Подходы к обучению второму языку

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Изучение иностранного языка всегда в какой-то степени влечет за собой изучение второй культуры, даже если вы никогда не были в чужой стране, где говорят на этом языке. Язык и культура связаны друг с другом и взаимосвязаны. Люди существуют в вакууме не больше, чем члены клуба без клуба. Они являются частью какой-то структуры: семьи, сообщества, страны, набора традиций, хранилища знаний или взгляда на вселенную. Короче говоря, каждый человек является частью культуры, каждый использует язык, чтобы выразить эту культуру, действовать в рамках этой традиции и классифицировать вселенную.

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Гузачева Н.И.



Ключевые слова:

медицинское образование, информационные и коммуникационные

технологии, компьютерное обучение, интеграция, информационная и коммуникационная

компетенция, мотивация

Информационные и коммуникационные

технологии сегодня стали предметом

серьезных дискуссий в мире. Их влияние

огромно. В эту эпоху мир образования в

целом и мир языков в частности претерпевают

глубокие реформы и эволюцию, чтобы

противостоять новым вызовам, образование

должно адаптироваться и обновляться.

Сегодня мы не можем представить нашу

личную и профессиональную жизнь без




они играют жизненно важную роль во всех

сферах современной жизни. Применение

информационных технологий в медицинском

образовании уже стало неотъемлемой

частью нашего обучения. Следовательно,





образовательных платформ и программ,

которые стали идеальным дополнением в

достижении профессионального уровня.





образовании максимизирует множество новых

возможностей для эффективного общения

как для преподавателей, так и для студентов,

не только для развития их навыков, но и для

расширения знаний в успешном использовании

ИКТ для улучшения преподавания и обучения.

По этой причине мы решили рассмотреть

эффективные способы использования ИКТ в

медицинском образовании.

Nabiyeva D.R.


Tashkent medical pediatric institute

Learning a foreign language always entails

learning a second culture to some degree, even

if you never actually set foot in the foreign

country where the language is spoken. Language

and culture are bound up with each other and

interrelated. People don’t exist in a vacuum any

more than club members exist without a club.

They’re part of some framework: a family, a

community, a country, a set of traditions, a

storehouse of knowledge, or a way of looking at

the universe. In short, every person is part of a

culture,everyone uses a language to express that

culture, to operate within that tradition, and to

categorize the universe.

Teaching and learning a foreign language

has become progressively urgent nowadays for

all specialists in any field of activities. This fact

presents a variety of methods both for teachers to

work and students to apply


Knowing a second

language increases your chances of getting a

good job in a multinational company within your

home country or for finding work abroad. It’s also

the language of international communication,

the media and the internet, so learning English

is important for socializing and entertainment as

well as work!

Aim of the article is

To develop effective tips both for teachers

and students to gain knowledge and skills in

language teaching and learning, to improve

the methods of teaching, increase students’

motivation and teachers’ enthusiasm.

Materials and methods

Real personal experience and review of

internet resources were used in collecting the

ideas. Students ‘ observations and close teachers’

attitude to students’ needs were taken into account

and gathered as materials.

Discussion and results

Traditionally, motivation research in the

L2 has shown different priorities from those

characterizing the mainstream psychological

approaches. This has been largely due to the

specific target of our field: language. It does not

need much justification that language is more than

merely a communication code whose grammar

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rules and vocabulary can be taught very much

the same way as any other school subject. In

1979 Robert Gardner, argued forcefully that a

second/ foreign language in the school situation

is not merely an `educational phenomenon’ or

`curriculum topic’ but also a representative of the

cultural heritage of the speakers of that language

(Gardner, 1979). Therefore, teaching a language

can be seen as imposing elements of another

culture into the students’ own `life space’. In

order to learn an L2, say French, students need

to develop a French identity: they need to learn

to think French and though only partially and

temporarily also become a bit French.

Learning a foreign language always entails

learning a second culture to some degree, even

if you never actually set foot in the foreign

country where the language is spoken. Language

and culture are bound up with each other and

interrelated. People don’t exist in a vacuum any

more than club members exist without a club.

They’re part of some framework: a family, a

community, a country, a set of traditions, a

storehouse of knowledge, or a way of looking at

the universe. In short, every person is part of a

culture. And everyone uses a language to express

that culture, to operate within that tradition, and to

categorize the universe. So if you’re planning to

carry on some sort of communication with people

who speak or write a given language, you need to

understand the culture out of which the language

emerges.’ (Douglas Brown, 1989:65).

`There is no question that learning a foreign

language is different to learning other subjects.

This is mainly because of the social nature of

such a venture. Language, after all, belongs to a

person’s whole social being: it is part of one’s

identity, and is used to convey this identity to

other people. The learning of a foreign language

involves far more than simply learning skills, or

a system of rules, or a grammar; it involves an

alteration in self-image, the adoption of new

social and cultural behaviors and ways of being,

and therefore has a significant impact on the social

nature of the learner.’ (Marion Williams 1994:77


Thus, language learning is a deeply

social event that requires the incorporation of

a wide range of elements of the L2 culture.

Accordingly, most research on L2 motivation

between the 1960s and 1990s focused on how

the students’ perceptions of the L2, the L2

speakers and the L2 culture affect their desire

to learn the language. This research direction

was spearheaded and inspired by a group of

social psychologists in Canada, most notably by

Robert Gardner, Wallace Lambert and Richard

CleÂment. Because their theory still represents

one of the most influential approaches in the L2

field, let us start our exploration of L2 motivation

by looking into it in a bit more detail.

Well said that . . .

