ko‘kalamlashtirish, o‘lkamizning obod maskanga aylanishiga olib keldi. Shu bilan birga bu
ko‘kalamzor hududlarning qiyofasi boshqa bir obod bo‘lib turgan maskanlarni xarobazorga
aylantirdi. Bu o‘sha hammamizga ma‘lum bo‘lgan Orol dengizining qurishi va fojiasi bo‘ldi.
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,,Правда востока‘‘ va ,, O‘zbekiston Surx‘‘birlashgan nashriyoti. Toshkent-1959:.B-31-33-35;
,,Mirzacho‘lning buguni, ertasi‘‘ O‘zbekiston KP Markaziy Komitetining birlashgan
A.Abdunabiyev ,, Karl Marks sug‘orish to‘g‘risida‘‘ O‘zbekiston SSR bilim yurti
A.Razzoqov ,, O‘zbekiston paxtachiligi tarixi‘‘ Toshkent. ,,O‘zbekiston‘‘-1994:.B-
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O‘zbekiston SSR ,,Fan‘‘ nashriyoti-1988:.B-34.
INTERACTIVE METHODS IN TEACHING VOCABULARY
Jizzakh branch of National university of
Uzbekistan named after Mirzo Ulug‗bek
The given article represents information about vocabulary as it is essential
for language learners to enhance their language skills. To improve it, all learners should know
how to teach and learn words at ease, so that several methods are included in this article.
According to researchers‘ opinion, language should be taught at very young age by using
several techniques such as poems, gestures, singings.
language, methods, techniques, teachers, learners, activities,
words, strategy, TPR, ESL classroom.
Learners aged six to eight obviously have a shorter attention span. They consider it is very
boring to remember English vocabulary words if they are presented as a list reinforced by
repetitious drill. Activities play an important role in learning the meanings of vocabulary words,
and these teaching tasks are important to make connections among words, concepts and learning
strategies to make word-learners be more participative in the class [Blachowicz, C., Fisher, P.,
Ogle, D., & Watts-Taffe, 2006. Vocabulary: Questions from the Classroom. Reading Research
Quarterly, 41, 524-539. p. 530]. Teachers should try to design various teaching activities in class
that allow for the use of physical action, phonological interest, and excitement of the
imagination. Here are some activities that support all three of the above elements.
Using children‘s Poems
Teachers can try to use the vocabulary words they have learned to make up some
children‘s poems that appeal to younger students‘ level of comprehension. Such poems mostly
have their own rhymes, interests and artistic quality. Primary students aged six to eight are fond
of reading and reciting poems. Children‘s poems also offer abundant cultural content. It is
impossible for primary pupils to focus all their attention for the length of a class period.
Therefore, the success of such poetry depends on both the content and the method that the
teacher use in the class to convey the poems. This type of material can teach about the target
culture as well as teaching vocabulary.
Gestures play an important part in human sensation and constitute a pervasive element of
human communication across culture. And Piaget said [Roth, M. 2001. Gestures: Their Role in
Teaching and Learning. American Educational Research, p. 365]; gestures play an important role
in learning, development, and communication in teaching kids. So, teaching children‘s poems
with gestures is an effective way to learn vocabulary for children aged six to eight.
Singing songs in English is a good activity for learning the word in class. If students sing
one or two songs with appropriate gestures, a harmonious class atmosphere is encouraged, and
students attention is easily focused. Singing songs with gestures, using them just as with poetry,
increases student involvement in the learning process. Activities that are gestural, visual and
physical can be used in learning new skills which include both learning physical concepts, as
well as arriving at the goal of learning and knowing vocabulary words [Roth, M. 2001. Gestures:
Their Role in Teaching and Learning. American Educational Research, p. 365].
In the class, teachers can divide the whole class into several groups; each group is required
to participate in the chorus so that they can master more and more vocabulary words in the
activity of collaborative learning for very young students. Students can connect certain
vocabulary words with the music, hence raising students‘ interest in reviewing some
English words. For example, when the students are reviewing vocabulary words about the
different parts of one‘s div, the teacher can connect these words with the popular song
titled ―The Song of Health‖ whose words are as follows: ―Please get up early, shaking
hands, kicking legs, bending arms, clapping shoulders, so that you will be healthy.‖ The
brisk rhythm, melody, and different tones and cadence will attract the attention of primary
pupils. They can dance together while singing this popular song. This series of activities
will make students remember the vocabulary words automatically.
