Ispan, turk va o’zbek frazeologizmlarida paradigmatik munosabatlarning lingvomadaniy xususiyatlari

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Юсуф, Н. (2022). Ispan, turk va o’zbek frazeologizmlarida paradigmatik munosabatlarning lingvomadaniy xususiyatlari. Анализ актуальных проблем, инноваций, традиций, решений и художественной литературы в преподавании иностранных языков, 1(01), 40–42. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/analysis-problem/article/view/12832
Нурмухаммад Юсуф, Самаркандский государственный институт иностранных языков

преподаватель кафедры” Теория и литература английского языка"

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Аннотация

Borliqdagi predmetlarning muayyan lingvomadaniy jamoa muhitida shakllangan kognitiv
mexanizmlar vositasida lingvistik va ekstralingvistik reprezentlashuvida milliy-madaniylik belgilari ularni
ifodalovchilar qiyosiy-chog’ishtirma yondashuv asosida tahlil qilinganda yaqqolroq namoyon bo’lishi
aksiomadir


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thoughts regarding philosophy and religion.

At the time when he was studying at Christ’s Hospital which was a boarding school in London, he

befriended with several boys, including Tom Evans. During 1788 he and other friends visited Tom Evans’
home in London, where he met Tom’s eldest sister, Mary Evans. Coleridge had warm feelings for her. Evans
became Coleridge’s first love and inspiration. However, the relationship lasted only a short while and in
1795 on October, she married to Fryer Todd. When Coleridge made plans with friend Robert Southey to
emigrate to overseas, Mary wrote to Coleridge a letter of telling him not to leave. This letter brought him the
old feelings and memories. His feelings inspired him to write the poem “Sonnet: To my own Heart”.

Coleridge prescribed too laudanum due to attacks of rheumatism and he quickly became addicted to

opium. His critically acclaimed poem “Kubla Khan” was actually came from one of Samuel’s opium do
streams. Nevertheless, he realized the laudanum was more evil than the diseases it failed to cure. The
beginning of the 19

th

century was a very dark time for Samuel. In the next thirty years things started getting

better but he was under the constant care of a doctor and his writing became darker and more gothic. He
was a very intelligent writer and a philosopher of his time and when he passed away in 1834, his friends
could only think of how the world had just lost an incomparable intellect of the time

The collection of poems which is called “Lyrical Ballads’ were written by Samuel Taylor and

William Wordsworth first published in 1798. It illustrated the beginning of the English Romantism
movement in literature. Romantism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism,
idealization of nature and the glorification of the past with a strong preference for medieval time. Coleridge’s
most famous poem from the collection of “Lyrical Ballads” is “The Rime of Ancient Mariner”. In this poem
Coleridge compares two things by contrast and includes them into one situation. In other words, it all
begins with the wedding party where an old sailor tells his story to the guests by catching their attentions.
The story is about his life experience, when he accidently shoots to the bird albatross which was innocent
and gets the rage of the sea and wind. He faces many troubles in the ship, because of committing a crime
which turns to the curse for him. Two hundred people pass away from the curse that he called. Later he
suffers in unknown land and finds out snakes next to his legs. He assumes them as a creatures of nature, not
the pests as he used to think. Then the curse breaks up by making him free from all sufferings. Finally, the
ghosts of two hundred people help him to get him home safely.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.

Coleridge Samuel Taylor. “Rime of the Ancient Mariner.” THE Norton Anthology: English Literature. 8

th

ed. Vol 2. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 1990. 1616-32. 2 vols.

2.

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. “Kubla Khan” The Norton Anthology: English Literature. 8

th

ed. Vol 2. New

York: W.W. Norton & Company. Inc. 1990. 1632-34. 2 vols.

3.

Reidhead. Jula. ed. “Samuel Taylor Coleridge.” The Norton Anthology: English Literature. 8

th

ed. New

York: W. W. Norton & Company. Inc. 1990. 1609-11. Print.

4.

Klancher, Jon. {2009}. Concise Companion to the Romantic Age, A. Whiley. Retrieved 9 February 2012.

5.

Yusupov, O., Yoqubjonova, S., & Abduvokhidova, S. (2022). THE BENEFITS OF HAVING OVERALL 7.0
FROM IELTS IN DIFFERENT AREAS OF LIFE.

