Language contact

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Шеркулова, М., & Абдувахобова, М. (2022). Language contact. Анализ актуальных проблем, инноваций, традиций, решений и художественной литературы в преподавании иностранных языков, 1(01), 124–126. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/analysis-problem/article/view/12869
Махлие Шеркулова, Узбекский государственный университет мировых языков

Магистрант

Махина Абдувахобова, Узбекский государственный университет мировых языков

Руководитель

Crossref
Сrossref
Scopus
Scopus

Аннотация

The linguistic systems are involved in language contact situations, it is supposed toanalyze of lexical, morphological and syntactic borrowings which are acceptance of linguistic elements from one language to another

Похожие статьи


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124

that here, as a rule, different linguocultural communities have parallels and equivalents of proverbs:

Дорога

ложка к обеду; compare. English. A stitch in time saves nine, Всякому овощу свое время/ Всему свое
время/ Всему свой черед/ Всякое семя знает свое время — Everything is good in its season, Счастливые
часов не наблюдают — Happiness takes no account of time, У завтра нет конца — Procrastination is the
thief of time.

Regardless of the proverbs and sayings of which people we are considering, it can be said with

confidence that this genre of folklore is undoubtedly part of the world heritage. Proverbs and sayings
determine the mentality and are passed down from generation to generation in oral and written form,
developing along with the development of mankind.

Nevertheless, despite some similarities in the paremias of the studied languages (mutual calques,

borrowings from classical languages, biblical texts), Russian and English proverbs developed under different
historical circumstances, reflecting the socio-economic structure and development conditions, which are not
identical in these cultures. The nature of the use of proverbs also differs, their prevalence in various strata of
society, the prestige of experts on proverbs, etc.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.

The Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs / edited by Jennifer Speake. – New York, NY: Oxford University
Press Inc. Jennifer Speake, 2008. – 625 p.

2.

Афанасьев А.Н. Происхождение мифа. - М.: Высшая школа, 1996.

3.

Гуревич, А. Я. Категории средневековой культуры / А. Я. Гуревич. - 2-е изд., испр. и доп.- М.:
Искусство, 1984.

4.

Иванова Е.В.Пословичная концептуализация мира (на материале английских и русских
пословиц): Автореф. дисс. … д-ра филол. наук. СПб., 2003. – 38 c.

5.

Русско-Английский словарь пословиц и поговорок, Маргулис А., Холодная А., 2000.

6.

Ne’matullayevna, Z. N., Gulrux, H., Mirsaidovna, K. S., Nasimovich, H. H., & Furkatzoda, T. B. (2020).
The Role Of Verbs, Types Of Verbs AS Well AS Lexical, Morphological, And Syntactic Characteristics
Of Verbs In English Language. International Journal on Orange Technologies, 2(12), 57-60.

7.

Мамаёкубова, Ш. (2019). Тилшуносликда гап бўлаклари ва синтактик алоқалар
масалалари.

Иностранная филология: язык, литература, образование

, (2 (71)), 130-137.

8.

Zubaydova, N. N. M. (2020). THE ROLE OF COUNTRY STUDIES IN TEACHING
ENGLISH. Theoretical & Applied Science, (4), 310-312.

9.

Mamasharifovich, N. B., Bakhtiyarovna, I. L., Oblakulovna, M. S., Mirsaidovna, K. S., &
Mirzakarimovna, Y. D. Pragmatics and Its Role in Touristic Context.

JournalNX

, 392-394.

10.

Зубайдова, Н. (2019). Стилистический потенциал и коннотативные признаки фразеосем
английского языка. Иностранная филология: язык, литература, образование, 4(1 (70)), 79-82.

11.

Yangiboyevna, N. S., & Ravshanovna, M. U. (2022). BIOLOGIK FAOL QO'SHIMCHALARNING
TIBBIYOTDAGI AHAMIYATI. BARQARORLIK VA YETAKCHI TADQIQOTLAR ONLAYN
ILMIY JURNALI, 542-545.

12.

Rajabboevna, A. R., Yangiboyevna, N. S., Farmanovna, I. E., & Baxodirovna, S. D. (2022). THE
IMPORTANCE OF COMPLEX TREATMENT IN HAIR LOSS. Web of Scientist: International
Scientific Research Journal, 3(5), 1814-1818.

