Gattegno, C. (1972) Teaching Foreign Languages in Schools: The Silent Way. (2nd edition) New
York: Educational Solutions
María Luisa RenauRenau, A Review of the Traditional and Current Language Teaching Methods
Marsh, D. (2000) “Using languages to learn and learning to use languages” in Marsh, D. and
Langé, D. (eds.) University of Jyväskylä:
Finland[availableathttp://www.tieclil.org/html/products/pdf/%201%20UK.pdf ] (accessed on 02/09/2013)
EDUCATION SYSTEM IN UZBEKISTAN
Davronqulova Parvina, Ganiyeva Gulbahor
Scientific supervisor: Rasulova Sokhiba Ulugbekovna
Nowadays education system is changing day by day, so that I would advice that our youth
must be intelligent and active. Removing problematic students offers an imediate solution to discipline
problems. Students discipline their studies with little interruption. Other students will not suffer because of
State school, private school, higher education, tuition fees, face to face classes, distance
learning, to take a year out, a graduation ceremony, obtain knowledge, a fresher, technical colleges, exams,
to get a university degree, take a postgraduate student.
The education system in Uzbekistan is currently managed by three ministries: Ministry of Preschool
Education (MoPSE), Ministry of Public Education (MoPE) and Ministry of Higher and Secondary
Specialized Education (MoHSSE).The Government of Uzbekistan spends a large share of its resources on
education - considerably more than other countries in the Central Asia region and elsewhere with a similar
income level. The education system in Uzbekistan is currently managed by three ministries: Ministry of
Preschool Education (MoPSE), Ministry of Public Education (MoPE) and Ministry of Higher and Secondary
Specialized Education (MoHSSE). The Government of Uzbekistan spends a large share of its resources on
education - considerably more than other countries in the Central Asia region and elsewhere with a similar
The (MoPE) recently adopted the second education sector plan (2019-2023). The plan was developed
with the participation of the different divisions of the MoPE, MoPSE, other line ministries (Finances,
Economy, Health, and Employment and Labor Relations), as well as the State Inspection for the Quality of
Education, State Statistics Committee and international development partners.
The 2019-23 ESP has an overall vision that reflects the recent reforms introduced by the Government
of Uzbekistan and is consistent with the it’s national development strategy 2017-2021. It is holistic and
sensitive to the context. The (MoPE) recently adopted the second education sector plan (2019-2023). The
plan was developed with the participation of the different divisions of the MoPE, MoPSE, other line
ministries (Finances, Economy, Health, and Employment and Labor Relations), as well as the State
Inspection for the Quality of Education, State Statistics Committee and international development partners.
The 2019-23 ESP has an overall vision that reflects the recent reforms introduced by the Government of
Uzbekistan and is consistent with the it’s national development strategy 2017-2021. It is holistic and
sensitive to the context. Uzbekistan received a Multiplier grant of US$10 million which is mobilized
alongside almost US$60 million in additional co-financing from the International Development Association
and the Global Partnership for Results-based Approaches.
The program financed by a GPE grant aims at increasing access to early childhood education,
improving the quality of education in project-supported public preschools, and enabling a systematic
measurement of education quality for informed decision-making. It consists of 5 components:
Improving quality of preschool education
Increasing access to quality early learning environments
Partnering with the private sector through a social impact bond
Establishing an education quality measurement system
Supporting project management
The strategies and targets proposed for the variable part reinforce the Government of Uzbekistan’s
priorities to equitably expand access to pre-school education, develop and institutionalize a system for
measuring school readiness (child development outcomes in pre-school), and promote the more efficient use
of existing infrastructure resources in the context of rapid access expansion.
Considered together, and within the broader context of the sub-sector, implementation of the three
proposed strategies are likely to result in significant positive changes in pre-school education in Uzbekistan.
