MOTIVATION AS A TOOL OF LEARNING FOREIGN LANGUAGES
Ziyatova Shohida Tulqin qizi
Samarqand viloyati Nurobod tumani
44-maktab ingliz tili oʻqituvchisi
Motivation in teaching is one of the foundations of successful mastery of the subject. In this
article, the author examines the approaches of domestic and foreign specialists in the field of psychological
and pedagogical aspects of teaching foreign languages. Motivation to study English in educational
establishments is defined as a transitional concept, that is, it depends on both the students themselves and the
teacher. The paper focuses on ways to form and maintain students' interest in the English language. The
author pays attention to both the psychological features of the teacher's work with students, as well as types
of tasks that contribute to increasing the motivation of students.
motivation, tool, learning, foreign, language, teaching, methodology.
The most effective way to maintain motivation can be considered training built around intrigue and
problematic issues. Also the necessity of students' autonomy in the educational process is substantiated in
order to develop students' activity and independence. Strategies for forming and maintaining interest in
acquiring knowledge can be successfully applied in the practice of teaching foreign languages at a university.
Motivation is one of the most important factors in successful learning, and teachers often discuss how they
know how to motivate their students. What does this mean? Some try to increase interest in the discipline
being studied by making certain demands; someone expresses dissatisfaction with the failure of students,
others remain calm; some talk to a group, others to an individual student. Which strategy is more effective?
Referring to the educational process, where one of the important components is educational motivation and
the motive of teaching, it is appropriate to define these concepts. The motivation of learning is a system of
goals, needs and motives that encourage a person to acquire knowledge, skills and methods of cognition, to
consciously relate to learning, to be active in educational activities. The motive of teaching is the orientation
of the student to various aspects of educational activity, the
motivation for active and independent mastery of knowledge and skills. The motive from a
psychological point of view is a multidimensional phenomenon. Therefore, it cannot be interpreted
unambiguously, since it is only one of the types of motives, along with needs, goals, aspirations, interests
Next, we will focus on the most influential studies of foreign authors in the field of motivation to learn
As it is known, social and cultural factors have an impact on learning a foreign language. Given this
fact, Robert Gardner he proposed the most influential theory about motivation to learn a second foreign
language. In it, the scientist highlights socio-psychological aspects, since the attitude of students to the
language being studied and the community speaking this language strongly influences the desire to learn a
particular language. The coexistence of various linguistic (English and French) communities in Canada drew
the researcher's attention to the importance of integrative motivation, which implies the desire of students to
learn a foreign language based on positive feelings towards a group of people, in particular which is spoken
in this language. Gardner also defines instrumental motivation – when a language is studied based on
practical considerations, for example, because of the opportunity to get a better job, a high salary or pass an
An important addition to Gardner 's concept can be considered the concept of
“linguistic self-confidence", introduced by Richard Clement. This term is interpreted by the authors as
confidence that a person is able to achieve the set results, achieve goals and competently perform the
Another significant idea about the structure of educational motivation belongs to American
psychologists Edward Desy and Richard Ryan. In they created the theory of intrinsic and extrinsic
motivation, argues that students interested in academic tasks and results, and receiving pleasure and
satisfaction from getting knowledge more likely to be more successful with students than those studying for
promotion – good grades, or to avoid punishment on the part of parents or school.
In the early 90s of the XX century, it was suggested that a change in the paradigm of the study of
educational motivation and the expansion of motivational concepts in relation to the practice of teaching
foreign languages is required. In the early 90s of the XX century, it was suggested that a change in the
paradigm of the study of educational motivation and the expansion of motivational concepts in relation to the
teaching foreign languages is required. Thus, the results of Clement's research showed that integrative
motivation, "linguistic self-confidence” and the educational atmosphere are the most influential factors,
which also confirmed the importance of further psychological and pedagogical research.
Significant contribution to the study of motivation to study a foreign language was introduced by a
British scientist of Hungarian origin Zoltan Dernei. He expanded the focus of studying this issue and
proposed a more complex structure of motivation to learn a foreign language. He identifies three levels of
motivation: the level of language (culture, society, intellectual and pragmatic values), the level of the student
(individual characteristics of the student“ "linguistic self-confidence ") and the level of the educational
situation (components related to the course of study itself - programs, teaching materials, methods, tasks,
components affecting the personality of the teacher – his behavior, style and practice of conducting classes).
Z. Dernei also draws attention to another important feature of educational motivation - instability and change
over time. This means that it changes over the entire time of learning a foreign language.
