The specifics of learning a foreign language by preschoolers

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Хакимова, Ш. (2022). The specifics of learning a foreign language by preschoolers. Анализ актуальных проблем, инноваций, традиций, решений и художественной литературы в преподавании иностранных языков, 1(01), 324–326. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/analysis-problem/article/view/13038
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Аннотация

This article deals with the specifics of learning a foreign language by preschoolers and highlighting the features of teaching preschoolers a foreign language. In addition, author provides several notions concerning learning a foreign language in preschool stage

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научной прозе. Автореф. дисс .... канд. филол. наук. - М., 1969.

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М. Тореза. - 1978. - Вып. 131

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Мезенин С.М. Образность как лингвистическая категория // Вопр. языкознания. - 1983. - 60 с.

6.Премяков Г.Л. От поговорки до сказки –М.: «Наука»,1970. С.20.

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Соболев Л.О. О переводе образа образом. В сб. «Вопросы художесивенного перевода» ,

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Стернин И.А. Контрастивная лингвистика.-М.:-Восток-Запад.2006.-с.8.

THE SPECIFICS OF LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE BY PRESCHOOLERS

Xakimova Shaxnoza Tolibovna

Suzangaron medical college

Abstract

. this article deals with the specifics of learning a foreign language by preschoolers and

highlighting the features of teaching preschoolers a foreign language. In addition, author provides several
notions concerning learning a foreign language in preschool stage.

Keywords

:

digression, altruism, moral, actors, superficially assimilated cultures, salon, criteria.

The process of Uzbekistan’s entry into the world community, overcoming certain isolation puts the

problem of good command of a foreign language on one of the first places in the education system. Against
this background, a huge increase in interest in foreign languages is clearly and vividly manifested. To a large
extent, this interest is purely pragmatic in nature, reflecting the need for a good knowledge of foreign
languages, without which it is impossible to count both the harmonious, natural entry of our country into the
world community, and the professional and life success of a single individual. Hence, the significant interest
of the state and the even greater interest of parents in the problem of teaching foreign languages, starting
from preschool age, become clear.

Being an important component of the system of public education in Uzbekistan, institutions of public

preschool education allow creating favorable conditions for solving the problem of mastering a non-native
language. The creation of such conditions presupposes knowledge of domestic and international experience
in the organization of foreign language teaching in preschool institutions, the specifics of the content, forms
and methods of such work.

Before the age of five, a child learns his native language. And the main thing is not only that he

thinks in his native language, expresses his thoughts in it, understands others and learns, but in the meaning
of his native language for personal development. After all, there is a bottomless, unconscious depth behind
this - the child absorbs the native language from the mother’s mouth, on it - the first words to her, on it - the
first words to him, on it - the first emotions and feelings. And in the words of the native language -
everything, everything for the first time in my life! [9, p. 73]

K. D. Ushinsky wrote about this: “By assimilating the native language, the child learns... a lot of

concepts, views on objects, a lot of thoughts, feelings, artistic images, logic and philosophy of language...
Taking language as an organic creation of popular thought and feeling, in which the results of the spiritual
life of the people are expressed, we, of course, will understand why a special character is expressed in the
language of each people and the deeper we entered into the language of the people, the deeper we entered
into their character” [10, p. 11].

Thus, with the native language, the child perceives the peculiarities of national identity, and, being

formed as a person; it turns out to be connected with age-old folk traditions and culture by strong, though
invisible threads [7, p. 8]. He turns out to be a part of the whole, a part of his people, his Homeland. He
understands not only speech in all its nuances, in all its meaning; he understands others, life itself through the
enduring value of community with the people as a native speaker. And he unknowingly perceives himself as
flesh of flesh, blood of the blood of his people, he is confident in himself and in others.

It is unacceptable to endanger this most important stage of personality formation by prematurely

learning a foreign language. It should be noted that K. D. Ushinsky proposed to start learning a second
language from the age of seven or eight, and “never before” [10, p. 11]


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Here it is necessary to make an important, in my opinion, digression. I believe that in the mental

development of a child, it is genetically predetermined what, when and how he can and should (and this is
fundamentally interrelated) perceive. And this fully applies to when and in what form he should learn a
foreign language. If a child does what he has matured to, he does it willingly, easily and with talent. If they
impose on him what he has not matured to by age or individually, he shows unconscious resistance, which is
expressed in unwillingness to engage and in the low effectiveness of classes.