Eurasian Journal of Academic Research

,

2

(5), 213-215.

6.

Сулайманова, Н. Ж. (2016). СПОСОБЫ ВЫРАЖЕНИЯ ЛОКАТИВНОСТИ В СОВРЕМЕННОМ
АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ.

Актуальные научные исследования в современном мире

, (9-3), 74-77.

7.

Sulaymanova, N. J. (2016). Locative syntaxemes and disaccordance of their antecedent means. In

Humanities

and Social Sciences in Europe: Achievements and Perspectives

(pp. 249-252).

8.

YUSUPOV, O. (2022). ПРОБЛЕМЫ РАЗНЫХ ИЗОБРАЖЕНИЙ ОБРАЗОВ В
ПРЕДСТАВЛЕНИЯХ.

International Journal of Philosophical Studies and Social Sciences

,

2

(1), 51-54.

INTERNET RESOURCES:

9.

https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poets/samuel-taylor-coleridge

10.

https://ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D0%BA%D0%B0%D0%

B7% 7.https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sara_Coleridge

11.

https://sites.udel.edu/britlitwiki/coleridge-and-wordsworth/

12.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Taylor_Coleridgehttps://iib.my

ilibrary.com?ID-2116457

ISPAN, TURK VA O’ZBEK FRAZEOLOGIZMLARIDA PARADIGMATIK

MUNOSABATLARNING LINGVOMADANIY XUSUSIYATLARI

Nurmuhammad Yusuf

SamDCHTI, “Ingliz tili nazariyasi


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va adabiyoti” kafedrasi o’qituvchisi

Borliqdagi predmetlarning muayyan lingvomadaniy jamoa muhitida shakllangan kognitiv

mexanizmlar vositasida lingvistik va ekstralingvistik reprezentlashuvida milliy-madaniylik belgilari ularni
ifodalovchilar qiyosiy-chog’ishtirma yondashuv asosida tahlil qilinganda yaqqolroq namoyon bo’lishi
aksiomadir. Frazeologik birliklar (FB) ikkilamchi nominativ vazifani bajarishi barobarida voqelik predmeti
va uning xususiyatlarini leksemaga nisbatan ko’lamrioq ifoda etadi. FBlarning fe’l komponenti grammatik
shakllarning o’zgara olish xusussiyatiga ega bo’lish sababidan grammatik ma’nonning asosiy ifodalovchisi
sifatida voqelik bilan moslik namoyon etadi. FBlar tarkibidagi grammatik kategoriyalarning ifoda shakllari
uning paradigmatik shakllari hisoblanadi. Paradigmatik shakllarda FBlarning kontekst bilan munosabatlari
aks etadi. Paradigmatik shakllar diskursda frazeologizmlarning so’zlar bilan aloqasini o’rnatish orqali
funksional vazifani bajaradi. Shu o’rinda qayd etish joizki, paradigmatik shakllarni FBlar strukturasidagi
variant shakllardan farqlash lozim. FBlar ikki yoki undan ortiq komponentlardan tashkil topsa, ulardan faqat
biri paradigmatik shaklga ega bo’ladi. Masalan, “¿

no te parece? La querra esta dando las boqueadas. Es lo

que dice todo el mundo, hasta los mas responsables

” (Lera) [1,54]

. Estar dando las boqueadas

(“tugamoq,

nihoyasiga etmoq”) frazeologizmidagi fe’l komponent shaxs, zamon, son, mayl, nisbat shakllariga ega.
Ozbek tilidagi “bo’yniga olmoq” frazemasi misolida ham paradikmatik shakllarning yuqoridagi kabi
shakllarini ko’rishimiz mumkin. Masalan, “

Yo’q, o’zim so’roq qilaman! Gunohini bo’yniga qo’yib, hokim

kelguncha devor tagiga bostirib yuboraman

”(M.Ismoiliy)[2,61]. Quyidagi turk tili frazemalarida

aşaği

tükürsem (tükürsen, tükürse…) sakalim (sakalin, sakali ..), yukari tükürsem (tukursen, …) biyiğim (biyiğin,
biyiği); Bana (sana, ona..) göre hava hoş. Gözüne kestirmek (gözüme kestirdim, gözüne kestirdi

