BADIIY MATNNING STILISTIK TAHLILI, YECHIM VA MUAMMOLARI
THE VICTORIAN AGE (1837-1901)
DSc, prof. Tukhtasinov I.M.
The Victorian era was one of Britain’s most fascinating periods. From hardships to
triumphs, mass movements to individual accomplishments, the age was characterized by rapid change and
developments in nearly every area – social, industrial, technological, medical, scientific, and cultural.
Victorian Literature is the literature produced during the reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901) A.D.
During this time, England was undergoing a tremendous cultural upheaval; the accepted forms of literature,
art and music had undergone a radical change.
The Victorian age, “Oxford Movement”, A maelstrom, Darwin’s theories, Herbert
Needless to say, the Victorian Age takes its name from the long reign of Queen Victoria that lasted 64
years from 1837 to 1901. She was only eighteen when she came to the throne and although she was never
very much involved in the rule of the country relying for the most part on her statesmen she did indeed
provide Britain with a steady moral guide and soon became a model for her people to follow and admire
because of her reserved and respectful family life style. In 1840 she married Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-
Gotha with whom she had nine children.
As already stated the Victorian Age was also a time of numerous scientific inventions many of which
improved everyday life, although in some cases, they meant great sacrifices and hardships for the less
fortunate population. The scientific discoveries that date back to this time developed a new way of thinking
that, was at first, much debated due to the controversies that it brought about, it is in fact also defined as the
age of contradictions [3, 12-13].
One of the most important changes was brought about by the London Underground, built in 1854. The
railway system allowed travelers to reach all parts of the country thus changing habits and scenery. It was
extremely useful to transport all sorts of goods throughout the country, for the first time in history, for
instance, perishable food was shipped in trains thanks to a mechanical cooler that preserved even fresh milk
during the journeys from the countryside to the cities, the same happened with meat that could reach London
from the distant Aberdeen in Scotland. It also proved advantageous for communication too, the printing
industry which in the many time had undergone mechanization could decrease the prices of books,
magazines and newspapers – thanks to the train through which it shipped ever increasing loads of copies all
over the country and beyond – this major change satisfied the population’s growing need to be informed
about all the changes that were taking place and about the increasing spread of knowledge. The Time, just to
give an idea, in 1851 cost 4 pence and sold 40,000 copies, whereas by 1861 it cost 3 pence – the introduction
of advertising also contributed to lowering its price and increasing its circulation – while the copies sold
went up to 70, 000 units. Reading, thus, began to entertain and not only inform a growing literate population
and this also meant a flourishing of new literary genres, especially a variety of different types of novels. But
the train also meant that the middle-class could move to suburbs and commute to the city for working
purposes, moreover it also developed a higher amount of travel for leisure eventually encouraging mass
tourism [7, 64].
Industrialization also meant that Britain’s population had become well accustomed to cheap mass
manufactured goods imported from the colonies or other countries, furthermore Britain controlled almost
half of the world’s trade since masses of the world’s goods were transported on its merchant fleets and it had
an incredibly world widespread market where to sell its products thanks to its many colonies of its vast
Empire. The basis of its growing economy was made up of transport, coal, iron and steel. Yet, new materials
such as rubber, aluminum, petroleum and celluloid were also being produced by Germany and the United
States which began to compete with Britain on a large scale underlining the need for free trade to favor its
biggest manufacturers. These consistent economic and industrial developments brought Britain to get
involved in international affairs, especially those regarding increasing military conflicts, so she supported the
Italian independence war against Austria, but never to the point of jeopardizing the balance of order. She also
fought the Crimean War (1853-56) to hamper Russia’s growing supremacy over the crumbling Turkish
Empire. Finally, she insisted on Opium trade with China thus forcing the Far East to open a largely profiting
trading activity with Britain [6, 192-218].
