» and the «Year of Dialogue with the People and Human Interests.» These
policies prioritize the learning of English as a means to foster international cooperation,
strengthen cultural ties, and enhance economic prospects (Uzbekistan National News
Agency, 2020). Consequently, English has become a compulsory subject in schools, and
the Ministry of Public Education has implemented curricular reforms to align with these
policy objectives.

The curriculum reforms in Uzbekistan have shifted from traditional grammar-

focused approaches to more communicative and interactive teaching methodologies. The
new curriculum emphasizes the development of speaking, listening, reading, and writing
skills, with a focus on practical language use in real-life situations (Alimov, 2019). This
shift is in line with global trends in ELT, where communicative competence is viewed as
central to language learning.

Despite the government’s commitment and initiatives, several challenges continue

to affect ELT in Uzbekistan. One major challenge is the shortage of qualified English
language teachers, particularly in rural areas. The shortage exacerbates the disparities in
educational quality between urban and rural regions. Additionally, the lack of up-to-date
teaching materials and resources hampers effective instruction. Teachers often rely on
outdated textbooks and materials, limiting their ability to incorporate modern teaching
methods and engage students effectively (Alimov, 2019).

Continuous Professional Development in Teaching

Continuous Professional Development (CPD) in teaching has gained significant

attention in recent years as educators strive to enhance their skills and improve student
outcomes. Darling-Hammond, Hyler, and Gardner (2017) stress the significance of
effective teacher professional development. Their research emphasizes that CPD should
be sustained, collaborative, and embedded in teachers’ daily practices. Such an approach
fosters continuous improvement by aligning professional development with teachers’
actual classroom needs.

Guskey and Yoon (2009) further emphasize the importance of CPD that works.

Their study identifies the essential components of successful professional development,
including ongoing support, a focus on student learning outcomes, and alignment with
school goals. They advocate for CPD that is not a one-time event but an ongoing process
that supports teachers’ growth over time.


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Desimone (2011) provides a comprehensive primer on effective professional

development. Her work delves into various forms of professional development and
highlights the characteristics of programs that yield positive outcomes. Desimone’s
insights underscore the need for professional development to be content-focused,
relevant, and collaborative, with a focus on sustained engagement.

Timperley, Wilson, Barrar, and Fung (2007) contribute an international

perspective on teacher professional learning and development. Their synthesis of research
from New Zealand and beyond highlights the value of content-focused and collaborative
approaches. Their findings emphasize the power of collaboration among teachers and the
role of communities of practice in effective CPD.

Ingersoll and Strong (2011) investigate induction and mentoring programs for

beginning teachers. Their study highlights the role of ongoing support in retaining early-
career teachers. Their insights suggest that a structured and well-designed induction
process contributes to the professional development of new teachers and positively
impacts their retention rates.

Fullan and Hargreaves (2012) introduce the concept of «professional capital,»

emphasizing that CPD is an investment that enhances teaching effectiveness. Their model
comprises human, social, and decisional capital, all of which contribute to teachers’
ability to continuously improve and adapt to changing educational landscapes. Hirsh
(2009) discusses the evolution of professional development, advocating for a shift from
generic approaches to personalized, job-embedded learning experiences. She highlights
the importance of addressing individual needs and promoting ongoing reflection and
growth among educators.

Kennedy (2016) delves into teacher resilience and retention. His work

acknowledges the challenges educators face and examines how CPD can support teachers
in coping with these challenges. Kennedy’s research underscores the role of professional
development in fostering resilience and promoting job satisfaction among teachers.
Villegas-Reimers (2003) offers an international review of teacher professional
development, shedding light on diverse approaches and challenges. Her work contributes
to understanding the cultural and contextual factors that influence the effectiveness of
CPD in various educational settings.

The Institute of Education Sciences (IES, 2007) provides a user-friendly guide for

identifying evidence-based educational practices, including those related to professional
development. Their framework assists educators in selecting and implementing CPD
programs supported by rigorous research.