) kabilarda

paradigmatika hodisasiga guvoh bo’lamiz. Barcha FBlar ham paradigmaga ega bo’lmaydi. Xususan, ispan
tili FBlaridagi hol komponentining sintaktik funksiyasi, ot, sifat, ravishning aniqlovchi funksiyalarida
paradigmatik shakllarga ega bo’lmaydi. Masalan,

ispan tilida

:

(decir) en las narices/en las barbas; hablar a

voz en grito/en cuello; a gatas;a gritos;(andar) a paso tirado/largo;(llorar) a moco tendido;(espanola) de
pura sepa;(un hombre vestido) de vienticinco alfileres/con todos sus alfileres; hasta los topes;(un dusgusto)
de padre y muy senor mio;(harto) hasta la coronilla;
o’zbek tilida

:

nima bo’lsa bo’lar

;

og’zi qulog’ida

;

burni ko’tarilgan

;

bir chimdim

;

uchiga chiqqan

;

turk tilida

:

ne olursa olsun; ne sen sor, ne ben söyleyeyim,

pamuk gibi, her ne kadar

Paradigmarik shakllar otning sintaktik funksiyasini bajaruvchi va kesim va aniqlovchi bilan

moslangan FBlarda kuzatiladi. Ispan tilida FB ot + sifat modeli bo’yicha tuzilgan bo’lsa, ikki komponent
paradigmatik shaklga ega bo’la oladi. Masalan,

camisa azul; mala lengua; media lengua; nino gotico; el

nudo gordiano; mal bicho; pez gordo

va hokazo. …

de ellos salian gobernadores, ministros, y otros peces

gordos. Los peces gordos rompen la red cuando no es bastante fuerte.

Birinchi misolda

peces gordos

FB

aniqlovchi bilan son va rodda, kesim bilan sonda, ikkinchi misolda kesim bilan sonda moslashuvi
kuzatilmoqda.

Agarda FB ot+ot tuzilishiga ega bo’lsa, ushbu komponentlardan biri paradigmatic shaklga ega

bo’ladi. Masalan,

piedra de toque; presos de derecho comun; camisa de fuerza; tonto de capirote; tren

botijo; punto de vista

. Masalan,

esos puntos de vista no coinciden

vaziyatida faqat oldingi o’rinda joylashgan

“punto” komponenti sonda o’zgarishga uchraydi.

Qo’shma fe’lning ot qismi funksiyasini bajaruvchi bir qancha FBlar ham paradigmatic shaklga ega

bo’ladi. Masalan, sonda moslanganlik:

estos son presos de derecho comun

(Toledo); rod va sonda

moslanganlik:

su padre, desde luego, es duro de pelar, pero ella tiene tambien su alma en su almario

(Lera);

son duros de pelar

, si senor (Izcaray).

O’z tuzilishida sifat yoki sifatdoshga ega bo’lgan (

largo de lengua, largo de manos

) aniqlovchi

funksiyasini bajaruvchi FBlarda ham paradigmatik shakllar kuzatiladi. Masalan,

una mujer hecha y derecha

que tiene miedo que la quieran

;

eran ya hombres hechos y derechos crecidios y educados en pleno regimen

comnuista

.

Sodda kesim funksiyasini bajaruvchi FBlar kam bo’lmagan paradigmatic shakllarga egaligi FBning

fe’l komponentiga shaxs, zamon, son, mayl kabi kategoriyalar xosligi bilan tushuntiriladi. Bunda FB
tarkibidagi fe’l har bir kategoriya tegrasida shakl hosil bo’ilishida muayyan chegaralanish voqe bo’ladi.
Masalan,

echar de menos

FB ot, shaxs nomi yoki kishilik olmoshlari bilan ifodalangan ega bilan birikadi.

Masalan,

Y ya echaba yo de menos esta visita

;

Ya le echabamos a usted muy de menos

;

A el que ejercia

tantos oficios, le habrian echado de menos en muchos puntos

. ¿…

no alguna vez todo aquello

?

