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xususiyatlarga ko'ra tasniflaydigan formantlarga ega (so'z turkumlari deb ataladigan) [1-6].
Endi biz alohida tillarning tarkibiy xususiyatlarining shakllanishining ma'lum bir xalq madaniyatining
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PRINCIPLES OR FUNDAMENTALS OF THE DIDACTIC EDUCATIONAL PROCESS
THROUGH THE TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE
Xudoyqulova Chehrona Usmon qizi
Samarqand viloyati, Oqdaryo tumani
Dahbed shaharchasi 38-maktab
Ingliz tili fani o’qituvchisi
The present article aims to share the results obtained by the investigation of how the Developmental
Didactics can help the organization of the teaching of Sociology aiming at promoting the full development of
students in transition phase. It was carried out through a Didactic Formative Intervention, in higher education
and constituted by adolescent students. From this investigative effort, didactic principles emerged that aim to
guide the organization of a teaching that aims at the simultaneous development of the teacher and the
students in the relationships they establish in the classroom through pedagogical practices. More than mere
prescriptive propositions, these principles represent the result of a theoretical elaboration on the teaching-
learning-development processes validated by practice in a particular concrete reality.
theoretical thinking, didactics of development, didactic methods, Cultural-historical
theory, dialectical logic.
Several researches in the educational context of Uzbekistan have already pointed out that teachers in
the country look forward to teaching methodologies and practices that are capable enough of sustaining them
through the challenges in the classroom. This article shares the results of a number of researches of Didactic
Formative Intervention  that were outlined in accordance with the Cultural
Historical Theory and the Developmental Education. The context was Uzbekistan High School and its
adolescents, i.e. transitional age youths. The systematic study sought to identify which developmental
processes are most likely and adequate for the transitional stage. Subsequently, as a possible synthesis,
propositions of teaching organization were established and materialized in the form of principles and didactic
actions that serve as guidelines for the teaching practice.
Didactic principles that guide the Developmental Education Although an extensive number of authors
[4; 5; 6] have already schematized didactic principles from the perspective of the Cultural Historical Theory,
it is worth mentioning that, in
the context of this article, the propositions consist in the formulation of
feasible principles for High School in University students. Thus, they are situated
both historically and socially.
According to the literature, there are four principles that guide the didactic action in the allotted
conjuncture: 1. the class seen as a process of forming concepts; 2. teaching as an activity that promotes crisis;
the teaching practice and its capability of forming new interests; 4. teaching in order to develop the
intellectual abilities of an awareness of itself.
The class seen as a process of forming concepts. The formation of concepts and the conceptual
thinking must be established as primary goals of teaching practices and the professor‟s teaching activities.
The transitional period offers unique conditions for the development of thought during adolescence. The
formation of concepts is central to the revolutionary transformations that occur to an adolescent‟s superior
psychic abilities. Besides finding in adolescence a favorable stage for development, they are capable of
transforming the psychic structure and of subordinating the psychological functions that are elementary to the
intellect. Being the first principle and teaching goal, the formation of concepts crosses all other principles and
systematized didactic guiding actions. In addition, all other principles are connected to this one and find in it
its feasibility. The formation of concepts and the subsequent development of theoretical thinking stand for
the establishment of superior abilities of perceiving reality. Those new abilities transform the psychic
structure. Furthermore, they are responsible for enabling the student to assign sense for the reality he/she
observes and in which he/she is inserted, by appropriation of the concept‟s meanings. The ability that must
be developed in order to motivate teaching practice, in what concerns theoretical thinking, relies on the
formation of concepts. A similar process occurs in the child when the verbal thinking finds in the formation
of the word meaning a fundamental. In other words, the ability to analyze, understand and intervene in reality
holds scientific concepts as its instruments, and this is why the occurrence of one is closely linked to another.