Using spelling competition
A spelling competition in the class is also very important as a way to reinforce
reciting vocabulary words aloud so the teacher can check for pronunciation. Even so, spelling the
words mechanically and individually is so dull. Therefore, teachers should think about designing
a more scientific method, that is, letting students make full use of their mouths, hands, and
brains. Chastain says [Judd, E. L. 1978. A Need for Reevaluation of Existing Assumptions.
TESOL Quarterly, 12 (1).p. 71-76]: Vocabulary knowledge is generally not taught as a skill
individually. Instead, most methodologies of teaching vocabulary are considered as part of
language learning such as reading or listening comprehension.
In order to lessen the criticism Chastain offers about the way vocabulary teaching.
Teachers can divide the class into several groups to have a competition. Or, small groups,
if the students are older, could hold their own competition and select the strongest
student then go on and compete with the representatives of other groups. Another way to
bring physicality into the learning process could occur when the students are learning
some words about fruit, and teachers bring different kinds of fruit to classroom for students
to touch and eat. The eyes of all the students in each group can be covered with a blindfold.
Students are then asked to taste the fruit in that group. And they will also be asked to
spell the names of the fruit that students are tasting.
Total Physical Response
Originally developed by James Asher, an American professor of psychology, in the 1960s,
Total Physical Response (TPR) is based on the theory that the memory is enhanced through
association with physical movement
The Total Physical Response Approach to Second
Language Learning" by James J. Asher. The Modern Language Journal, Vol. 53, No. 1 (Jan.,
1969), pp. 3–17]. It is also closely associated with theories of mother tongue language
acquisition in very young children, where they respond physically to parental commands, such
as "Pick it up" and "Put it down". TPR as an approach to teaching a second language is based,
first and foremost, on listening and this is linked to physical actions which are designed to
reinforce comprehension of particular basic items.
A typical TPR activity might contain instructions such as "Walk to the door", "Open the
door", "Sit down" and "Give Maria your dictionary". The students are required to carry out the
instructions by physically performing the activities. Given a supportive classroom environment,
there is little doubt that such activities can be both motivating and fun, and it is also likely that
with even a fairly limited amount of repetition basic instructions such as these could be
assimilated by the learners, even if they were unable to reproduce them accurately themselves.
This technique works great with kinesthetic learners, namely those who learn best by
moving their bodies. Most teachers are aware of the advantages of Total Physical Response in
the ESL classroom.
The main advantage of TPR is that teacher can get students physically engaged in the
lesson. It gets them out of their seats and shakes things up. So make sure you maximize
opportunities to get them moving!
It is not secret that young learners has the more interest to the objects that one can touch,
hold and feel, rather than picture of this objects. The use of realia or real-life objects in the ESL
classroom can make a huge difference in student learning. It engages them and motivates them
to learn. It‘s fun and sets a more natural learning environment
Realia [Based on excerpts from The Expert Educator (Jones, et al., 1994)] -real things-
represent the actual conditions with which the learner will live. As such, realia should be used
whenever possible. Real things are available. The task is to locate them and put them to use in
helping students learn. Examples of realia are: insects; coins; rocks; plants; pets; and stamps.
In a conclusion, vocabulary does not exist as isolated item in a language. That is, words an
interwoven in a complex system in which knowledge of various levels of lexical item is required
in order to achieve adequate understanding in listening or reading or produce ideas successfully
in speaking and writing.
Bone, B. (2000). Lessons from a Vocabulary Journal. Voices From the Middle, 7(4),
Breen,J., and D.Candlin. 1980. The essentials of a communicative curriculum in
language teaching. Applied Linguistics,1,2, pp.89–112;
Celce-Murcia, M. 1991.Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Los
Collins English Dictionary for Advanced learners, third edition, 2001;
DOFF, Adrian. Teach English: A training course for teachers. Cambridge University
Press, 1988. 345 s. ISBN 0- 18-34232-9.
ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ ДИДАКТИЧЕСКИХ ИГР НА УРОКАХ РУССКОГО ЯЗЫКА
КАК СРЕДСТВО РАЗВИТИЯ ПОЗНАВАТЕЛЬНОЙ АКТИВНОСТИ УЧАЩИХСЯ
Жабборова Элмира Рашидовна
Преподаватель, Джизакского филиала Национального
Университета Узбекистана имени Мирзо Улугбека
В данной статье даются приѐмы игровых технологий, не только
повышающие интерес учащихся к русскому языку, но и развивающие их
самостоятельность и творческие способности.
Игра, активный, развлекательно-рекреативный,
«Только та игра целесообразна, в которой ребѐнок
активно действует, самостоятельно мыслит,
строит, комбинирует, преодолевает трудности»