As people age, the risk for developing chronic health conditions becomes more common. A consequence of managing multiple chronic health conditions is the daily use of several different medications. Although no concrete definition of the term exists, polypharmacy has come to mean the use of several (usually five or more) medications on a daily basis, with the possibility that these may not all be clinically necessary. The consequences of polypharmacy can be dangerous and can include adverse drug reactions and unintentional overdose.
Scottish Government Polypharmacy Model of Care Group. Polypharmacy guidance: realistic prescribing, 3rd edition. Edinburgh: Scottish Government Model of Care Polypharmacy Working Group; 2018
Polypharmacy: guidance for prescribing. Llandough: All Wales Medicines Strategy Group; 2014 Scottish Government Polypharmacy Model of Care Group. Polypharmacy guidance: realistic prescribing, 3rd edition. Edinburgh: Scottish Government Model of Care Polypharmacy Working Group; 2018
Guidelines for Residential Medication Management Review (RMMR) and Quality Use of Medicines (QUM) services. Deakin: Pharmaceutical Society of Australia; 2011 Multimorbidity and polypharmacy. London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence; 2019 (https://www.nice.org.uk/advice/ktt18; accessed 22 March 2019).
R. Mir, N. Singh, G. Vikram et al., “Structural and binding studies of C-terminal half (C-lobe) of lactoferrin protein with COX-2-specific non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Anti-inflammatory drugs),” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 500, no. 2, pp. 196–202, 2010.
K. D. Rainsford, “Ibuprofen: from invention to an OTC therapeutic mainstay,” International Journal of Clinical Practice, vol. 178, pp. 9–20, 2013.
L. M. Lichtenberger, Y. Zhou, V. Jayaraman et al., “Insight into NSAID-induced membrane alterations, pathogenesis and therapeutics: characterization of interaction of Anti-inflammatory drugs with phosphatidylcholine,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1821, no. 7, pp. 994–1002, 2012.View at: Google Scholar
J. L. Santos, V. Moreira, M. L. Campos et al., “Pharmacological evaluation and preliminary pharmacokinetics studies of a new diclofenac prodrug without gastric ulceration effect,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 15305–15320, 2012.
L. Liu, J. Cui, C. J. Song et al., “H(2)S-releasing aspirin protects against aspirin-induced gastric injury via reducing oxidative stress,” PLoS One, vol. 7, no. 9, Article ID e46301, 2012.
Szlachcic, G. Krzysiek-Maczka, R. Pajdo et al., “The impact of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADAMA), the endogenous nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, to the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal damage,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 90–97, 2013.
Насирова Сабина Зауровна, Тешаев Шухрат Жумаевич. Иммунная защита тонкой кишки и воздействующие на нее химические факторы // International journal of research in economics and social sciences(ijress). oc t o b e r 2020 - с. 158-172
Shin E.V., Nasirova S.Z. The efficaci of Mebavin in the treatmen of chronic glomerulonephitis mixed form // Ёш олимлар кунлари 16 апрель 2014 г. - С. 92-93
Shin E.V., O.V.Skosireva, Khalmetova F.I., Nasirova S.Z.Experience Mebavin in patients with chronic glomerulonephitis // Ёш олимлар кунлари Тиббиётнинг долзарб масалалари 4-илмий амалий анжуман 16 апрель 2014 г.- С. 228-229
W. Fan, Y. Wu, X. K. Li et al., “Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of brain-specific glucosyl thiamine disulfide prodrugs of naproxen,” European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 3651–3661, 2011.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
S. C. Young, K. M. Fabio, M. T. Huang et al., “Investigation of anticholinergic and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory prodrugs which reduce chemically induced skin inflammation,” Journal of Applied Toxicology, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 135–141, 2012.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
M. Qandil, “Prodrugs of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Anti-inflammatory drugs), more than meets the eye: a critical review,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 17244–17274, 2012.
Yellow Card Scheme. Guidance on adverse drug reactions. London: Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency; 2019