Such ability is contingent on the theoretical thought. As theoretical instruments that represent the results of
human work, concepts are essentially social. They are the outcome of a long historical process that has
enabled the formation of its most diverse types in each historical moment. Their appropriation enriches the
social experience of subjects, especially students, and this movement amplifies the meanings that attribute
sense to their reality. In investigating children‟s development, Vygotsky expressed that concepts are not
formed by copying the characteristics and elements of the external reality to the interior
of the subject‟s mind. On the contrary, they are the result of a “long and complex process in the
evolution of children‟s thought”, being essentially social. According to these findings, every set of principles
and didactic actions systematized herein, aims to establish the class principle as a formative process of the
concepts. Every environment and didactic actions are organized with this goal.
Every period of human development is marked by some process of crisis. The adolescence stands out
for its collection of relevant crises and the intensity of the development processes that are in action in this
period. The threshold experience of crisis is also the experience of recognition that a subject has concerning
the limits to his/hers ability in providing solution to problems and challenges. Furthermore, the crisis is a
development factor because it represents a problem with a solution located in a superior level in relation to
the knowledge already acquired and the abilities previously developed by the subject. Thus, to solve a crisis
implies to reach a set of new knowledge and abilities, namely, to transform potential knowledge and abilities
into real ones. Crisis is a distinct element that enables development and promotes the necessary reasons and
interests for confrontation. Solving a crisis by means of appropriation of new cognitive-social content and
also by elaboration/transformation of mechanisms of conduct is a sign of development.
ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
The fundamental fuel for every development process lies in the subject‟s inherent reasons and
interests. This means that there can be no ongoing development process without having, in its basis, the
outbreak of new interests and/or the reorganization of old ones. In order to reach a potential learning and
develop, one relies deeply on the existence of some kind of interest. Therefore, a phenomenon that marks the
transitional period is the internalization of new interests. This is based upon the need of confrontation with a
new pattern of social relationship the adolescent experiments in this stage. In other words, it is fitting that the
teacher considers setting up an environment that offers the means for expanding and developing students‟
interests. The increased participation in social situations is dialectically related to the development of
conceptual thinking, resulting in the expansion of the adolescent‟s interest for something beyond his/her
immediate experience. This condition is positively transformed in an environment that supports good
processes and that enables the development of new abilities and interests. The use of problematization
stands out as a remarkable didactic instrument. In this third proposition, problematization holds its
importance as long as it can be used as a motivational tool. Problem situations are created and organized by
the teacher, and they offer the student an external method of internalizing and developing interest for the
study and the appropriation of school knowledge. Problematizations must be organized in a way so as to
make sure that students are capable of providing an adequate solution to challenges, by applying scientific
and school knowledge.
The development of consciousness as a superior psychological function has a social origin, linked to
the development of perception, the formation of concepts and the conceptual thinking. Vygotsky
demonstrates that socialized language has a fundamental participation in the organization and formation of
thought. By socializing their internal language, children simultaneously take conscience of their own thought
and start to form verbal thinking. Afterwards, in the transitional stage, verbalized thinking plays a decisive
role in developing logical thinking, by converting concrete reality to an object of knowledge. It must be
noted that in both moments the process of consciousness development is intimately connected to the
elaboration of thought in language. Every didactic strategy designed to require from the student the
appropriation of knowledge from the verbal application of meanings and senses elaborated in the classroom
enables the realization of thought. The development of intellectual abilities of an awareness of itself can only
occur if the student recognizes the cultural heritage of his/her society and participates in its expression, by
The verbal elaboration of these meanings and senses is a safe way for appropriation. Didactic actions
serving as guidelines for the Developmental Education The systematization of didactic principles has also
permitted the systematization of five didactic actions that integrate them: 1. diagnosis as starting point and
process of teaching-learning-development, 2. problematization as a generator of contradiction: propelling
crisis and the emergence of interests, and being the driving force for the formation of concepts, 3. collective
activity, 4. the patent consciousness in the intentional use of conceptual meanings and 5. generalization as an
objectification of the concept for itself.