LANGUAGE CONTACT

SamSIFL, teacher

Xodjiyeva Zumrad

Annotation:

The linguistic systems are involved in language contact situations, it is supposed to

analyze of lexical, morphological and syntactic borrowings which are acceptance of linguistic elements from
one language to another.

Key words:

Lexical borrowing, Morphological borrowing, Syntactic borrowing, Calque words,

language Contact, Loans

As languages exist, they always change and evolve to reflect people’s changing lives and

accommodate new ideas and technologies. These changes happen when languages in contact. While speakers
of languages come into contact, they produce a variety of contact situations which can affect on the linguistic
systems, linguistic outcome in contact and social intercourse of the speakers of the contact (Mihalicek &


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125

Wilson, 2011).

Once the linguistic systems are involved in language contact situations, it is supposed to analyze of

lexical, morphological and syntactic borrowings which are acceptance of linguistic elements from one
language to another.

Lexical borrowing can be defined by loanwords and calques. Loans are words that are accepted from

another language without any transformation. E.g.: Uzbek language adopted words

maktab (

school

), ilm

(knowledge

), vatan

(motherland) from Arabic after Arab invasion.

Calque words usually are acquired through word-for-word translation. E.g.: Uzbek words

dunyoqarash

(worldview

), muzyorar

(icebreaker)are taken and translated from Russian words- mirovozrenie and ledokol.

Morphological borrowing is defined by acquiring morphological elements or patterns under the

impact of another language. E.g.: Tajik language lent many words such as tabiatshunos, zarshunos,
gulzor,lolazorand etc. into Uzbek. Later, the affixes -shunos and -zor became productive and attached to non-
Tajik roots such as til+shunos, uzum+zor, olma+zor.

Syntactic borrowing is defined when the elements of syntactic structure are influenced by another

language, changing word-order of native language. For example:Uzbek has a complementizer of the form

ki

[ki]. This borrowing is from Persian. Normally, in Uzbek complementizers are head-final, however,

ki

is

phrase-initial (Bowern, C.2008 p.205-206). E.g.: Uzbek: Men ishonaman+

ki

siz tilagingizga yetasiz

English: I believe that you will reach your desire

There are about 7.000 languages in the world, however, 10% of these languages are spoken by 90%

of the world’s speakers. The phenomena of language endangerment usually takes place when speakers of
that language make up small number of people or has minority status compared to some other language that
it exists in one territory. E.g.: According to UNESCO’s Alas of endangered languages

, Yaghnobi

is listed on

degree of more vulnerable languages which is at risk of extinction with speakers of 20.000 people (Guardian,

2011). This language is considered to be a direct descendant of Sogdian (Sogdian language is a dead
language) and has often been called Neo-Sogdian in academic literature (Wikipedia, n.d.).

Once the language loses its last native speaker, is called language death. E.g.: there is an ethnic group of

people who call themselves

Iranians

in Samarkand. However, as I personally communicated with them, they

do not know any Persian word. They speak Uzbek everywhere. As I concluded, their native language is
disappeared during the course of years living in Central Asia.

Reference

1.

Mihalicek, V. & Wilson, C. (2011). Language contact

. Language Files,p.486

. The Ohio State

University Press. Columbus

2.

Bowern, C. (2008). Syntactic change and syntactic borrowing in generative grammar.p.205-206.

Yale

University.

Retrieved

13

Jan

2019

from

https://books.google.co.uz/books?id=Fe45AAAAQBAJ&pg=PA205&lpg=PA205&dq=syntactic

+borrowing+in+uzbek+language&source=bl&ots=mRR0_QU8R7&sig=ACfU3U0OIVwk77cza
AyMB9CQToXuTlk3hw&hl=ru&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwi7h4X-
yIjnAhUs_CoKHZbYANQQ6AEwAXoECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=syntactic%20borrowing%20
in%20uzbek%20language&f=false

3.

The Guardian, (2011).Endangered languages: the full list.Retrieved 13 Jan 2019 from

https://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2011/apr/15/language-extinct-endangered

4.

