Challenges in simultaneous interpretation
2 nd year Master student, Simultaneous interpretation
2 nd year Master student, Simultaneous interpretation
Simultaneous interpretation is a mode of interpreting in which the interpreter converts what the speaker says into the foreign language in actual time besides disrupting the authentic float of delivery. In other words, the interpreter has to interpret what the speaker says at the identical time as the speaker is announcing it. The duties performed by means of the simultaneous interpreter consist of performing a number of movements nearly simultaneously: listening to the source language, perception the content material of the speech, translating it into the target language and speaking back.
CHALLENGES IN SIMULTANEOUS INTERPRETATION
Shamuratova Muborak Mukhtarovna,
year Master student, Simultaneous interpretation,
Uzbekistan State World Languages University
Simultaneous interpretation is a mode of interpreting in which the interpreter
converts what the speaker says into the foreign language in actual time besides
disrupting the authentic float of delivery. In other words, the interpreter has to interpret
what the speaker says at the identical time as the speaker is announcing it. The
duties performed by means of the simultaneous interpreter consist of performing a
number of movements nearly simultaneously: listening to the source language,
perception the content material of the speech, translating it into the target language
and speaking back. Interpreting is a branch of the larger area of translation.
Translation refers to the result of a written activity while decoding is an oral copy of a
message. In the discipline on interpretation, there are three main subcategories,
namely consecutive interpreting with note-taking, simultaneous deciphering of
speeches as delivered at international events, and speak deciphering in community
settings. The article ordinarily focuses on simultaneous interpreting, and extra
precisely on interpreter training, the difficulties faced through college students and
the techniques than can be used so that the supply message is successfully
conveyed. The most important difficulties in simultaneous deciphering coaching can
be related with three tiers of interpreting: listening, comprehension and speaking.
Listening challenges deal with a horrific pronunciation, dialect and misspelling of the
Gile’s effort model of simultaneous interpretation
In the seventies, some models on information-processing paradigm were
developed to account for the mental operations of SI. More recently, models on
cognitive science, such as
Setton’s, have also been developed. All of these are
valuable as they take into consideration all the relevant developments in cognitive
psychology, and linguistics. However, they have not been subjected to much testing
over the last two decades, probably due to a lack of resources and due to the
complexity of the mental operations involved. speaker's pronunciation, some
technical problems, as well as regional accents. Daniel Gile has a prescriptive
approach of interpreter training and proposed his Effort Model to help interpreters
“difficulties [of interpreting] and select appropriate strategies and
tactics”. The Effort Model is based on the idea that the brain has a limited capacity
and that the difficulties in interpretation are due to time constraints and the need to
divide attention between different operations. This model is based on three non-
automatic interpreting Efforts:
Listening and Analysis Effort
: it includes all the mental operations
between the perception of discourse and the moment at which the interpreter decides
to say or not say what he/she heard.
: it includes all the mental operations between the
moment at which the interpreter decides to convey the meaning and the moment at
which he/she actually formulates it in the target speech.
Working Memory (WM) Effort/ Short-Term Memory (STM) Effort
includes all the memory operations from the time a segment is heard to when it is
reformulated in the target speech or disappears from the memory .
Difficulties of simultaneous interpreting, with a distinct focal point on
English as a supply language.
There are distinctive types of operations that could make processing demands
exceed the available capacity, leading to deterioration in the content material and/or
the form of the interpretation. As interpreters usually work at the limits of their
cognitive capacities, these statistics overflows are common. In this article, there is
given work on different items of the English language that, might also be challenging
for interpreters working from English into Uzbek. These items can be found in unique
languages even though some of them are precise to English, and are the following:
numbers, desirable names, complex noun phrases, culture-specific items, idioms,
phrasal verbs and single-word terms. Each subsection will furnish an evaluation that
describes the manageable difficulties of this type of gadgets and advocate some
strategies to cope with these difficulties.
In daily practice, conference interpreters admit having some
difficulties with numbers, with error prices achieving 40% for professional interpreters
and 40% to 70% for trainees. It can be surprising that numbers are such a supply of
troubles as their principal attribute is unicity of meaning. Their interpretation have to
be quite easy. In most modern languages, the device developed to create numbers
makes it viable to create all numbers the usage of a small set of primary phrases and
fixed syntactic rules, every offering a single piece of facts on the number. For
example, in English, the predominant parts are called base digits (0 to 9 in the
decimal system), which can be used to creates two lexical classes: young adults
(eleven, twelve... nineteen) and tens (twenty, thirty... ninety). There is a fourth set of
items, referred to as multipliers, (hundred, thousand) used to mark the magnitude of
the base digits. This system very regularly requires a lot of gadgets and phrases to
create a massive range in the target language and consequently the hassle
encountered by using interpreters can be a reminiscence problem due to the need to
have in mind many words for the expression of a single concept.  Kalina suggests
one approach which is approximation. It can be a beneficial approach to deal with in
particular complicated segments. She thinks this approach can be used to supply
partial facts till the interpreter finds a more correct translation, but this would possibly
be counterproductive for numbers as strategies to reap time extend the WM Effort.