Table.1. Didactic-pedagogical basis
As long as the teacher recognizes the set of real and potential abilities of his/her students, it becomes
possible the intentional planning of teaching activities that will offer the best conditions for the learning to
occur, enabling development. The abilities that comprise the Zone of Proximal and Real Development are
not immediately evident and are continuously moving and transforming. From the initial diagnosis the
teacher is able to recognize the knowledge and abilities already mastered by the students, and then plan the
teaching activities. Then, with continuous diagnosis, the teacher can enhance the possibilities of potential
abilities and knowledge becoming real ones. Problematization is a strategy that enables continuous diagnosis
both in the form of adequate questions (idem) and problem situations. It is the teacher‟s duty to permanently
evaluate changes in interests and patterns in students, since these alterations are a sign of developmental
processes in action.
Problematization as a generator of contradiction: propelling crisis and the emergence of interests, and
being the driving force for the formation of concepts
Vygotsky elucidates how adolescence is a period of “crisis and thought maturation”. A typical feature
of the transitional period is the establishment of new patterns of social relationships and needs, when old
abilities developed during childhood prove no longer to be enough, and to fulfill the demands of this new
context. This tense contradiction raises crisis, which for its turn generates great possibilities for the
occurrence of developmental processes.
The recognition of the crisis‟ potential for development plays a key role for the conception of teaching
practices. These are understood as processes intentionally planned to provoke critical situations. Teaching
issues, a feature of the problematization strategy, are devised in order to demand a command of knowledge
and abilities more sophisticated than the one the student carries in a given moment. This generates
motivation in learning a new content and favors the development of the theoretical thinking.
Problematizations act in the abilities circumscribed in the students‟ Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD),
highlighting the importance for continuous diagnosis, strategy previously described in this article.
The strategy of collective activity is a transformative element in the transitional age, and there are
especially two reasons for this. First, because it takes advantage of the interests that are already present in
students, i.e. to be in close contact with its peers, by bringing them closer to the aims of education and the
teaching practice. This enables the teacher to bring up students‟ interests while instigating them to
participate in activities, habits and knowledge acquisition. The second reason makes reference to the
relevance of collective activities in formation processes of feelings, qualities and values. Collective activities
comprise opportunities of being in action and relation to the historical and cultural elements that must be
internalized. This appropriation allows the formation of the conceptual thinking and, by doing so, transforms
the psychic structure of the subject, while modifying old interests and establishing new standards of conduct.
When mingled to the whole of the teaching practice, collective activities represent a strategy that act as a
driving force for processes of appropriation and development.
Consciousness refers to the intentional use of appropriate conceptual meanings; namely, to make a
transference “from the course of action to the language system, recreating it in the imagination in a way that
is possible to express it in words”. Consciousness results from the dialectical relation between the activity
elaborated in the concrete reality, the internalized elements and the establishment of personal senses. This
process enables the capacity of intentional use of appropriate conceptual
meanings. Vygotsky demonstrates that, in what concerns the process of internalization, the possibility
of understanding meanings walks hand in hand with language, either in its social use as a means of
communication or in its individual application as a mode of thinking. Thus, the socialization of thought by
language becomes “the decisive factor for the development of logical thinking in the transitional age”.
Furthermore, the development of formation of concepts and of the conceptual thought becomes possible
through the intentional use of the personal senses elaborated by study and the internalization of scientific and
The concept modifies the complete thinking system of an adolescent by equipping him/her with tools
of in-depth knowledge and reality comprehension, as well as tools for self-comprehension. This is achieved
by showing the student the logical structures in action. The concept can be characterized as a phenomenon of
thought, particularly because it has a generalized meaning. The student can develop the ability of intentional
use by understanding his/her reality – that is, its generalization –, through the critical experience of
recognition of his/her own limits, through facing problem situations and also through the awareness of
concepts‟ meanings. The concept has already an existence by itself, independently of student‟s
appropriation, but once it attains the superior ability of generalizing its meaning, it becomes an instrument of
the student‟s thinking, achieving an existence for itself. By being able to generalize, the student extrapolates
the limits of reproduction of a memorized meaning, becoming able to understand his/her reality and also the
phenomenon he observes, mediated by scientific concepts. In general, these principles and didactic actions,
although presented separately, constitute a set of practices that are deeply guided by the Cultural Historical
Theory. They allow the successful establishment of a teacher‟s practice-theory unit with the aim of
promoting students‟ learning and development.
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