Wikipedia,

n.d.Yaghnobi

people.Retrieved

13

Jan

2019

from

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/yaghnobi_people

5.

Ne’matullayevna, Z. N., Gulrux, H., Mirsaidovna, K. S., Nasimovich, H. H., & Furkatzoda, T. B.

(2020). The Role Of Verbs, Types Of Verbs AS Well AS Lexical, Morphological, And Syntactic
Characteristics Of Verbs In English Language. International Journal on Orange Technologies, 2(12),
57-60.

6.

Мамаёкубова, Ш. (2019). Тилшуносликда гап бўлаклари ва синтактик алоқалар

масалалари.

Иностранная филология: язык, литература, образование

, (2 (71)), 130-137.

7.

Zubaydova, N. N. M. (2020). THE ROLE OF COUNTRY STUDIES IN TEACHING

ENGLISH. Theoretical & Applied Science, (4), 310-312.

8.

Mamasharifovich, N. B., Bakhtiyarovna, I. L., Oblakulovna, M. S., Mirsaidovna, K. S., &

Mirzakarimovna, Y. D. Pragmatics and Its Role in Touristic Context.

JournalNX

, 392-394.

9.

Зубайдова, Н. (2019). Стилистический потенциал и коннотативные признаки фразеосем

английского языка. Иностранная филология: язык, литература, образование, 4(1 (70)), 79-82.

10.

Yangiboyevna,

N.

S.,

&

Ravshanovna,

M.

U.

(2022).

BIOLOGIK

FAOL

QO'SHIMCHALARNING TIBBIYOTDAGI AHAMIYATI. BARQARORLIK VA YETAKCHI


background image

126

TADQIQOTLAR ONLAYN ILMIY JURNALI, 542-545.

11.

Rajabboevna, A. R., Yangiboyevna, N. S., Farmanovna, I. E., & Baxodirovna, S. D. (2022). THE

IMPORTANCE OF COMPLEX TREATMENT IN HAIR LOSS. Web of Scientist: International
Scientific Research Journal, 3(5), 1814-1818.

12.

KUSHBAKOVA, M., Zarina, R. U. Z. I. M. U. R. O. D. O. V. A., & Shahram, A. S. L. O. N. O.

V. (2020). Innovative Methods and Ways to Teach and Learn Foreign Language. ECLSS Online
2020a, 146.

VIOLATION OF CONVERSATION MAXIMS BY GRICE AND IMPLICATURE IN

ADVERTASING

Sherqulova Mahliyo Xasan qizi

MA Student, UzSWLU

Supervisor: Abduvahobova Mahina

Annotation:

The present paper aims at identifying the violation of communication principles in

order to achieve implicit meaning in advertising texts. The data were collected by downloading, watching
and transcribing the advertisement. The data were analyzed by collecting, categorizing, and explaining in the
form of utterances of the advertisement based on the types of implicature interpreted through contexts and
then summarized.

Key words

: advertisement, pragmatics, implicature, conversation maxim, violation

Advertising is an important aspect of our social and economic lives. Advertising is a method of

promoting a product, idea, or organization on the market with the goal of informing and persuading people
of the product's benefits and inducing them to act.Because it actualizes certain communication tactics,
advertising discourse is "pragmatic discourse." The main goal of communication, according to pragmatics,
is the exchange of information. People frequently work together to communicate their goals and the implied
meaning of their words. As a result, discussions are cooperative attempts based on a common ground and
pursuing a common goal, all other factors being equal.

In his article "Logic and Conversation," Grice first outlines the Cooperative Principle and explains

conversational implicature. "Make your conversational contribution such as is required, at the point at
which it occurs, by the acknowledged purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged,"
he said (Grice, 1975, p. 48). Grice created the following maxims to explain the mechanisms underpinning
implication:

Quality maxim

: The speaker and writer are presumed to say only the truth and to have proof of

what they say or write.

Example:
A: “Do you know the capital city of Indonesia?”
B: “Yes, I do. It is Jakarta”
In the example above, B correctly answers A's question about Indonesia's capital. The answer of B

is based on the truth and confidence that he knows that Jakarta is the capital of Indonesia.