According to official sources, about 60 percent of Uzbekistan's population is covered under the system
of education. The earlier educational system required 11 years of compulsory schooling for both men and
women. In 1992 the policy decision was made to change from 11 to 9 years of compulsory education. After
nine years of compulsory schooling, students can prepare for higher education in tenth or eleventh grade or
turn to vocational training. After graduating from any type of secondary education, an individual can enter a
higher education institution to obtain a bachelor's degree and continue study toward a master's or doctoral
Budget constraints and other transition problems following the collapse of the Soviet Union, have
made it difficult to maintain and update educational buildings, equipment, texts, supplies, teaching methods,
and curricula. Foreign aid for education is desperately needed, but has not been sufficient to compensate for
the loss of central funding.
When viewed in general, the Uzbekistan educational system includes:
Preschool training (preprimary-from three to six years old)
General secondary education (from 6 to 15 years old)
Secondary vocational education (from 15 to 18 years old)
Higher education (undergraduate and graduate-from 18 years old).
Girls and boys are legally considered equal and study in the same classes and schools. Schools are
open to all ethnic groups, and minorities in schools are rarely an issue.
The academic year begins on 2 September (the first of September is the Independence Day) or the first
working day of September. The academic year ends in June for secondary schools and in July for higher
education. Russian was a common language for over 100 nationalities living in the Soviet Union and played
the same role as English for the United States. It was also the Lingua Franca of the socialist world that
included Bulgaria, Poland, Mongolia, and other European and Asian countries. Without Russian as a
common language, Uzbeks (and other ethnic groups) would have to learn Ukrainian, Belorussian,
Moldovian, Armenian, and many other languages to communicate with the multinational population of the
Soviet Union. Therefore, until 1991, Uzbeks preferred schools with instruction in Russian for their children.
To not do so would have put them at a great disadvantage socially. After Uzbekistan gained its
independence, Uzbek (not Russian) became the official language of instruction. In 1998-1999, some 76.8
percent of pupils at day schools were educated in Uzbek.
Examinations in the educational system of Uzbekistan are primarily oral. Universities, institutes, and
some colleges still have entrance exams. Course exams occur only at the end of the course (semester). State
exams are taken at higher education institutions at the completion of all coursework. The grading system of
Uzbekistan is numerical. The highest grade is 5 (excellent = A), then follows 4 (good = B), 3 (satisfactory =
C), and 2 (unsatisfactory = F). One is never used. Final grades are determined by test scores, papers,
attendance, and class participation.
Because compulsory education is freely provided to all children of Uzbekistan, private schools have a
difficult time justifying their existence. In fact, they were banned in 1993. Also, since Uzbekistan Law
declares the separation of education from religion, there are no religious schools. However, in 1999, the
establishment of the Tashkent Islamic University was allowed. Computer technology, thanks to international
assistance, is being introduced to educational institutions and training centers. In 1994, the Central Asian
Telecommunications Training Center (CATTC) was established in Uzbekistan under the Tacis Program of
the European Commission. Training at the CATTC is provided using modern teaching aids, active methods,
and individual and group methods by specialists and experts in different fields. The Computer Center at the
University of Samarkand provides computer service to departments and research units and collaborates with
other institutions and the private sector to run short training courses. At the secondary school level,
computers are still rare.
As a result of decline in funding, the printing of books, textbooks, and other publications face
numerous difficulties. This problem is common for all NIS countries. Nevertheless, despite obvious
difficulties, according to UNESCO, Uzbekistan schools supplied about 60 percent of textbooks as a whole
and for some selected subjects up to 100 percent. Publishing houses produced about 149 million copies of
over 1700 various titles. From 1992 to 1997, some 174 textbooks with over 53,000 copies were published,
including 138 original, 19 translated,8 parallel in 2 languages, and 9 experimental textbooks. About 170
various tutorials and educational literature in 7 languages are published. Audiovisual materials are usually
manually prepared by teachers. With the high price of copying and low salaries, teachers and professors must
In the Soviet-type higher education institution, most students studied for a full working week (five to
six days a week, six to eight hours of classes a day). Evening and correspondence courses were also popular.
The first and the second year of the curriculum usually included the study of social science with similar
course requirements for all students. Specialization began in the third year and continued in the fourth year.
