Improving the methods of diagnosis and treatment of local demineralization of teeth in children

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Бурханова, А., Ишанова, М., & Мирсалихова, Ф. (2022). Improving the methods of diagnosis and treatment of local demineralization of teeth in children. Актуальные вопросы профилактики стоматологических заболеваний и детской стоматологии, 1(01), 28–30. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/dentistry-disease/article/view/14935
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Аннотация

Dental caries is a multifactorial infectious disease that can develop at any age - in early childhood, in adolescence and in adults, throughout life, leading to enamel demineralization with the formation of a carious cavity. According to the WHO, caries remains a significant problem in most of the developed world, affecting 60 to 90% of children and the vast majority of adults. The main method of detecting caries is a thorough visual examination using a dental probe and mirror. Additional methods include vital staining, radiography, electroodontodiagnostics (EOD), etc.In children in permanent teeth, carious defects are often formed against the background of focal demineralization of teeth. The traditional treatment of caries involves the complete removal of enamel with signs of demineralization. This approach to treatment led to a significant loss of hard tissues and weakening of the supporting structures of the teeth.


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IMPROVING THE METHODS OF DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF LOCAL

DEMINERALIZATION OF TEETH IN CHILDREN

Burkhanova A.A., Ishanova M.K., Mirsalihova F.L.

Tashkent State Dental Institute


Dental caries is a multifactorial infectious disease that can develop at any

age - in early childhood, in adolescence and in adults, throughout life, leading to
enamel demineralization with the formation of a carious cavity. According to the
WHO, caries remains a significant problem in most of the developed world,
affecting 60 to 90% of children and the vast majority of adults. The main method
of detecting caries is a thorough visual examination using a dental probe and
mirror.

Additional

methods

include

vital

staining,

radiography,

electroodontodiagnostics (EOD), etc.In children in permanent teeth, carious
defects are often formed against the background of focal demineralization of
teeth. The traditional treatment of caries involves the complete removal of
enamel with signs of demineralization. This approach to treatment led to a
significant loss of hard tissues and weakening of the supporting structures of the
teeth.

In a comparative study, the advantages and disadvantages of the studied

methods were established and it was revealed that the most effective is an
integrated approach to the clinical situation and a combination of several
diagnostic methods, additional use of instrumental diagnostic methods to clarify
the diagnosis.

The problem of caries and its prevention is a significant problem in all

countries of the world, due to the tendency to increase the severity and frequency
of the disease.

Numerous studies devoted to the study of the etiology, diagnosis,

prevention and treatment of caries in children objectify the relevance of this
problem.

Dental caries in children is a serious public health problem due to the high

prevalence of the disease and the low effectiveness of therapeutic and preventive
measures.

Diagnosis and prevention of the development of the carious process are still

considered important and not fully understood problems in modern dentistry.

It has been proven that caries is a multi-stage process, a combination of risk

factors and time is necessary for the formation of a cavity. Dentists cannot always
diagnose the onset of a carious process and the risk of caries in the enamel of
children's teeth.

Diagnosis of the early stage of caries is one of the most difficult issues in

pediatric dentistry. It is difficult to diagnose the early stage of enamel caries with
a single visual examination - focal demineralization of tooth enamel in the form of


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white or pigmented lesions on the approximate and contact surfaces of hard
dental tissues.

It is very important that at an early stage of the formation of a carious cavity,

it is possible to stop the progression of the disease process, as well as reverse its
development.

All methods of diagnosing caries can be divided into basic and additional.

The main methods for diagnosing caries include: a survey (anamnesis of the
disease, anamnesis of life), visual examination: palpation, probing, percussion.
There are also additional methods, such as vital staining, selective separation of
teeth, radiography, electro-odontometry diagnostics, ultrasound, etc.

The following diagnostic methods can be used to detect and evaluate

carious lesions. Careful visual inspection; vital staining of teeth using
macromolecular dyes; digital radiography; computed tomography (TAST); laser
fluorescence method using the diagnostic device DIAGNOdent (KaVo, Germany);
quantitative light fluorescence method (QIF method); method of electrometric
diagnosis of caries (ECM); ultrasound detection of caries.

The method of vital staining is used for the differential diagnosis of caries

and non-carious lesions. This method is based on the penetration of the dye into
demineralized enamel at the initial stage of the pathological process, when
enamel permeability increases due to an increase in the number of pores, thereby
the dye is absorbed, and the lesion is stained in the color of the dye. This method
is very convenient, visual and economical, but also has its drawbacks, the inability
to assess the depth of the lesion, the difficulty in diagnosing caries in hard-to-
reach surfaces.

Imaging remains one of the main ways to diagnose caries to this day, but

more and more experts recognize that basic methods are not enough to detect
early carious lesions, especially in hard-to-reach places.