The faith in unrelenting progress and the belief according to which the world was set up in an orderly
manner all to the advantage of the white and prosperous individuals characterized by a clean-cut definition of
right and wrong, or, to use a symbolic expression, white and black, began to shake thanks to the new
scientific discoveries regarding geology and biology. The new emerging theories underlined that in reality
much of the human progress Victorians praised was actually due to sheer chance and not produced, as it was
normal for them to assume, by superiority and specific merits of one human race over another less advanced
and less competent.
In this specific field Charles Darwin (1809-1882) with his theories that were published in his two main
works, On the Origins of the Species (1859) and The Descent of Man (1871), clearly shows that the human
race was only one and that its evolution was affected by natural causes alone. He demonstrated that it was
the effort to survive that pushed all living creatures – not only humans – to fight and learn to the best of their
abilities to adapt to the surrounding environment; thus, he concluded, that if the environment offered good
basic conditions the species would survive and evolve from the simplest form of life to more complex ones
and humans were no exception, vice versa if the environment proved hostile to life its inhabitants would
His researches caused immediate religious opposition since they questioned a fundamental dogma,
which, on the contrary, asserted undoubtedly that man was God’s creation in the Almighty’s shape and
resemblance therefore superior to all other living creatures and their natural master, this was good enough
then to justify any exploitation on the part of man over all those whom he believed as inferior and rightfully
subdued. The British Catholics were obviously appalled by this new line of thinking but merely retreated to
applying their old praying rituals; on the other hand, the “Oxford Movement”, inspired by John Henry
Newman (1801-1890) from the Oxford University did succeed in giving life to a new religious revival
protesting against what became to be known as Darwinism.
A maelstrom thus broke out once the main beliefs and certainties of Victorians were slowly shattered
due to the new scientific discoveries of this time and the following philosophical and political theories that
Darwin’s theories, in particular, also proved useful to support a new economic theory, in fact the
philosopher Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) took the scientist’s conclusions one step further by asserting that
based upon given natural conditions only the strongest survive whilst the weakest, he continued, deserved to
be defeated. Therefore, he believed it quite natural to apply this theory to social and economic order, he
sustained that it was then perfectly natural to engage in economic competition and just as it was in natural
selection the poorest individuals obviously lacked the necessary abilities to overcome hardships and their
failure was solely due to their weakness and did not deserve compassion or help. In other words, he
implicitly conveyed the message that those who faced economic or social hardships were in fact themselves
responsible for their fate and the government was in no way meant to intervene in their favour or for their
To counteract this convenient assumption that was also clearly meant to absolve all those that acquired
huge amounts of wealth from the slave market or by the exploitation of the colonies of the British Empire
that spread from Asia to Africa, Karl Marx elaborated a theory that accused industrialism and capitalism
directly for the damages caused to human life and the environment. In his treatise divided in three volumes,
Capital (1867, 1885, 1897) he analyzed causes and effects of industrialism in England which, at the time,
was the world’s most industrialized country.
Marx’s work influenced many English intellectuals among which there are William Morris and
Matthew Arnold. The former supported a massive workers’ movement whose revolt alone, he believed,
could defeat industrialism in favour of a simple life devoted to beauty and his idealized Middle Ages. The
latter, on the other hand, felt that only literature could save and regenerate the English people. According to
Arnold, in fact, people’s response to literature was closely connected to how people’s thought and behavior
The industrial progress then that spread to the entire country becoming a consolidated reality,
contributed greatly to the debate that ensued regarding its overall benefits and disadvantages giving life to
new perspectives that took into consideration the standpoint of workers and not only of businessmen and the
upper classes in general and along with the already cited new stream of thoughts.
Altick, Richard D. Victorian People and Ideas: A Companion for the Modern Reader of Victorian
Literature. New York, NY: Norton, 1973. p. 73. ISBN 9780393042603.
Barr, Pat. The Memsahibs: The Women of Victorian India. London, UK: Secker and Warburg,
1976. p. 21. ISBN 9780436033599.
Calder, Jenni. The Victorian home. London, UK: Batsford, 1977. p. 12-13. ISBN
Daiches, D. A Critical History of English Literature, Garzanti, Milano, 1982; Vol. III, From the
Victorian Age to Our Times. p. 56.
