Babadzhanma F.A., senior lecturer, the
Department of Pharmacology and Normal
physiology Tashkent Pediatric Medical Institute,
Pazilova S. B., assistant, the Department of
Pharmacology and Normal physiology Tashkent
Pediatric Medical Institute, Tashkent E-mail:
TO THE ISSUE OF NUTRITION IN THE ASPECT OF PHYSIOLOGY
Digestion as an external link of the functional nutrition system that links the external environment with
the internal environment of the div and corrects homeostasis of biologically active substances, mineral composition,
therefore, our work reflects nutrition aspects based on literary analysis.
function, disorders, nutrition, population.
Public health is not only a medical concept, but a largely
social, sociopolitical and economic category. In the last decades of
the 20th century, the world community began to realize and rethink
the crucial importance of the problem of nutrition of the
Hie development of the territories of the European North sets
the task of a demographic nature - maintaining the health of the
population with a long active life and reproduction of healthy
Experts noted that digestion as an external link in a functional
nutritional system that communicates the external environment
with the internal environment of the div and corrects homeostasis
ofbiologically active substances, mineral composition, and the
It has a high lability under the action on the div of various
extreme environmental factors, including social and stressful
Foreign and domestic authors noted that the regulation of the
motor activity of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), an active part
belongs to the triple alliance: the vagus nerves, sympathetic
nerves, spinal parasympathetic nervous system. In the spinal
ganglia of the thoracic spinal cord is the representation of receptors
of the gastrointestinal tract.
Based on the classical theory of digestion, a balanced nutrition
theory was formed. It considers food consumption as a way to
maintain the constancy of the molecular composition in the div,
where energy and plastic (construction) costs are reimbursed due
to new food intakes. Hie theory of balanced nutrition has
established a set of vital nutrients and to determine the quantitative
needs for proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, salts, etc. It
allows you to adapt nutrition to the physiological characteristics of
the div, to physical exertion, climatic and other conditions.
Functional systems are dynamic self-regulating organizations,
the activities of all whose components contribute to obtaining
adaptive results that are vital for the div.
Useful adaptive results include, for example, the internal
constants of the organism, homeostasis indicators, which de-
termine its normal vital activity. This is the div’s content of
nutrients, salts, water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, blood pressure,
Since there are many useful adaptive results in the div that
provide various aspects of its metabolism, the whole organism is
built from the cumulative activity of many functional systems.
Any decrease in the nutrient content in the div through the
primary stimulation of the chemoreceptors of the gastrointestinal
tract, blood vessels and tissues through the nervous and humoral
pathways leads to the excitation of the corresponding parts of the
hypothalamic region. Nervous arousal comes from the receptors of
the digestive tract, especially the stomach, as food is evacuated
from it. Blood that is deprived of nutrients (“fasting blood”) acts
as a humoral stimulus, which acts reflexively, stimulating the
receptors of the vascular bed and directly on special lateral
'Then substances that, at today’s level of knowledge, appear
to be neutral, and also toxic substances - permanent and inevitable
satellites of natural nutrition. It was the presence of toxic flow that
gave rise to the recently popular idea of suppressing intestinal
flora. However, in reality, apparently, the flow of toxic substances,
if it does not exceed certain limits, is physiological (that is, it does
not interfere with physiological processes, it is harmless). As a
result of bacterial metabolism, hormones and biologically active
substances are also formed.
Dietary fibers play a significant role in normalizing the
activity of the gastrointestinal tract, as they ensure the forma
TO THE ISSUE OF NUTRITION IN THE ASPECT OF PHYSIOLOGY
tion of jelly-like structures, which in turn affects gastric emptying,
absorption rate in the small intestine and transit time (passage) of
food through the digestive canal. Dietary fibers are able to absorb
bile acids and, thus, affect their distribution along the
gastrointestinal tract, and this, in turn, significantly affects various
aspects of cholesterol metabolism in the div as a whole. Finally,
food fibers affect the habitat of bacteria in the intestines and are
one of their sources. Dietary fiber is necessary for normal
functioning not only of the digestive system, but also of the
organism as a whole. Пае relationship between the widespread in
the developed countries of the so- called refined diets and
cholesterol metabolism, the formation of gallstones has been
According to most experts, errors in the structure of nutrition,
and in particular the consumption of refined products have become
one of the reasons for the development of many serious diseases in
humans. Atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes and a number of
other diseases are the result of not only excessive consumption of
protein or carbohydrates, but also insufficient use of dietary fiber.
There is evidence that the lack of dietary fiber in the diet can
provoke colon cancer.
Many forms of the pathology of the gastrointestinal tract and
metabolism are preventable and treatable by introducing dietary
fiber into the diet. These fibers are able to alter the absorption of
glucose, so they can be used for the prevention and treatment of
diabetes, hypoglycemia, and obesity. Plant fibers have an anti-
Summing up the literature analysis, it can be emphasized that
the energy and molecular approach is important from the point of
view of not only the classical, but also the new theory of adequate
nutrition. At the same time, the technology
of food processing in
the div is also extremely important for the day of the new theory.
From here comes the immutable conclusion that nutrition should
be not only balanced, but also adequate, that is, appropriate to the
capabilities of the organism, the natural mechanisms of
assimilation of food.
Marshak M. S. Dietary nutrition.- M.: Medicine. 2004.
Popularly about nutrition. Ed. A. I. Stolmakova, I. O. Martynia-ka.- Kiev, “Health”. 2001.
Guba N. I., Smolyan B. L. Diet food and cooking in home-like conditions. Dnepropetrovsk, “Sych”. 1992.
Pokrovsky A. A., Samsonov M. A. Handbook of nutrition. 2004,
Krasnitskaya E. S. Hygiene catering.- M., Economics. 2003.
Dotsenko V. A., Litvinova E. V., Zubtsov Yu. N. Dietary nutrition.Directory.- St. Petersburg, Neva Publishing House; -M.,
Tobacco T. A. Dietary nutrition.- Chelyabinsk, publishing house “Arkaim” 2003.
Voronina L. P. Issues of nutrition in the elderly /
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Ginzburg M. M., Kozupica G. S., Kryukov N. N. Obesity and metabolic syndrome (Impact on health, prevention and treatment) -
Samara: Paras, 2000,- 160 p.
GurvichM.M. everything about diet-M.: Olma-Press, 2001,- 448 p,
Zajnullin R.A. Functional food: studies, allowance.-Moscow: KnoRus, 2012,- 303 p.
Konyshev V A. all about proper nutrition -M.: Olma-Press, 2001.- 304 p.
Health and diet food / ed.V.I. Cipriyana.-Kiev Globe, 2001.- 336 p.
Pogozheva A. V, Kaganov B.S. Modern views on clinical nutrition // Clinical medicine.2009.-No. 1.- P. 4-13.