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Science and Education
DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO THE PHRASEOLOGY IN LINGUISTIC STUDY
Jizzakh branch of National University of Uzbekistan,
Foreign languages Department, teacher
Shukurova D. F.
Jizzakh branch of National University of Uzbekistan,
Philology and teaching languages, student of 204-20
In this article discussed about different approaches to the phraseology in
linguistic study and given some important information.
approaches, Cross linguistic, phraselogical units, metaphors.
Uzbek language has developed along history of the Republic of Uzbekistan. During this
time it collected a great number of phraselogical units, which people found successful,
interesting and still have used them. So there was a special section of linguistics-phraseology, a
set of stable expressions of independent importance.
Learning English is widespread worldwide and nowadays English knowledge and speaking
skills is a need of reality. Knowledge of English phraseology makes reading both publicistic and
fiction more understandable and extremely easier. The reasonable use of idioms makes speech
more expressive. The English phraseological units, which are not translated verbatim, but have
same meaning as in Uzbek ones as rethought, strengthens motivation and have greater effect in
learning English language . "By idioms, as with the help of various shades of colors, the
information aspect of language is supplemented by a sensual-intuitive description of our world,
our life" V.A. Kabulianskiy suggested in his book "Concise dictionary of modern English
idioms" By learning a foreign language, a person simultaneously interconnects two national
cultures: native and foreign one. Good knowledge of the foreign language is impossible without
knowledge of its idioms.
Cross-linguistic research on phraseology covers a wide range of challenging topics, from
the simple comparison of idioms or metaphors in two languages, to the systematic contrastive
study of all categories of set phrases across different languages. Current research demonstrates
that phraseology in the broad sense is one of the key components of language, and is probably
universal. However, the theoretical debate on the definition of set phrases and the interaction
between culture, meaning, syntax, figurative language and phraseology is not yet completely
settled. Two major theoretical approaches have so far yielded promising results: the first is more
semantic and is often associated with cognitive linguistics, while the second can be described as
cross-linguistic corpus linguistics. The cognitive approach to phraseology across languages lays
stress on metaphors and images as the constituent principles of set phrases, and provides
interesting information about the intriguing interplay between universal cognitive principles,
culture and phraseology. Cross-linguistic studies based on corpora, on the other hand, offer a
statistical analysis of the various categories of set phrases as well as a very reliable methodology.
Cross-linguistic phraseology is closely linked to translation studies. A close collaboration
between multilingual corpus linguistics, contrastive phraseology and natural language processing
may offer insightful perspectives on translation practice.
In recent years, phraseology in the broad sense has become a unifying theme for an
increasing number of theoretical and practical linguistic studies. Among this broad palette of
investigations into the meaning, structure or use of set phrases, cross-linguistic research is one of
the major and most fascinating topics.
An Englishman may sleep like a log, but a Frenchman will, among other possibilities,
sleep like a marmot, a Dutchman like a rose, a German like a stone and a speaker of the Bété
language (Ivory Coast) like a python. This list might be extended to all languages of the world
and would reveal the amazing richness and diversity of language. The famous Danish linguist
Hjelmslev (1961) already pointed out that there is a difference between form and substance of
language, and he argued that this dichotomy was also applicable to the level of content, so that
the whole semantic organisation of the lexicon and its interaction with the real world will vary a
lot from one language to another. This is undoubtedly a possible starting point for carrying out
research on phraseology across languages. Is there no rhyme or reason to the unbridled
imagination underlying set phrases in all languages, or is it possible to discover some universal
principles? Will set phrases enable researchers to gain information about the cultural patterns and
life ways prevailing in other parts of the world? Can we improve translation practice or theory by
a systematic comparison of set phrases across languages? These are just a few examples of the
very wide range of approaches involved in cross-linguistic and contrastive phraseology. The
language peculiarities as illustrated by concrete examples are only the top of the iceberg. It
would be quite interesting to shed light on the diversity of phraseology by concentrating on
specific cases across languages. This could, however, create the impression that comparing
languages from the point of view of their set phrases is only a practical matter, and that no
thorough theoretical grounding is necessary. Nothing is less true, as the very starting point of the
research, the sheer existence of a separate linguistic domain called phraseology, remains
controversial. In this article, we shall briefly mention a few theoretical and practical issues that
arise when set phrases are analysed in several languages.
Set phrases in the broad sense (see Burger et al. 1982) have now been identified in many
languages. It is well known that the phraseological tradition originated from Russia and
Germany (Vinogradov 1946). As a result, Russian and German were among the first languages
to be fully described from the point of view of phraseology, but the movement later extended to
English, French and most European languages.
The phraseological unit as a stable combination of words with a fully or partially figurative
meaning (see Ch. 1) is an extremely complex many-sided language unit. Stability and
figurativeness are intrinsic features of any PU in all its innumerable varied representations in
discourse. For purposes of analysis it is essential not only to have a clear idea of the concept of
the PU as a separate entity, but also to establish terms for denoting various types of form of the
PU and to reflect their meaning and function.
According to Kunin‘s definition (1970) the PU is characterised by two categorial features:
stability and figurative meaning. I believe the PU has a third distinguishing, categorial feature:
that of cohesion. Cohesion and stability are not the same thing. Cohesion derives from
phraseological meaning and the semantic, lexical, stylistic, and grammatical organisation of the
PU. The PU is a cohesive formation, whether it operates in discourse or is viewed in isolation as
the base form. When used in text, the intrinsic cohesive properties of the PU contribute to
texture. Cohesion also explains the intricate semantic structure of the PU. It was already noticed
in very early phraseological investigations in the 50‘s that one constituent of a PU cannot be
explained without the other(s) or, put in different terms, the meaning of the PU cannot be
directly derived from its constituent parts.
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