`there are no magic motivational buttons

that can be pushed to ``make’’ people want to

learn, work hard, and act in a responsible manner.

Similarly, no one can be directly ``forced’’ to

care about something. . . Facilitation, not control,

should be the guiding idea in attempts to motivate

humans.’ (Martin Ford 1992:202).

Tips for teachers from students ‘ notes

check list


Explain things simply. 2. Give

explanations we understand. 3. Teach at a pace

that is not too fast and not too slow. 4. Stay with a

topic until we understand. 5. Try to ®nd out when

we don’t understand and then repeat things. 6.

Teach things step-by-step. 7. Describe the work

to be done and how to do it. 8. Ask if we know

what to do and how to do it. 9. Repeat things when

we don’t understand. 10. Explain something and

then use an example to illustrate it. 11. Explain

something and then stop so we can ask questions.

12. Prepare us for what we will be doing next. 13.

Give specific details when teaching or training.

14. Repeat things that are hard to understand.

15. Use examples and explain them until we

understand. 16. Explain something and then

stop so we can think about it. 17. Show us how

to do the work. 18. Explain the assignment and

the materials we need to do it. 19. Stress difficult

points. 20. Show examples of how to do course

work and assignments. 21. Give us enough time

for practice. 22. Answer our questions. 23. Ask

questions to found out we understand. 24. Go

over difficult assignments until we understand

how to do the.

Tips for teachers from real personal


1. Demonstrate and talk about your own

enthusiasm for the course material, and how

it affects you personally. More specifically: .

Share your own personal interest in the L2 with

your students. . Show students that you value L2

learning as a meaningful experience that produces

satisfaction and enriches your life.

2. Take the students’ learning very

seriously. More specifically: . Show students

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that you care about their progress. . Indicate your

mental and physical availability for all things

academic. Have sufficiently high expectations for

what your students can achieve good relationship

with the students I don’t think it requires much

justification to claim that it is important for a

motivating teacher to have a positive relationship

with the students on a personal and not just on

an academic level. In fact, a lot of the previous

section could be simply copied here by replacing

the phrase `care for the students’ learning’ with

`care for the students as real people’. Teachers

who share warm, personal interactions with their

students, who respond to their concerns in an

empathic manner and who succeed in establishing

relationships of mutual trust and respect with

the learners, are more likely to inspire them in

academic matters than those who have no personal

ties with the learners. Of course, this again is

a highly culture-sensitive issue. Developing

a personal relationship with the students and

achieving their respect is easier said than done. It

is a gradual process built on a foundation whose

components include the teacher’s: Motivational

Strategies in the language classroom : acceptance

of the students, ability to listen and pay attention

to them, availability for personal contact.

Ability to listen and pay attention to


Greet students and remember their names. .

Smile at them. . Notice interesting features of their

appearance (e.g. new haircut). . Learn something

unique about each student and occasionally

mention it to them. . Ask them about their lives

outside school. . Show interest in their hobbies.

. Express in your comments that you’ve thought

about them and that their individual effort is

recognized. . Refer back to what you have talked

about before. . Recognize birthdays. . Move around

in class. . Include personal topics and examples

about students in discussing content matters. .

Send notes/homework to absent students.

3. Develop a personal relationship with your

students. More specifically: . Show students that

you accept and care about them. . Pay attention

and listen to each of them. . Indicate your mental

and physical availability

4. Develop a collaborative relationship with

the students’ parents. More specifically: . Keep

parents regularly informed about their children’s

progress. . Ask for their assistance in performing

certain supportive tasks at home.

The ideal classroom climate

. . .

It is easy to tell when the `pleasant-and-

supportive-classroom-atmosphere’ is there you

can sense it after only a few minutes’ stay in the

particular class. There is no tension in the air;

students are at ease; there are no sharp let alone

hostile comments made to ridicule each other.

There are no put-downs or sarcasm. Instead, there

is mutual trust and respect. No need for anyone to

feel anxious or insecure. Scheidecker and Freeman

(1999:138) have summarized very expressively

the essence of the classroom with a motivational

climate for learning: When one watches students

enter such a classroom, `one gets an overwhelming

sense that the students shed emotional baggage at

the doorway’. This is an `emotional safe zone’.

5. Create a pleasant and supportive

atmosphere in the classroom . Establish a norm

of tolerance. . Encourage risk-taking and have

mistakes accepted as a natural part of learning.

. Bring in and encourage humor. . Encourage

learners to personalize the classroom environment

according to their taste.

6. Promote the development of group

cohesiveness. . Try and promote interaction,

cooperation and the sharing of genuine personal

information among the learners. . Use ice-breakers

at the beginning of a course. . Regularly use small-

group tasks where students can mix. . Encourage

and if possible organize extracurricular activities

and outings. . Try and prevent the emergence

of rigid seating patterns. . Include activities that

lead to the successful completion of whole-group

tasks or involve small-group competition games. .

Promote the building of a group legend.

Establishing constructive group norms

Sample set of class rules

For the students

: . Let’s not be late for

class. . Always write your homework. . Once

a term you can `pass’, i.e. say that you haven’t

prepared. . In small group work only the L2 can be

used. . If you miss a class, make up for it and ask

for the homework.

For the teacher

: . The class should be

finished on time. . Homework and tests should

be marked within a week. . Always give advance

notice of a test.

For everydiv

: . Let’s try and listen to

each other. . Let’s help each other. . Let’s respect

each other’s ideas and values. . It’s OK to make

mistakes: they are learning points. . Let’s not make

fun of each other’s weaknesses. . We must avoid

hurting each other, verbally or physically.

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