Benefits of CPD in Teaching

Continuous Professional Development (CPD) in teaching offers numerous benefits

that positively impact educators, students, and the overall educational environment. Many
researchers refer to teachers’ CPD in different ways. Examples include training for in-
service personnel, staff development, career development, career advancement,
professional growth, personal development, and other areas. As a result, the literature
makes reference to a number of definitions about teachers’ CPD. Day (1999) provides
one of the most thorough descriptions of CPD, saying that:

«Professional development includes of all natural learning experiences as well as

deliberate and planned actions that are meant to benefit the individual, group, or school


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directly or indirectly and that, as a result, improve the standard of instruction in the
classroom. It is a process by which educators, both individually and collectively,
evaluate, reaffirm, and deepen their commitment to the moral purposes of teaching. It is
also a process by which educators develop the knowledge, skills, and emotional
intelligence necessary for good professional decision-making, planning, and practice with
students, young people, and colleagues throughout every stage of their teaching careers.

REFERENCES:


1.

Darling-Hammond, L., & Richardson, N. (2009). Teacher Learning: What

Matters? Educational Leadership, 66, 46-53.
2.

Desimone, L. M. (2011). A primer on effective professional development. Phi

Delta Kappan, 92, 68-71.
3.

Feiman-Nemser, S. (2001). From Preparation to Practice: Designing a Continuum

to Strengthen and Sustain Teaching. Teachers College Record, 103, 1013-1055.
4.

Guskey, T. R., & Yoon, K. S. (2009). What Works in Professional Development?

Phi delta kappan, 90, 495-500.
5.

Hargreaves, A., & Fullan, M. (2012). Professional Capital: Transforming Teaching

in Every School. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
6.

Hirsh, S. (2009). A New Definition. Journal of Staff Development, 30, 10-16.

7.

Ingersoll, R. M., & Strong, M. (2011). The impact of induction and mentoring

programs for beginning teachers: A critical review of the research.

Review of Educational

Research, 81

(2), 201–233.

8.

Johnson, S.M. (2015) Teacher Turnover in High-Poverty Schools: What We Know

and Can Do. Teachers College Record, 117, 1-36.
9.

Johnson, S., & Birkeland, S. (2003). Pursuing a “Sense of Success”: New

Teachers Explain Their Career Decisions. American Educational Research Journal, 40,
581-617.
10.

Kennedy, M. M. (2016). How Does Professional Development Improve Teaching?

Review of Educational Research, 86, 945-980.
11.

Timperley, H., Wilson, A., Barrar, H., & Fung, I. (2007). Teacher Professional

Learning and Development: Best Evidence Synthesis Iteration. Wellington: Ministry of
Education. https://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/series/2515/15341
12.

Villegas-Reimers, E. (2003). Teacher Professional Development: An International

Review of the Literature. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational
Planning.







Библиографические ссылки

Darling-Hammond, L., & Richardson, N. (2009). Teacher Learning: What Matters? Educational Leadership, 66, 46-53.

Desimone, L. M. (2011). A primer on effective professional development. Phi Delta Kappan, 92, 68-71.

Feiman-Nemser, S. (2001). From Preparation to Practice: Designing a Continuum to Strengthen and Sustain Teaching. Teachers College Record, 103, 1013-1055.

Guskey, T. R., & Yoon, K. S. (2009). What Works in Professional Development? Phi delta kappan, 90, 495-500.

Hargreaves, A., & Fullan, M. (2012). Professional Capital: Transforming Teaching in Every School. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Hirsh, S. (2009). A New Definition. Journal of Staff Development, 30, 10-16.

Ingersoll, R. M., & Strong, M. (2011). The impact of induction and mentoring programs for beginning teachers: A critical review of the research. Review of Educational Research, 81(1), 201-233.

Johnson, S.M. (2015) Teacher Turnover in High-Poverty Schools: What Wc Know and Can Do. Teachers College Record, 117, 1-36.

Johnson, S., & Birkeland, S. (2003). Pursuing a “Sense of Success”: New Teachers Explain Their Career Decisions. American Educational Research Journal, 40, 581-617.

Kennedy, M. M. (2016). How Does Professional Development Improve Teaching? Review of Educational Research, 86, 945-980.

Timperley, H., Wilson, A., Barrar, H., & Fung, I. (2007). Teacher Professional Learning and Development: Best Evidence Synthesis Iteration. Wellington: Ministry of Education. https://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/series/2515/15341

Villegas-Reimers, E. (2003). Teacher Professional Development: An International Review of the Literature. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning.

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