Fe’ldan farqli ravishda frazemalar fe’lning bitta shaklida qo’llanishga moyilroq. Masalan, ichki

tuzilishi gapga teng undov tabiatli frazemalar faqat bir shaxs shaklida qo’llaniladi:

medrador estamos

;

amaneceres Dios y medraremos

;

la cuerda se rompe por lo mas delgado/flojo

. Juda kam miqdordagi

frazemalar ko’proq ikki shaxsda qo’llaniladi:

te pongas en cruz

. Ma’nosiga ko’ra predmet va hodisalarga


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taaluqli frazemalar fe’l komponenti uchinchi shaxs shaklida qo’llaniladi:

estar manga por hombre

;

saber a

cuerno quemado

;

pasar de castano

:

Pasaria, pues, de castano obscure el que resultase tu hijo rival tuyo

.

Predikativ tipga mansub FBlarning fe’l komponenti uchunchi shaxs shaklida bo’lishi mumkin:

alegrarse la pajarilla; na caber en el pecho; no estar el horno para bollos. Demak, fe’l komponentning shaxs
shakllari miqdori FB tuzilishining ichki va tashqi xususiyatlari bilan belgilanadi.

Frazemalar esa o’z semantikasiga bog’li ravishda zamon va mayl shakllarida chegaralanadi.

1.

Ser hombre al agua; ser harina de otro costal; saber mas que Merlin; no saber de la misa la media;

no tenerlas todas consigo; no valer un comino; tener mas conchas que un galapago; saber mas que Lepe y
su hijo

shaxs/predmetning sifatiy xususiyatlarini beradi va ko’proq Presente de Indicativo yoki Imperfecto de

Indicativoda qo’llaniladi.

2.

Verse las caras; verselas; pagarlas; consultar con la almohada

kelasi zamonda qo’llanadi.

3.

Tomar el olivio; tomar las de Villadiego; liarlas; estirar la pierna

Preterito Indefinido yoki Preterito

Perfectoda ko’proq qo’llaniladi. Se acabo la fiesta faqat bir zamon va shaxsda qo’llanadi. Bir zamonda
qo’llanish shakli zamon ma’nosining kuchsizlanishiga olib boradi.

Fe’l idiomlar oddiy fe’llar kabi turli zamon va mayllarda qo’llaniladi. Masalan, ish-harakatning

davomiyligini ifodalovchi grammatikallashgan tuzilish (estar + Gerundo):

Usted es la que esta sacando ya

los pies del plato

(Quintero); …

estas hacienda el oso – dijo a media voz un amigo suyo

(Caballero). Bundan

tashqari boshlanishni ifodalovchi (ponerse a, echarse a + Infinitivo), takroriylikni (volver a + Infinitivo),
davomiylikni (ir, seguir, continuar, venir, andar + Gerundio) ifodalovchi konstruksiyalar mavjud. Ma’no
tuzlishlaridan kelib chiqib ko’plab idiomalar tugallanganlik/tugallanmaganlik shakllarida chegaralanishga
ega. Masalan,

pelar la pava; no saber de la misa la media, buscar el pelo al huevo; buscar la paja en el

oido; buscar tres pies al gato; bailar el agua; coger el cielo con las manos

kabi idiomlarda harakatning

tugallanmaganlik tavsifiy ko’rinishi mujassamlashgan.

Xulosa o’rnida shuni qayd etish joizki, ekstralingvistik voqelikni grammatik kategoriyalar leksemalarga

nisbatan ko’lamliroq ifodalaydi. Xususan, bunda turlanish va tuslanish holatlari ham kam bo’lmagan vazifani
bajaradi

Foydalanilgan adabiyotlar

1.

Kurchatkina N.N., Suprun A.V. Frzeologiya ispanskogo yazika. Moskva “Visshaya shkola”, 1981.-
142s

2.

Raxmatullayev Sh. O’zbek tilining izohli frazeologik lug’ati. Toshkent. “O’qituvchi”, 1978.-403b

3.

Ömer Asim Aksoy. Atasözleri ve deyimler sözlügü. Istanbul. “Inkilap”, 2017.-486s

4.

Yusupov, O., Yoqubjonova, S., & Abduvokhidova, S. (2022). THE BENEFITS OF HAVING OVERALL
7.0 FROM IELTS IN DIFFERENT AREAS OF LIFE.

Eurasian Journal of Academic Research

,

2

(5),

213-215.