On the other hand, if the required age and individual rate of development is not provided to the child

on time, he irrevocably loses the golden time to assimilate it. And just as it is impossible to be late with all
that a child should be provided for his full mental development, just as it is not necessary to introduce him to
all this prematurely. And the saying “every vegetable has its time” is about that. The golden time for learning
a foreign language comes from the age of five and a half [5, p. 37].

So, a normally developing child can and should start learning a foreign language from the age of five

and a half. However, a child of this age willingly only plays. He does not accept the practicality of adults
who claim that knowledge of the language will be useful to him in the future. For a five-year-old, there is
only the present or the near future, when “if you behave yourself, tomorrow we will go to the puppet
theater”. The child willingly comprehends only what he needs today. So, he fantastically easily and quickly
learned all the subtleties of his native language, because there was a high need for communication, which can
be satisfied only with knowledge of his native language.

Of course, a child can be forced to do something if he does not understand why he needs it, and

accordingly does not want to do it. In this case, adults have an argument ready: let them get used to the fact
that there is a word “necessary!”. However, there is a dull, slavish “it is necessary!”, “it is necessary!” out of
fear, “it is necessary!” from under the whip, and there is a moral “it is necessary!” of a free person, “it is
necessary!” out of a sense of duty, responsibility, often out of love for loved ones, out of friendship, altruism.
The motives of the moral “it is necessary!” are cultivated in the child. This general rule also applies to
teaching a foreign language.

So what should I do to make a child willing to learn a foreign language? At this age, he has an over-

need in the game, and, consequently, a foreign language can only be mastered by him in the game [7, p. 54].
He has mastered his native language in communication with relatives, peers, and he will master a foreign
language without studying one-on-one with a teacher, but in communication with relatives and peers. The
mother uses a foreign language in conversation with him; he plays with a peer or with a group of peers using
foreign words and phrases. It is very good if an older brother (sister) studies a foreign language. Then there is
a motive - imitation of an older, authoritative one. Then communication in a foreign language is also possible
[2, p. 42].

It is very good if the child looks at children’s illustrated books in a foreign language together with

his mother and the mother is able to translate what is written in them, explain using words and phrases in this
language. The same is true for transparencies. In this case, the child learns that there are English, German,
French, Spanish languages, but there are also English, German, French and Spanish peoples. There are
children for whom these languages are native, and you can meet and play with these children. In the last
decade, the computer factor has become real, when in a computer game that engages a child; he meets with a
foreign speech [8, p. 38]. It is very good to arrange a home puppet theater when the John doll in the play
talks to the Maggie doll in English. In the same way, you can act out performances in which children are
actors.

A foreign language up to the age of seven, thus, is mastered only in the form of spoken speech. The

alphabet, reading and writing are studied only after they have mastered all this in their native language.
Children are able to translate oral speech from one language to another again from the age of five to five and
a half. Until this age, they do not understand what is required of them, and repeat the words of their mother
or another adult over and over again in the language in which they were pronounced.

From the age of seven or eight, it is necessary to master the system of concepts characteristic of a

particular foreign language. Mastering a foreign language is also thinking in it. A well-known specialist in
the field of language learning V. A. Artemyev, pointing to the connection between language and national
consciousness, gives the following example. There are two present tenses in English, two past and two future
tenses in German, and therefore, an Englishman and a German operate somewhat differently with the
concept of “time” than a person who speaks and thinks in mother tongue. That’s how difficult it is, but from
the age of eight a child is able to learn these features of a foreign language [1, p. 44].

It seems that this is information for reflection. If two languages for a child are two superficially

assimilated cultures, there is no personal depth. Let’s remember from our history: aristocrats who spoke
French in Uzbek were often distinguished by a superficial, “salon” mind, and talkers who speak a foreign


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language in their country have become proverbial. Many sages knew only their native language. Therefore,
after all, you should not “overdo it” with a foreign language, as you should not teach it to a child only for
prestigious reasons. Of course, a child who speaks the language of his parents at home, but on the street in
the language of peers of another nationality, is not in danger. Both languages are a living everyday life for
him, mastering them proceeded naturally, by itself.

The third language should be studied only after successful and solid mastering of the second and

during the period when the formation of personality reaches a new qualitative level, i.e. from the age of
twelve. As K.D. Ushinsky pointed out, “... foreign languages should be studied one after the other and never
two at the same time ...” [10, p. 32].

Apparently, this provision remains fully relevant today. And, most importantly, a third language

should be studied by a child who has felt a craving and vocation for this!

If the parents are fluent in a foreign language, they will also speak it with the child no earlier than

five years.