Diagnosis of carious disease is a complex process consisting of three main

stages. Detection of a carious lesion and its assessment (determination of the
stage of development of the activity of the process), as well as the diagnosis itself.
Using early methods of diagnosing caries in children, the initial lesions of caries
can be stopped and even possible to achieve the elimination of the disease with
its reverse development. For diagnosing dental caries in children, there is no ideal
caries detection method with adequate sensitivity and specificity for all tooth
surfaces.

The most effective is a combination of several diagnostic methods. The

introduction of new methods of diagnosing caries into clinical practice will
prevent further development of the carious process in the early stages, as well as
facilitate treatment using non-invasive techniques without preparation, while
preserving the natural tissues of the tooth. It should be noted the strengthening
of the effect of remineralizing therapy in the complex application of them with an
antiseptic 0.01% chlorhexidine in all periods of observation.


References


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1.

Исаходжаева, Хабиба, С. Маликов,

and

Д. Акрамова. "Изучение

гестационного возраста и массы тела новорожденного на сроки
прорезывание молочых зубов."

in Library 22.1 (2022): 263-267.

2.

Даминова, Ш., С. Маткулиева, С. Назирова, и Н. Раззакова.

«Нарушения биологии полости рта у детей с гепатитом С».

in Library

, т. 21,

вып.

2,

июнь

2021

г.,

сс.

47

-48,

https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/14501

3.

Хасанова, Л.,

and

М. Юнусходжаева. "Опыт применения препарата

биоплант для лечения пародонтита."

Stomatologiya 1.2 (71) (2018): 22-24.

4.

Исаходжаева, Х.,

et al

. "ВЛИЯНИЕ ГЕСТАЦИОННОГО ВОЗРАСТА И

МАССЫ

ТЕЛА

НОВОРОЖДЕННОГО

НА

ПРОРЕЗЫВАНИЕ

ЗУБОВ."

Stomatologiya 1.1 (82) (2021): 40-42.

5.

Даминова, Ш., & Маткулиева, С. (2020). Изучение чувствительности

микробов к некторым лекарственным препаратам в условиях

in vitro!. in

Library,

20(3),

89

–87.

извлечено

от

https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/14503

ОЦЕНКА ГИГИЕНЫ ПОЛОСТИ РТА У ДЕТЕЙ ШКОЛЬНОГО ВОЗРАСТА

Валиева Р.Р., Абдуллаев Ж.Р.

Ташкентский государственный стоматологический институт,

Ташкент, Узбекистан

Несмотря на развитие детской стоматологии и профилактики

стоматологических заболеваний, кариес зубов остается распространенной
патологией у детей школьного возраста. Распространенность кариеса к 11
годам в разных регионах составляет от 30 до 80%.

Одним из этиологических факторов развития поражения твердых

тканей зубов является несоблюдение гигиены полости рта. Рациональная
гигиена является везущим звеном в профилактике заболеваний полости
рта. Доказано, что мягкий зубной налет и зубная бляшка, изобилующие
микроорганизмами, препятствуют поступлению в эмаль необходимых
макро

-

и микроэлементов из ротовой жидкости, нарушают равновесие

между слюной и эмалью, замедляя, таким образом, восстановление и
созревание эмали зуба. Однако практика показала, что процесс
деминерализации эмали не всегда заканчивается образованием кариозной
полости. Достаточно организовать рациональную гигиену полости рта,
чтобы приостановить развитие процесса.

Цель исследования: оценить уровень гигиены полости рта у детей 11

-

15 лет.

Материал и методы: проведено стоматологическое обследование 78

детей в возрасте от 11 до 15 лет, обратившихся в Поликлинику детской
стоматологии ТГСИ. Обследование включало: внешний осмотр, осмотр

Библиографические ссылки

Исаходжаева, Хабиба, С. Маликов, and Д. Акрамова. "Изучение гестационного возраста и массы тела новорожденного на сроки прорезывание молочых зубов." in Library 22.1 (2022): 263-267.

Даминова, Ш., С. Маткулиева, С. Назирова, и Н. Раззакова. «Нарушения биологии полости рта у детей с гепатитом С». in Library, т. 21, вып. 2, июнь 2021 г., сс. 47-48, https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/14501

Хасанова, Л., and М. Юнусходжаева. "Опыт применения препарата биоплант для лечения пародонтита." Stomatologiya 1.2 (71) (2018): 22-24.

Исаходжаева, Х., et al. "ВЛИЯНИЕ ГЕСТАЦИОННОГО ВОЗРАСТА И МАССЫ ТЕЛА НОВОРОЖДЕННОГО НА ПРОРЕЗЫВАНИЕ ЗУБОВ." Stomatologiya 1.1 (82) (2021): 40-42.

Даминова, Ш., & Маткулиева, С. (2020). Изучение чувствительности микробов к некторым лекарственным препаратам в условиях in vitro!. in Library, 20(3), 89–87. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/14503

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