New perspectives of applied linguistics
Professor, Translation theory department
Professor, Translation theory department
Linguistics is conventionally divided into theoretical, sometimes it is also called “scientific linguistics” or “theory of linguistics” and “applied (practical) linguistics”; the latter is distinguished by the most popular and broad view, which is generally defined as the activity of applying the scientific knowledge on the structure and functioning of the language in various non-linguistic scientific disciplines, in different spheres of human practical activity in line with theoretical comprehension of this activity.
TARJIMANING NAZARIY VA AMALIY MUAMMOLARI
NEW PERSPECTIVES OF APPLIED LINGUISTICS
Professor, Translation theory department,
Uzbekistan State World Languages University
Linguistics is conventionally divided into theoretical, sometimes it is also called
“scientific linguistics” or “theory of linguistics” and “applied (practical) linguistics”; the
latter is distinguished by the most popular and broad view, which is generally defined
as the activity of applying the scientific knowledge on the structure and functioning of
the language in various non-linguistic scientific disciplines, in different spheres of
human practical activity in line with theoretical comprehension of this activity.
Modern applied linguistics is as diverse as the areas of human practical
activity. It studies methods for solving practical problems related to the use of
– teaching, translation, terminological activity, etc. Applied linguistics is
based not only on the achievements of general linguistic theory, but also influences
its development itself. Usually, to solve practical problems, special studies are
required, which make up the main content of the PL. The main directions of AL:
fixation and storage of speech information
– the creation of alphabets and scripts,
spelling, practical transcription and transliteration, the creation of information
languages; transmission of speech information
– the theory of translation (mainly
scientific and technical), the creation of automatic translation systems; automatic
speech recognition and synthesis, the theory of teaching a non-native language, deaf
pedagogy (teaching the language of the deaf and dumb) and typhlo-surdopedagogy
(teaching the language of the blind and deaf and dumb), the theory of speech
intelligibility (to optimize speech transmission over communication channels);
automation of intellectual activity related to the use of language, the creation of
artificial intelligence systems (automated) information retrieval systems, systems for
automatic annotation and abstracting of information; the use of language in medicine
– neurolinguistics, etc.; the use of language as a means of mass communication –
language planning, language building, language standardization; creation of
international artificial languages, description of unexplored languages, study of the
influence of language on human behavior (content analysis, linguistic theory of
advertising, propaganda, etc.).
American Association for Applied Linguistics defines applied linguistics as
interdisciplinary field of inquiry that addresses a broad range of language-related
issues in order to understand their roles in the lives of individuals and conditions in
society. It draws on a wide range of theoretical and methodological approaches from
– from the humanities to the social and natural sciences – as it
develops its own knowledge-base about language, its users and uses, and their
underlying social and material
Nationally and internationally, the annual AAAL conference has a reputation
as one of the most comprehensive and exciting language conferences. At each
conference new ideas are generated, disciplinary boundaries are crossed, and
research is shared about the role of language in all aspects of cognition and social
action, including language learning and teaching.
The AAAL conference is known for its in-depth symposia and focused
workshops on key issues in applied linguistics; sessions on a wide range of research
studies, in progress or completed; its stimulating and often provocative plenaries; and
access to the latest publications via the book exhibit. Finally yet importantly, the AAAL
conference is the place for networking, for established and new professionals, and
for graduate students (more information on the upcoming conference at:
The conference gathers researchers from all over the world to share their
experience on the following fields:
Bilingual, immersion, heritage, and language minority education (BIH)
Language cognition and brain research (COG)
Corpus Linguistics (COR)
Analysis of discourse and interaction (DIS)
Educational Linguistics (EDU)
Language, culture, socialization and pragmatics (LCS)
Language and ideology (LID)
Language maintenance and revitalization (LMR)
Language, planning and policy (LPP/POL)
Second and foreign language pedagogy (PED)
Phonology/Phonetics and Oral Communication (POC)
Research methodology (REM)
Second language acquisition, language acquisition, and attrition (SLA)
Language and technology (TEC)
Teacher education, beliefs, and identities (TED)
Translation, Interpretation and Language Access (TRI)
Text analysis (written discourse) (TXT)
Vocabulary and Lexical Studies (VOC)
The breadth of the view promotes the
“potential” of the applied linguistics to
substantially increase and intensify
“the contacts of linguistics with the most diverse
sciences”. Interdisciplinary studies of a language functioning make a decisive
influence on linguistic theory, contributing to the renewal of the conceptual apparatus
of modern linguistics.
From the functional point of view, applied linguistics can be defined as a
scientific discipline in which ways of optimizing the functioning of the language are
studied and developed. The optimization of the communicative, social and cognitive
functions includes such disciplines as translation theory and practice, machine
translation, social linguistics, language planning and language policy, etc. The
epistemic function is somehow manifested in lexicography, terminology and
terminography, corpus linguistics, etc, while the optimization of the cognitive function
is concentrated in computer linguistics, psycholinguistics, quantitative linguistics, etc.
Consequently, the general scientific view of terminology is largely influenced by its
relationship with applied linguistics.