Maxim of quantity:

The speaker is supposed to provide as much information as is necessary for

the listeners to comprehend what they have stated.

Example:

A: “Where is your mom, Teddy?”
B: “My mom is home”

In the example given, B provides a sufficient response to A's query while also contributing

information to the question. A will be informed and well-understood by responding that B's mother is at
home.

Maxim of manner

: A speaker or writer must avoid ambiguity or unclearness in their speech and be

orderly in their delivery so that the listener or reader understands what they meant.
Example:
A: “Why did Mary leave the class earlier yesterday?”
B: “She had an appointment to meet the dentist with her mom”

The example above shows that B answers A‟s question clearly and briefly without making any

obscurity expression that might be a misunderstanding between them. Thus, by B‟s answer, A can know
well the reason Mary left the class earlier yesterday.

Maxim of relevance:

Speaker or writer is expected to organize their utterances in a relevant way

according to the ongoing context.

Библиографические ссылки

Mihalicek, V. & Wilson, C. (2011). Language contact. Language Files,p.486. The Ohio State University Press. Columbus

Bowern, C. (2008). Syntactic change and syntactic borrowing in generative grammar.p.205-206.

Yale University. Retrieved 13 Jan 2019 from

https ://books.google.co.uz/books?id=Fe45AAAAOBAJ&pg=PA205&lpg=PA205&dq=svntactic

+borrowing+in+uzbek+language&source=bl&ots=mRRO QU8R7&sig=ACfU3UOOIVwk77cza AvMB9COToXuTlk3hw&hl=ru&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwi7h4X-

vlinAhUs CoKHZbYANOO6AEwAXoECAkOAO#v=onepage&q=svntactic%20borrowing%2Q in%20uzbek%201anguage&f=false

The Guardian, (201 l).Endangered languages: the full list.Retrieved 13 Jan 2019 from https://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2011/apr/l 5/language-extinct-endangered

Wikipedia, n.d.Yaghnobi people.Retrieved 13 Jan 2019 from https://en.in.wikipedia.org/wiki/yaghnobi people

Ne’matullayevna, Z. N., Gulrux, H., Mirsaidovna, K. S., Nasimovich, H. H., & Furkatzoda, T. B. (2020). The Role Of Verbs, Types Of Verbs AS Well AS Lexical, Morphological, And Syntactic Characteristics Of Verbs In English Language. International Journal on Orange Technologies, 2(12), 57-60.

Мамаёкубова, Ш. (2019). Тилшуносликда ran булаклари ва синтактик алокалар масалалари. Иностранная филология: язык, литература, образование, (2 (71)), 130-137.

Zubaydova, N. N. М. (2020). THE ROLE OF COUNTRY STUDIES IN TEACHING ENGLISH. Theoretical & Applied Science, (4), 310-312.

Mamasharifovich, N. B., Bakhtiyarovna, I. L., Oblakulovna, M. S., Mirsaidovna, K. S., & Mirzakarimovna, Y. D. Pragmatics and Its Role in Touristic Context. JournalNX, 392-394.

Зубайдова, H. (2019). Стилистический потенциал и коннотативные признаки фразеосем английского языка. Иностранная филология: язык, литература, образование, 4( 1 (70)), 79-82.

Yangiboyevna, N. S., & Ravshanovna, М. U. (2022). BIOLOGIK FAOL QO'SHIMCHALARNING T1BBIYOTDAG1 AHAMIYATI. BARQARORL1K VA YETAKCHITADQIQOTLAR ONLAYN ILMIY JURNALI, 542-545.

Rajabboevna, A. R., Yangiboyevna, N. S., Farmanovna, I. E., & Baxodirovna, S. D. (2022). THE IMPORTANCE OF COMPLEX TREATMENT IN HAIR LOSS. Web of Scientist: International Scientific Research Journal, 3(5), 1814-1818.

KUSHBAKOVA, M., Zarina, R. U. Z. I. M. U. R. O. D. О. V. A., & Shahram, A. S. L. O. N. O. V. (2020). Innovative Methods and Ways to Teach and Learn Foreign Language. ECLSS Online 2020a, 146.

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