Finally, due to the fact the predominant hassle with numbers seem to be insufficient
WM, writing the numbers down whilst decoding would possibly additionally be a true
strategy. Despite the reality that note-taking can symbolize any other Effort which will
favour its share of the whole interest capacity, it would possibly relieve strain on WM.
Studies confirmed that notes had been exceedingly beneficial for numbers in the
course of the interpretation.
Proper names require linguistic
“transcoding” as a substitute
than interpreting. Gile highlights that desirable names are plausible issues for
interpreters, especially if the interpreter is no longer acquainted with a precise suited
identify or its pronunciation in the target language. Proper names may additionally
amplify the efforts of the interpreter, and therefore require some
Proper names can be phonetically unfamiliar to the interpreter. In that case,
interpreters have to shop the names in their momentary memory and recode them in
their goal language. Interpreters may additionally also run the threat of
mispronouncing the title if they do not recognize how the word is spelled beforehand
and might also now and again not recognise that there is a traditional translation for
a specific title in their goal language. Scholar Hanaoka proposes a distinction
between two sorts of strategies in order to render proper names extra easily:
decoding strategies and encoding strategies. Decoding method is placing proactive
strategies into region if the interpreter can anticipate the topic of the text. An
interpreter can for instance search for unique desirable names that he/she can come
upon if given the topic. Simultaneous interpreters are usually informed of the subject
matter of the convention in develop and can consequently do lookup on that topic.
Then, reactive strategies are employed when the interpreter has encountered an
unfamiliar name, and they include guessing from the context or the use of an online
dictionary. However, in simultaneous interpreting, the assets can also be drastically
limited due to time constraints.
Culture-bound terms, or culture-specific terms, refer
to concepts, institutions and items which are specific to the source language culture
and are classified into five categories:
1) Ecology: plateau, paddy field
2) Material culture: zabaglione (food), anorak (clothes), cabriolet (transport)
3) Social culture: reggae, rock (work and leisure)
4) Organizations/customs/activities/procedures/concepts: karma, temple (religious)
5) Gestures and habits: spitting
There is a general consensus that culture-specific items are potentially
problematical for interpreters. It is important for interpreters to have fundamental
cultural information of the source language culture as culture-specific terms are
frequent in speeches. They frequently have no equal in the target
frame, which makes them difficult to translate into the goal language. The interpreter
has to pick out among unique deciphering techniques to supply the message.
The techniques used in simultaneous interpretation are the following:
1) Using a term/word/phrase of comparable meaning but varied form: it
consists of the use of an item which has a comparable which means as the source
item, however which is made of distinctive lexical items.
2) Paraphrase: a paraphrase is an explanation of a unit of language used to
clarify an obscure phrase. This is the most common way to translate
terms/words/phrases when an equivalent cannot be found in the target language.
Interpreters show their ability to cope with an unfamiliar item under pressure.
3) Omission: an interpreter may choose to omit an item because it has no close
match in the target language or because its meaning cannot be easily paraphrased
or because it is of no great importance for the listener.
4) Formal equivalence (also called
‘linguistic equivalence’): this technique is
mainly used when translating certain legal, political, sports or any institutions or
organizations which exist or existed at some point in the target language culture.
5) Conventionalization: this strategy is used to translate proper names which
have an established name in the target culture.
. Idioms are
“linguistic expressions or lexical objects representing
objects, concepts or phenomena of fabric life specific to a given
“an idiom is hard to decode correctly for anydiv who only is aware of
the everyday meanings of its constituent
elements”. Idioms can include many special
cultural aspects such as religious beliefs, culture particular gadgets and superstitions.
Every society perceives the world in a special way and that vision influences the
language. When the translator is faced with an idiom, he/she must look at which
strategy is greater appropriate in dealing with the translation of the source idiom into
the target language. Several techniques are advocated while decoding idioms, such
as paraphrasing, omission, the use of idioms in similar or diverse forms.
In conclusion, it is significant to become familiar with several methods,
strategies in order to lessen the number of possible challenges, difficulties in
1. Gile D. Basic Concepts and Models for Interpreter and Translator Training.
Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1995.
2. Mazza C. (2001). Numbers in Simultaneous Interpretation. In The
’ Newsletter. 11, – PP. 87–104.
3. Dastjerdi H. (2011). Translation of Idioms: a Hard Task for the Translator. In
Theory and Practice in Language Studies. 1(7),
– PP. 879–883.
4. Usmonova D.S., & Orunb
аeva U.S. (2020). Conceptual problems of
Проблемы современной науки и образования, (2),
Gile D. Basic Concepts and Models for Interpreter and Translator Training. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1995.
Mazza C. (2001). Numbers in Simultaneous Interpretation. In The Interpreters’ Newsletter. 11, - PP. 87-104.
Dastjerdi H. (2011). Translation of Idioms: a Hard Task for the Translator. In Theory and Practice in Language Studies. 1(7), - PP. 879-883.
Usmonova D.S., & Orunbaeva U.S. (2020). Conceptual problems of simultaneous interpretation. Проблемы современной науки и образования, (2), 36-38.