“Undoubtedly, terminology as a discipline is one
of the privileged branches of applied linguistics. From an epistemological point of
view, it could be classified among the
’applied sciences’ because it has to develop
both a theory and praxis. This praxis is evaluated through scientific principles, mainly
through the so-called glossaries or lexicons, which are its end
Another important question is what approach of applied linguistics is supported
within the scope of the following research. The working definition of applied linguistics
“theoretical and empirical investigation of real-world problems, in which
language is the central
issue”, urges the very discipline to investigate these real-world
problems within gender issues at a terminological level.
At the moment, the most promising area of modern applied linguistics should
be considered computational linguistics associated with hypertext technologies that
have emerged with the development of the global Internet.
Over the past few decades, as a result of the intensive computerization of
society, the corpus linguistics as a new and perspective direction in the linguistic
science has developed significantly from theoretical elaboration to empirical
implementation, into a rich paradigm that addresses applied linguistics, in particular
lexicography, automatic translation, comparative linguistics, terminology, cognitive
linguistics, computer linguistics, etc. It is generally defined as a collection of linguistic
data selected in accordance with relevant linguistic criteria to be used as a model of
a particular language, which contains the div of texts allowing an instant search for
the necessary elements and revealing their qualitative, quantitative and statistical
characteristics. Moreover, its representative and replenishing character determines
its importance in solving theoretical and practical issues of applied linguistics.
In general, the corpus linguistics is based on three methods of analysis
automatic isolation of linguistic data from the corpus of linguistic units (corpora); their
further processing with the help of a number of statistical procedures and techniques
evaluating the interpretation of the data obtained. If the first two methods are purely
mathematical, then the latter requires, undoubtedly, the participation of the human
Intensive works directed to compilation, study and description of electronic
corpora of various subjects are currently under way. One of the topical areas of the
corpus linguistics is the study of the translation process by means of corpora.
Regarding the study of the translation process in the corpus linguistics, a parallel
corpus of texts takes a significant role.
A parallel corpus of texts, by some researchers is interpreted as a translational
corpus, which consists of a set of texts in the original language and their interpretation
in the language of translation. Such a corpus allows setting a translational
equivalence between the searching elements of the corpus, revealing at the same
time their frequency and providing the list of contexts in which those units have been
The attention may be focused on monolingual reference corpus as well, which
can be effectively used to raise awareness of the translator and terminographer in
his/her conceptualization the world within GM discourse. As Sara Laviosa rightly
“monolingual corpora can also be used in experimental interpreting studies,
where there is a trade-off between the need to control the numerous variables
affecting the process of
It is worth noting that on April 15, 2022, eight research institutes of Theoretical
and Applied Linguistics, Literary Research Institute, Research Institute of Translation
Studies, Research Institute of Foreign Language Teaching Methods, Research
Institute of Media and Communication, Ecological Research Institute have been
established at the Uzbek State University of World Languages Institute, Validation
Research Institute, Social Process Research Institute. One of the institutes
is to acquaint scientists of the Republic with the new research of applied importance
conducted in the world scientific community and establish contacts.
Naturally, such changes are based on several years of international
cooperation, exchange of experience, research, analysis and scientific findings of
young scientists. The main goal is to further improve the quality of the education
system in the country in line with the achievements in the field of applied linguistics
and to expand the opportunities for our university to enter international rankings.
1. Ergasheva G.I. Terminography as a medium of a discourse construction:
description methods of gender terms.
2. http://www.aaal.org/?page=DefAPLNG American Association of Applied
3. Goffin R. La science terminologique. Terminologie et traduction 2. 1985.
p. 9-29; cf. Cabre Teresa. Terminology. Theory, methods and applications.
Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1999.
– P. 28.
4. Brumfit C.J. Teacher professionalism and research, in G. Cook and
B. Seidlhofer (eds.) Principle and Practice in Applied Linguistics.
– Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1995.
5. Baker M. Corpora in Translation Studies. An Overview and Suggestions for
Future Research // Target.
– 1995. – No. 7(2). – PP. 223–243.
6. Ergasheva G.I. Language potential through cognitive semantics lens:
frames and ICMs of gender terms. Journal of Critical Reviews. ISSN 2394-5125
VOL 7, ISSUE 14, 2020.
7. Laviosa S. The Corpus-based Approach: A New Paradigm in Translation
– Meta, 1998. 43(4). – P. 2.
Ergasheva G.L Terminography as a medium of a discourse construction: description methods of gender terms.
http://www.aaal.org/?page=DefAPLNG American Association of Applied Linguistics.
Goffin R. La science terminologique. Terminologie et traduction 2. 1985. -p. 9-29; cf. Cabre Teresa. Terminology. Theory, methods and applications. -Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1999. - P. 28.
Brumfit C.J. Teacher professionalism and research, in G. Cook and B. Seidlhofer (eds.) Principle and Practice in Applied Linguistics. - Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Baker M. Corpora in Translation Studies. An Overview and Suggestions for Future Research // Target. - 1995. - No. 7(2). - PP. 223-243.
Ergasheva G.L Language potential through cognitive semantics lens: frames and ICMs of gender terms. Journal of Critical Reviews. ISSN 2394-5125 VOL 7, ISSUE 14, 2020.
Laviosa S. The Corpus-based Approach: A New Paradigm in Translation Studies. - Meta, 1998. 43(4). - P. 2.