How many days a week should a child be taught in a language group and what is the optimal

duration of the lesson? Criteria - the power of motivation (the desire of the child!) and individual endurance.
So, if a load of one or two classes per week is permissible for one preschooler (at least once a week!) with
one or two lessons of 30 minutes each, the other is able to study three to five times a week for two or three
lessons lasting 30-35 minutes each without prejudice [6, p. 35-36].

LIST OF USED LITERATURE

1.

Бахталина Е.Ю. Об интегрированном обучении английскому языку в детском саду //

Иностранные языки в школе. -2000.-№6- 44 с.

2.

Витоль А.Б. Нужен ли дошкольникам иностранный язык?// Иностранные языки в школе, -

2002. № 3. – 42 с.

3.

Возрастная и педагогическая психология / Под ред. А. В. Петровского. 2-е изд. М., 1979. –

243 с.

4.

Гальскова Н.Д. Об итогах второго года экспериментального обучения иностранным

языкам в начальной школе. М. 1997. – 342 с.

5.

Зарандия М. И. К вопросу об умственных возможностях детей дошкольного возраста.— В

кн.: Экспериментальные исследования по проблеме перестройки начального обучения. Тбилиси,
1969. – 232 c.

6.

Кабардов М. К. Роль индивидуальных различий в успешности овладения иностранным

языком. М., 1983. – 32 c.

7.

Леонтьев А.А. Психологические предпосылки овладения иностранным языком. М. ,1985. –

54 с.

8.

Махина О.Е. Обучение иностранному языку дошкольников: обзор теоретических позиций

// Иностранные языки в школе.- 1990.- №1- С. 38 - 42.

9.

Негневицкая Е.И., Никитенко З.Н., Ленская Е.А. Обучение английскому языку детей 6 лет

в 1 классе средней школы: Методические рекомендации: В 2 ч. - М.,: Просвещение, 2002-300с.

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Ушинский К. Д. Собрание сочинений в 12 тт. М., 1952. 11 c.

ЎСМИР ҚИЗЛАРНИ КИТОБХОНЛИК АСОСИДА ШАРҚОНА ДУНЁҚАРАШЛАРИНИ

ШАКЛЛАНТИРИШНИНГ ЗАРУРАТИ

Қўчқорова Ойша Олтибоевна

СамДТУ ўқитувчиси

Аннотация.

Ушбу мақолада ўсмир қизларни китобхонликка жалб этиш орқали шарқона

маънавий-ахлоқий қарашларини шакллантиришнинг назарий асосларини ишлаб чиқиш, педагогик –
психологик имкониятларини таҳлил қилиш ва замонавий ёндашувлар асосини такомиллаштириш
ўсмир қизларда комиллик сифатларини таркиб топтириш ҳамда глобал тафаккур ривожи ҳақида гап
боради.

Калит сўзлар:

глобаллашув, ахборот-коммуникация, китобхонлик, санъат, ўсмир қизлар,

ёшлар, тарбиялаш.

Annotation.

This article discusses the development of theoretical foundations for the formation of

Eastern spiritual and moral views through the involvement of adolescent girls in reading, analysis of

Библиографические ссылки

Бахталина Е.Ю. Об интегрированном обучении английскому языку в детском саду И Иностранные языки в школе. -2000.-№6- 44 с.

Витоль А.Б. Нужен ли дошкольникам иностранный язык?// Иностранные языки в школе, -2002. №3.-42 с.

Возрастная и педагогическая психология / Под ред. А. В. Петровского. 2-е изд. М., 1979. -243 с.

Гальскова Н.Д. Об итогах второго года экспериментального обучения иностранным языкам в начальной школе. М. 1997. - 342 с.

Зарандия М. И. К вопросу об умственных возможностях детей дошкольного возраста.— В кн.: Экспериментальные исследования по проблеме перестройки начального обучения. Тбилиси, 1969.-232 с.

Кабардов М. К. Роль индивидуальных различий в успешности овладения иностранным языком. М., 1983. - 32 с.

Леонтьев А.А. Психологические предпосылки овладения иностранным языком. М. ,1985. -54 с.

Махина О.Е. Обучение иностранному языку дошкольников: обзор теоретических позиций И Иностранные языки в школе.- 1990.- №1- С. 38 - 42.

Негневицкая Е.И., Никитенко З.Н., Ленская Е.А. Обучение английскому языку детей 6 лет в 1 классе средней школы: Методические рекомендации: В 2 ч. - М.,: Просвещение, 2002-300с.

Ю.Ушинский К. Д. Собрание сочинений в 12 тт. М., 1952. 11 с.

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