References and sources
J. Scrivener, 2016, Classroom Management Techniques, Cambridge University Press, 179-183 p
University Information Technology Services, 2014, Prezi Online Presentation Software, KSU
Department of University Information Technology Services
https://assessment.illinoisstate.edu › workshops.
TEACHING VOCABULARY AS A COMMUNICATIVE SKILL FOR EFL LEARNERS
Kushatova Hilola Rustamovna
30-maktab ingliz tili fani o`qituvchisi
: This article illustrates the importance of teaching vocabulary as a second language and
research is done on different topic related sources. Hence learning languages through communicative
competence is indispensable issue in teaching process.
vocabulary, translation, method, communication
The importance of vocabulary in learning a foreign language in the lives of students cannot be
overstated. It is one of the factors that ties the four skills; speaking, listening, writing, and reading. Thus,
students must know basic terminology to support their vocabulary in learning English before they can master
these four skills. This is due to the. fact that vocabulary is a crucial and necessary component of language
development. Students must learn a sufficient quantity of words and know how to use them correctly in order
to communicate effectively in a foreign language. According to Heibert , vocabulary is defined as
"understanding of the meaning of words." The term vocabulary has a variety of connotations. Some teachers,
for example, use the phrase to refer to visual vocabulary, which refers to students' direct recognition of
printed words; others refer to words that are comprehended as their meaning vocabulary. Rider stated that
increasing pupils' vocabulary is crucial since they would feel smarter as a result of doing so. This is because
they will be able to comprehend what they read and hear more easily. Furthermore, because they have a
greater command of the language, they will find it simpler to express themselves. Furthermore, according to
Thornbury, a person needs to acquire a minimum of 2,000 words in order to converse naturally in a
language. It is clear from this explanation that vocabulary plays an important role in the process of learning a
In modern methodology two main tendencies set apart: methods in which the teacher has the most
important role and chooses the items students will learn opposing the one where focus shifts away from the
teacher to the students. This makes students more responsible for their own learning and allows to meet
individual needs of each student.
Grammar-translation vs. communicative approach in recent years, there has been a major shift in
perspective within the language teaching profession concerning the nature of what is to be taught. In simple
terms, there has been a change of emphasis from presenting language as a set of forms (grammatical,
phonological, lexical) which have to be learned and practised, to presenting language as a functional system
which is used to fulfil a range of communicative purposes, which is described as communicative
competence. Grammar-translation method The grammar-translation method of foreign language teaching is
one of the most traditional methods, dating back to the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It was
originally used to teach 'dead' languages (and literatures) such - 5 - as Latin and Greek. However, conscious
learning of grammar is no longer the leading strategy in language educating area. The principal characteristic
of the grammar-translation method is a focus on learning the grammar rules and their application in
translating texts from one language into the other. Most of the teaching is provided in students’ first
language. Vocabulary is presented mainly through direct translation from the native language and
memorization, using bilingual word list: e.g. the house – dům the mouse - myš The basic unit of a teaching
process is a sentence. Students spend most of the lesson time completing grammar exercises, where the main
emphasis is laid on accuracy and following given structure. The grammar is presented systematically, in
students native language and practiced through translation from one language to the other, e.g. Do you have
my book? Mening kitobim sizdami? = I don't know where your book is. Sizning kitobingiz qayerda
ekanligini bilmayman I don't know where your book is. In regard to language skills reading and writing are
distinctively preferred to speaking and listening. Little time is spent on oral practice and students have not
enough opportunities to produce sentences on their own
However, many theories about vocabulary learning process were written, it still remains the matter of
memory. Thus, there are several general principles for successful teaching, which are valid for any method.
According to Wallace, 1988 the principles are: - aim – what is to be taught, which words, how many - need –
target vocabulary should respond students’ real needs and interests - frequent exposure and repetition -
meaningful presentation – clear and unambiguous denotation or reference should be assured Learning
vocabulary is a complex process. The students’ aim to be reached in learning vocabulary process is primarily
their ability to recall the word at will and to recognize it in its spoken and written form. Generally, knowing a
word involves knowing its form and its meaning at the basic level. In deeper aspects it means the abilities to
Vocabulary is an important part of the English teaching process. It is supposed to be a very effective
communicative device as it carries the highest level of importance within peoples´ verbal interaction.
Heibert, E. H. (2005). Teaching and learning of vocabulary. Perspectives and persistents Issues.
Gordon, T. (2007). Teaching Young Children a Second Language. Westport: Praeger Publisher.
Hadfield, J. (2002). Elementary Vocabulary Games: A Collection of Vocabulary Games and Activities for
Elementary Students of English. London: Longman.