The concept of motivating teaching of a second foreign language by Zoltan Derne and was taken as a
basis, where he identified four successive stages: the creation of basic motivational conditions, the
generation of initial motivation, the maintenance of motivation, the formation of a positive attitude towards
academic performance among students [23, 524]. Let's look at each of them and back them up with examples
from educational practice.
Creation of basic motivational conditions
This includes the proper behavior of the teacher, a pleasant and supportive atmosphere in the
classroom, a cohesive study group with acceptable standards of behavior. To implement this approach in
practice, the teacher should give students their own example of interest in their subject. The personality of
the teacher, his passion for the subject play a very important role, especially in the initial courses. It is
unlikely that a student will be able to get full knowledge from a teacher who knows his subject perfectly
well, but is burdened by his work. In addition, it is extremely important to establish a good relationship with
students, which implies trust and mutual understanding. All kinds of information posted on the bulletin board
are suitable for this, for example, a teacher's greeting, a birthday greeting or a successful defense of a project
English. This will help the students themselves to show their achievements in various subjects. Also ,
social networks can serve as a platform for communication between a teacher and a student, and mutual
assistance. Let's add to the above that the study group as a whole has a powerful influence on its members
and even can largely determine the individual preferences of each student [23, 527]. A group acquires
motivational value when it consists of cohesive people. Therefore, the role of the teacher in creating such a
team is especially important. The organization of a friendly unified ”team" of students can, for example,
facilitate the exchange of information about each other, the history of the group, that is , when students are
connected by common memories, encouragement by the teacher of group assignments, extracurricular
activities (trips to cinema, museums, theaters) or overcoming difficulties together (whether it's difficult tasks
or passing a difficult exam). Thus, a friendly atmosphere in the group can have a beneficial effect on the
motivation of each student.
Generation of initial motivation
In this case, such aspects as the creation of a positive image of a community speaking a particular
language, respect for the language and culture itself, and the orientation of students to success are important.
The motivation to learn a new language is also determined by the specifics themselves the subject. It is well
known that any language is something more than communication and is part of the cultural heritage of the
people who speak it. Accordingly, the desire to comprehend a foreign language can be influenced by the
attitude to culture, traditions, and people who use it. Such cultural conditionality can influence both
positively (when the student is interested in the culture of the country) and negatively (when this culture is
not accepted) on the motivation of teaching.
Thus, for example, Zoltan Dernei talks about the unsuccessful experience of studying the Russian
language under the influence of a negative attitude to culture. For ten years, he barely mastered the alphabet
[21, 14]. Thinking in this way, the teacher should actively increase the positive attitude of students to the
language and culture being studied. In the case of the language of international communication, which is
English, the situation is different. So, a teacher can appeal to the well-known and immutable fact that English
has become the official language in many areas – in the international academic community, business,
tourism. In in the modern world, knowledge of this language is necessary for future study abroad, building a
successful career, doing business, traveling, and the like.
Taking into account the fact that motivation is characterized by variability and impermanence, the
teacher needs to resort to a number of actions, such as: creating a pleasant and stimulating learning process,
offering tasks that arouse interest in students, maintaining their positive social image, encouraging their
autonomy, forming and maintaining the image of a "possible Self" within the framework of the theory of Z.
Dernei “motivational self-image system in the context of learning a foreign language” (L2 motivational self
system) and, of course, promote close cooperation between students.In the aspect of "home reading”, when
choosing works, it is important to take into account that they are relevant to the students' experience and
relevant to various aspects of their lives. It is desirable that the book addresses the problems that the current
generation of students is facing or may face. The key point is the ability to appeal to your own experience,
make projections on your life and thereby express it in your speech.
One example is the novel “Reluctant fundamentalist” by the American writer of Pakistani origin
Mohsin Hamid (2007). The main character of the work is a young
Pakistani Genghis who comes to The United States from Pakistan to realize the
"American dream” and regain for themselves and their families the position of middle-class people
lost at home. To do this, he studies hard at Princeton University and, after graduating with honors, gets a job
at a prestigious company as a financial analyst. The author shows the thorny path of a young Pakistani in
American society, notes the impact of the events of September 11, 2001 on the course of world politics, and
also puts Genghis before a difficult choice between America and his country.Having discussed in detail the
training materials used, let's return to the strategies for maintaining motivation. So, in order to maintain a
positive social image in students, conditions are needed where they could show their talents and show their
strengths. A good way to implement this strategy can be considered dramatizations or performances in which
each student can be given the role of the main character in turn.