Dawson, Carl (1979). Victorian High Noon: English Literature in 1850. Baltimore: Johns
Hopkins U. Press. p. 12.
Eric Hobsbawm, The Age of Empire 1875-1914, Abacus, London, 1994; pp. 192-218.
Erickson, Carolly. Her Little Majesty: The Life of Queen Victoria. New York, NY: Simon &
Schuster, 1997. p. 64. ISBN 0684807653.
Jabbarovna, S. N. (2022). APPEARANCE OF THE CONCEPT OF ASSESSMENT IN THE
Web of Scientist: International Scientific Research Journal
Jabbarovna, S. N. (2022). APPEARANCE OF THE CONCEPT OF ASSESSMENT IN THE
Web of Scientist: International Scientific Research Journal
Yusupov, O. (2019). Functional-Semantic Features Of Lexical Doublets In English.
Юсупов, О. Я. (2020). ЛЕКСИК ДУБЛЕТЛАРНИНГ ТИЛШУНОСЛИКДА ЎРГАНИЛИШИ
МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫЙ ЖУРНАЛ ИСКУССТВО СЛОВА
Шакиров, Ильяс Рахимзянович. "ЛИ КУАН Ю–ОСНОВОПОЛОЖНИК СОВРЕМЕННОГО
СИНГАПУРА." Научные разработки: евразийский регион (2019): 54.
РОМАННАЯ СТИЛИСТИКА ЧИНГИЗА АЙТМАТОВА
доктор филологических наук, профессор, ДжГПИ
В статье рассматривается вопросы романной стилистики, исследованные
теоретиком жанра романа М. М. Бахтиным. На примере романов Чингиза Айтматова «И дольше века
длится день», «Плаха» и «Тавро Кассандры»Чингиза Айтматова прослеживаются суждения Бахтина о
теории стилистики романа.
романная стилистика, теория, филологический анализ, стиль, поэтика.
«Роман как целое — это многостильное, разноречивое, разноголосое явление. Исследователь
сталкивается в нем с несколькими разнородными стилистическими единствами, лежащими иногда в
разных языковых планах и подчиняющимися разным стилистическим закономерностям, - писал
теоретик жанра романа М. М. Бахтин .
Когда рассматриваем стилистику романа, имеем ввиду филологический аспект
рассмотрениятекстароманного целого, т.е., с точки зрения литературоведа индивидуальный стиль
автора, поэтику романа, а с точки зрения лингвиста его языковые особенности. Эти два вида работы
следует понимать под общим понятием филологический анализ текста.
Как разъясняет литературовед: «Вот основные типы композиционно-стилистических единств,
на которые обычно распадается романное целое: 1) прямое авторское литературно-художественное
повествование (во всех его многообразных разновидностях); 2) стилизация различных форм устного
бытового повествования (сказ); 3) стилизация различных форм полулитературного (письменного)
бытового повествования (письма, дневники и т. п.); 4) различные формы литературной, но
внехудожественной авторской речи (моральные, философские, научные рассуждения, риторическая
декламация, этнографические описания, протокольные осведомления и т. п.); 5) стилистически
индивидуализированные речи героев» .
По его определению «высшее романное целое» объединяя в себе разнородные стилистические
единства формирует романную художественную систему. В этом отношении особый интерес
представляет романное творчество мэтра художественной литературы ХХ века Чингиз Айтматов.
Литературный процесс не может изучаться вне контекста эпохи. И писатели, непосредственно
откликающиеся на глубинные явления современной жизни, и писатели, старающиеся подчеркнуть
свою отрешенность от нее, – и те, и другие не могут оказаться вне ее воздействия. Человеком эпохи и
времени был Чингиз Айтматов - мыслитель, наделенный редким аналитическим даром, тонкий
созерцатель и мудрый философ, знаток потаенных струн человеческой души. Каждый роман Чингиза
Айтматова удивил не только читателей, но и критики и литературоведы были поражены
оригинальностью художественного мышления, высокой художественностью, острой социальностью,