Harmer, J. (2007). How to Teach English: An Introduction to the Practice of English
Gairns, Ruth, Redman, Stuart: Working with Words, A guide to teaching and learning vocabulary,
Cambridge University Press, 1986 Harmer, Jeremy: The Practise of English Language teaching, Longman,
Thornbury, Scott: How to teach Vocabulary, Longman, 2002
KUSHBAKOVA, M., Zarina, R. U. Z. I. M. U. R. O. D. O. V. A., & Shahram, A. S. L. O. N. O. V.
(2020). Innovative Methods and Ways to Teach and Learn Foreign Language. ECLSS Online 2020a,
Халимбетов, Ю. М., Ибрагимова, Э. Ф., Арслонова, Р. Р., Рустамова, Х. Х., & Наимова, З. С.
(2020). Формирование молодежи в Узбекистане как научно управляемый процесс. Наука и
образование сегодня, (2 (49)), 57-59.
Ахмеджанова, Н., & Аслонов, Ш. (2020). Семантические типы предикатов и фазовая членимость
глагольного действия. Интернаука,(12-1), 27-29.
Yusuf, A. (2022). LINGUISTIC AND CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GASTRONOMIC
TERMS IN ENGLISH AND UZBEK LANGUAGES. ILM-FAN TARAQQIYOTIDA ZAMONAVIY
QARASHLAR: MUAMMO VA YECHIMLAR, 197-199.
Аззамов, Ю. Р. (2022). ТЕРМИНЛАР ТАРЖИМАСИНИНГ НАЗАРИЙ АСОСЛАРИ. Oriental
renaissance: Innovative, educational, natural and social sciences, 2(Special Issue 24), 518-531.
INNOVATIVE METHODS OF TEACHING ENGLISH IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS
Yazdankulova Gulnigor Muzaffarovna
This article discusses innovative approaches to teaching English in secondary schools,
modern methods promoted by teachers for students' free thinking, speech depth, responsiveness, enthusiasm
for language learning, and active participation in lessons.
mixed technique, interesting games, primary classes, modern and innovative methods,
After the independence of our country, the interest of young people in learning foreign languages has
increased, and the state creates many opportunities for language learning. As the first President Islam
Karimov said: "At present, great importance is attached to the teaching of foreign languages in our country.
This, of course, is not in vain.
There is no need to underestimate the importance of perfect knowledge of foreign languages for our
country, which today is striving to take its rightful place in the world community, for our people, who are
building their great future in cooperation with our foreign partners. " In particular, one of the decisions that
led to positive changes in primary education was the decision of the First President of the Republic of
Uzbekistan dated December 10, 2012 "On measures to further improve the system of learning foreign
languages" PQ-1875 is the numerical resolution. In accordance with this decision, to teach foreign
languages, mainly English from primary school, to further increase their interest in teaching foreign
languages, a variety of fun games of English lessons from 1st grade in all secondary schools teaching, and at
the same time developing students' oral speech, and from the 2nd grade onwards, the transition to modern,
innovative methods of teaching the alphabet, reading, and grammar began.
Recently, the number of people of all ages learning English is increasing dramatically. This is
because it is becoming increasingly difficult to live without knowing English in the process of life. But
language learning also depends on age. In fact, scientists have proven that children learn language faster and
easier than adults. The natural tendency of children to learn a language is due to the fact that they have a
strong ability to imitate, children spend more time than adults and memorize the information they learn
As one of the Chinese inventors, Masaru Ibuka, wrote in his famous book, “Too Late After Us,” “... a
child’s brain can have an infinite amount of information ...”. It should also be noted that children aged 6-7
years do not understand the meaning of information, but memorize it mechanically. That is why it is
important not to start teaching grammar to elementary school students who are learning English. Otherwise,
the first step in learning a foreign language can be tiring for the child and weaken his or her interest in
learning the language. Because it is difficult to teach a foreign language to primary school students, it is also
one of the responsible tasks. Therefore, the following innovative methods can be used to teach English to
primary school students in a meaningful and interesting way:
Visual memory. It is known that young children remember the objects they see more than the
information they hear. Therefore, the lesson is taught through a variety of visual aids, posters, visual and
commonly used objects, teaching new words by writing on objects and composing sentences with the
participation of new words learned. For example, writing a book, a table, a blackboard, a pen, a window,
and so on. Because such items, which are often used in daily life, are constantly in sight and in constant use,
the child learns these words involuntarily.
Sing words and songs that are difficult to understand or remember through music. In addition to
memorizing new words, the child's oral speech also develops. For example, it can be shown that children’s
learning of the English alphabet by singing is more effective than just memorizing.
TO includes most of the games that help you master competitive grammar and vocabulary. In
doing so, the children perform a variety of tasks given by the teacher. As a result, there is competition
among students and their interest in language learning increases. Indeed, as Chinese thinkers have said, "All
human interests are created through competition."
Mixed technique where we can voluntarily combine different techniques. For example, children
can play games, sing songs, draw pictures, and demonstrate new words through a variety of actions. The
advantage of the technique is in the variety. In doing so, the reader is not limited to just one thing.