Formation of students' positive attitude to academic performance
It is well known that the way students relate to their past academic achievements largely determines
their future approach to completing tasks. It may seem strange, but their assessment of their own academic
performance depends not only on the absolute, objective indicator of their success, but also on the subjective
interpretation of these results. Using appropriate strategies, a teacher can help his students see their academic
performance in a more positive way to get more satisfaction from success and progress in studies, as well as
to find a constructive explanation for failures. The mistakes made should not "stifle" the initiatives of
Therefore, the right approach is chosen by those teachers who do not use a red pen or pencil when
checking notebooks, since it is very unpleasant for a person to get a job that is full of bright corrections and
immediately gives a signal that the result is unsatisfactory. That is, it is already visually possible to
negatively adjust the student. While corrections with a simple pencil do not differ so much from the text
written with a pen and therefore will not cause a strong negative reaction. It is even worth going from the
opposite and emphasizing not only mistakes, but, for example, well expressed thoughts in an essay, the
correct translation of a sentence if it is complex. Thus, students see that the teacher is not only the person
who notes mistakes, but also the one who is able to notice and appreciate both the abilities of students and
the originality of thought.
To conclude, the level of motivation not only characterizes the trainees, but also the teacher, that is,
this is what motivates students for any activity. A teaching assistant can open up “new horizons” or prospects
for students when mastering a foreign language. Also, during the long -term interaction of the teacher and the
student, some personal qualities of the latter may change. It follows from this that motivation is a transitional
concept. Moreover, it is dynamic, that is, it can change over time, especially in cases of long-term study of a
foreign language language and needs to be maintained. Understanding the concept of motivating teaching
and its subsequent application in the practice of teaching a foreign language can significantly increase the
effectiveness of the educational process.
Clément, R., Gardner, R. C., & Smythe, P. C. Motivational variables in second language
acquisition: A study of francophones learning English // Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science. 1977. №
9. p. 123-133.
Clément, R., Dörnyei, Z., Noels, K. A. Motivation, self-confidence and group cohesion in the
foreign language classroom // Language Learning. 1994. – vol. 44. p. 417-448.
Crookes, G., & Schmidt, R. W. Motivation: Reopening the Research Agenda // Language
Learning. 1991. – vol.41.№4. - p. 469-512.
Deci, E.L. and Ryan, R.M., Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New
York: Plenum Press, 1985. 371 p.
Dörnyei Z., Ottó I. Motivation in action: A process model of L2 motivation // Working Papers in
Applied Linguistics. 1998. №4. Thames Valley University, London. p. 43-69.
Dörnyei, Z. Motivational Strategies in the Language Classroom. Cambridge University Press,
2001. 164 p.
Gardner, R. C. Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitude and
motivation. London: Edward Arnold, 1985. 208 p
CURRICULUM OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ENGLAND, RUSSIA AND USA
Sh.Sh.Tursunova SamSIFL, Master’s degree student
This article is about the development of Secondary Education In England, Russia and
USA. It is true that these countries had some stages in order to develop Secondary Education in these
countries. Also, these countries’ schools organized their national curriculum.
Secondary Education, Post -Secondary, activities, curriculum, grades, primary
education, technical school
Today the education sector in our country is developing day by day. Not only in Uzbekistan, but all
over the world, great reforms are being carried out in the field of education. It encourages us to take a bold
step without fear of confidence in the future. First of all, before we know the system of education and its
methods, we need to know the basic meaning of the world education and what role it plays in our lives and
what its main goals and objectives are. Education is the process of importing knowledge, skill and abilities,
the main means of preparing a person for life and work, in the process of education, information is obtained
and education is carried out. Education is the narrow concept of teaching. But it is not just the teaching
process in different types of education institutions, but the family, the production and other areas. More
precisely, it is the sum of the activities of the teacher who produces the education and the activity of the
children who are being educated. In addition, the direction of the behavior of education changes in
accordance with the goals of education in accordance with the requirements of objective life. Education is
process in internal contradictions that develops dialectically. Clearly the goals and objectives of education
change historically according to the social system as well as the function of certain educational institutions.
Well there are general types of education, individual education, organizational education, classroom
education, course system education and others. In the current situation, the social requirements and the
necessary are being developed by qualified teachers in Uzbekistan too. So now we can find out what are the
differences of the secondary education curriculum in the above three countries and in which country the
secondary education establishment program is more effective and qualitative.
First and foremost, we need to find an answer to the question of what secondary education is?
Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education
scale. Secondary education typically takes place after six years of primary education and is followed by
higher education, vocational education or employment, dike primary education in most countries secondary
education is compulsory, at least until the age of 16. Children typically enter the lower secondary phase
around age 11. Compulsory education sometimes extends to age 19. Since 1989 education has been seen as a