5.

Сулайманова, Н. Ж. (2016). СПОСОБЫ ВЫРАЖЕНИЯ ЛОКАТИВНОСТИ В СОВРЕМЕННОМ
АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ.

Актуальные научные исследования в современном мире

, (9-3), 74-77.

6.

Sulaymanova, N. J. (2016). Locative syntaxemes and disaccordance of their antecedent means.
In

Humanities and Social Sciences in Europe: Achievements and Perspectives

(pp. 249-252).

7.

YUSUPOV, O. (2022). ПРОБЛЕМЫ РАЗНЫХ ИЗОБРАЖЕНИЙ ОБРАЗОВ В
ПРЕДСТАВЛЕНИЯХ.

International Journal of Philosophical Studies and Social Sciences

,

2

(1), 51-54.

8.

Sulaymanova, N. D. (2015). COMPARATIVE INVESTIGATION OF LOCATIVE ADESSIVE
ELEMENTS IN THE STRUCTURE OF ENGLISH AND UZBEK LANGUAGES. In

DEVELOPMENT

OF THE SPOKEN AND WRITTEN LANGUAGE AT THE CURRENT STAGE OF THE INTENSIVE
INFORMATION TURNOVER

(pp. 12-13).

9.

Suleymanova, N. J. (2020). CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION THROUGH LINGUISTIC AND
CULTURAL CONTENT.

Theoretical & Applied Science

, (4), 645-647.

10.

Yusupov, O. Y. (2020). ETYMOLOGICAL AND PRO-ETYMOLOGICAL DOUBLETS IN
ENGLISH.

Theoretical & Applied Science

, (2), 417-420.

TURIZMGA OID ATAMALARNING TARJIMA USLUBLARI TAHLILI

Toshnazarova Gulrux

Jahon iqtisodiyoti va diplomatiya

universiteti gid hamrohligida tarjimonlik

faoliyati yo’nalishi magistranti

Библиографические ссылки

Kurchatkina N.N., Suprun A.V. Frzeologiya ispanskogo yazika. Moskva “Visshaya shkola”, 1981.-142s

Raxmatullayev Sh. O’zbek tilining izohli frazeologik lug’ati. Toshkent. “O’qituvchi”, 1978.-403b

Omer Asim Aksoy. Atasozleri ve deyimler sozlUgii. Istanbul. “Inkilap”, 2017.-486s

Yusupov, O., Yoqubjonova, S., & Abduvokhidova, S. (2022). THE BENEFITS OF HAVING OVERALL 7.0 FROM IELTS IN DIFFERENT AREAS OF LIFE. Eurasian Journal of Academic Research, 2(5), 213-215.

Сулайманова, H. Ж. (2016). СПОСОБЫ ВЫРАЖЕНИЯ ЛОКАТИВНОСТИ В СОВРЕМЕННОМ АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ. Актуальные научные исследования в современном мире, (9-3), 74-77.

Sulaymanova, N. J. (2016). Locative syntaxemes and disaccordance of their antecedent means.

In Humanities and Social Sciences in Europe: Achievements and Perspectives (pp. 249-252).

YUSUPOV, O. (2022). ПРОБЛЕМЫ РАЗНЫХ ИЗОБРАЖЕНИЙ ОБРАЗОВ В ПРЕДСТАВЛЕНИЯХ. International Journal of Philosophical Studies and Social Sciences, 2(1), 51-54.

Sulaymanova, N. D. (2015). COMPARATIVE INVESTIGATION OF LOCATIVE ADESSIVE ELEMENTS IN THE STRUCTURE OF ENGLISH AND UZBEK LANGUAGES. In DEVELOPMENT OF THE SPOKEN AND WRITTEN LANGUAGE AT THE CURRENTSTAGE OF THE INTENSIVE INFORMATION TURNOVER (pp. 12-13).

Suleymanova, N. J. (2020). CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION THROUGH LINGUISTIC AND CULTURAL CONTENT. Theoretical & Applied Science, (4), 645-647.

Yusupov, O. Y. (2020). ETYMOLOGICAL AND PRO-ETYMOLOGICAL DOUBLETS IN ENGLISH. Theoretical & Applied Science, (2), 417-420.

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