Within this period a student had between 4,500 and 5,000 face-to-face hours of instruction in 20 to 30
subjects, depending on the field of concentration. Curriculum included general subjects like philosophy and
economy, specialized subjects determined by the chosen profession, and very specific courses depending on
the deeper specialization. Curriculum was very rigid and equal for all students. There were no choices. In the
modern system higher education institutions, curriculum is certainly less rigid. However, the authorization of
the curriculum is still the responsibility of a ministry, not a particular institution.
The expansion of curricula, including the addition of courses in French, Arabic, and English, has
placed new stress on a limited supply of teachers and materials. In the mid-1990s, a major curriculum reform
was begun. Western experts advised:
a more commercial approach to the mathematics curriculum
more emphasis in economics courses on the relationship of capital to labormore emphasis in social
science courses on individual responsibility for the environment
the addition of entirely new subjects, such as business management.
Because such changes involve new materials and a new pedagogical approach by staff, the reform
period is estimated at 10 to 15 years. The current transformation of the educational system is performed
along educational models in developed countries. According to Gulyamov, "During the process of
developing the National Program the experience of reforming education in more than 30 leading countries in
the world has been studied" (Gulyamov 1999).
In 1997, President Karimov founded "Umid," a program providing students with educational
fellowships for obtaining education abroad. By the year 2000, over 700 students have been awarded the
"Umid" Presidential Scholarship to pursue graduate and undergraduate degrees in the United States, the
United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, and Japan. Certainly, returning graduates are expected to bring
back "the influence," and those who have finished their studies are employed by the State. The Uzbekistan
educators established contacts with the United Nations Organization and separate countries like France,
Germany, the Republic of Korea, Turkey, and the United States. Many organizations like Peace Corp (USA),
ACCELS (USA), British Council, Merci Project (Great Britain), Goethe Institute (Germany), NAFE (USA),
and Save the Children Fund (Great Britain) participate in the educational efforts undertaken by Uzbekistan.
For example, the Ministry of Education of Turkey assisted in forming 22 Lycea for over 4.8 thousand
students. Another example is the American Council on Cooperation in Education (ANCALS) which within 4
years helped over 222 Uzbekistan students get education in the United States. Finally, within only 2 years,
25 Uzbekistan schools got the certificates of UNESCO Associated Schools Project (ASP).
An American Educational Advising Center (EAC) funded by the United States Information Agency
(USIA) and administered by the American Council for Collaboration in Education and Language Study
(ACCELS) was established in Tashkent to assist individuals interested in studying, training, and/or pursuing
research in the United States. Tashkent EAC also monitors three similar regional educational advising
centers located in the other cities.
Democracy and education John Ewey (14-17pages)
Educational Research by Jerry Wellington.(25-28pages)
Higher Education in Uzbekistan
WHY ENGLISH HAS BECOME AN INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGE
Scientific supervisor: Nasrullaeva Mohigul Suhrobovna
Tokhirova Maftuna Olimovna,
Musinova Farzona Xurshedovna
Abstract: In this article you will find information about the reasons for the formation of English as an
international language. If you compare the grammar rules of different languages, it is easy to see that English
is not difficult to learn. A certain schematicity can be traced in its construction, the absence of declensions
and conjugations, the elementary mechanisms for the use of articles and adjectives, the formation of the
plural, etc., are pleasantly pleasing.
Key words: background, English-speaking countries, entertainment industry, international diploma,
“How are you”, “Excuse me”, “Thank you”, “How all the more these prepositional phrase are
considerables for bilingual lecturers and all the more non-English speakers. And not each of these simple
prepositional phrase are translated into French, Spanish, Russian, semite or asians and all the more each
these 5 languages, the consequences with English, activity bent be the consequences of the language. The
resolution to the interrogatory of reason humanities became intercontinental be required to be wanted in the
verifiable circumstances of the antipenulti matedeuce-ace or quadruplet centuries, and in the fundamental
accommodation it be in debt to its omnipresence to the strong-growing compound procedure of the brits
crown, begun in the 17thcentury. And led to the appropriate by the is lets overeignstate of virtually of the
solid ground of our planet.