Использование метода образной транслитерации при переводе международных терминов легкой промышленности

Сейтова, Д. (2023). Использование метода образной транслитерации при переводе международных терминов легкой промышленности. Ренессанс в парадигме новаций образования и технологий в XXI веке, 1(1), 507–510. https://doi.org/10.47689/XXIA-TTIPR-vol1-iss1-pp507-510
Д Сейтова, Каракалпакский Государственный Университет им. Бердаха

Кандидат филологических наук, доцент



Transliteration is the official literal translation of a term in a foreign language using the alphabet of the target language; literal imitation of another term form. Transliteration differs from practical transcription in its simplicity and the ability to add additional characters.

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УДК 413.162



Seytova D.U.

Nukus, Uzbekistan

Candidate of Phylological Sciences, Docent, Berdakh Karakalpak

State University

Transliteration is the official literal translation of a term in a foreign language

using the alphabet of the target language; literal imitation of another term form.
Transliteration differs from practical transcription in its simplicity and the ability to add
additional characters.

Transliteration is usually used when compiling bibliographic guidelines, compiling

catalogs. Transliteration is rarely used as a method of adding new words to the Uzbek
text, because when transliterating, the sound form of the name in a foreign language is

Transliteration is when languages use different graphical systems (e.g. English,

Russian, Greek, Armenian, Georgian), but the letters (or graphic units) of these languages
can be compared to each other, and thus the interlingual translation of names takes place.
The Latin, Greek, and Cyrillic alphabets have a common ground, so even the letters of
these two alphabets can be more to each other by the sounds they represent.
Transliteration has both advantages and disadvantages. Its advantage is that the written
variant of the word or term is not violated, its carrier has a universal, language-
independent identification.

The name poplin is the same in English and the same in Uzbek. Sometimes it is

difficult to reconstruct the original form of an object or thing in a foreign language given
in the transcription, i.e. not in terms of its pronunciation, not in writing.

The language you learn while transliterating learns the pronunciation of the noun

according to the laws of Google. Especially well-known things and terms can be a good
example of this. To date, transliteration is not used in Uzbek language. The reason is that
in English, French, German, Hungarian and other languages, many letters of the Latin
alphabet are pronounced in a form that has lost its sound content or is non-standard. That
is why transliteration with Uzbek letters gives variants of these names in a way that does
not resemble the original.

Pronouncing the name directly in Latin form is not absent in practice. When

mastering horses, their translation can be based on a written (graphic) form. It is possible
to copy a graphic form from a magnet in one language to a text in another language
without changing the name.

This condition is tolerated when using languages from the general graphics of the

record. Many countries that use Latin graphics benefit from this experience. In Western
European languages, if a name is translated from one language to another, its spelling
does not change. It is easy for the reader and can be easily found in any written source.
For example, if an object in a language based on Latin is found in an English text, it will
remain unchanged. In this case, it would be expedient to pronounce even letters that do

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not exist in the English alphabet. The disadvantage of the practice of direct transmission
is that the speaker of another language does not know how to pronounce something in a
foreign language.

In general, many terms are given by graphic means. This method is called

transcription. Although the term is recognized to identify an object in different contexts
and in different languages, in many cases it is distinguished by its belonging to a national
language. Every national language has a different nationality. The question that arises
when translated into another language is: to what extent has the term retained its
originality in the language it came from? Carbonara- ozgshch-food in English and Italian,
which is pronounced with the same name in Uzbek.

The English pronounce the term in the same way as themselves. If we take it in the

form adopted in English-speaking countries, then we would pronounce its name in the
same form.

Even in the English language environment, the name is considered Italian, so we

have to pronounce and write it in Uzbek as carbon, understanding it as Italian. If we find
the translation of the English term expression, it means the following: to express, to
express, to express, and so on. The meanings in Uzbek can be continued. But it also
means «phrase». The terms listed above correspond to the term expression. Such spiritual
conformity does not depend on their (terms) being used in a specific context. Most
English terms correspond to similar terms in Uzbek. Any English-Russian, English-
Uzbek dictionaries are English and Russian or English and Uzbek semantic links;
consists of terms. In translation theory, an Uzbek word is a lexical or lexical
correspondence that is close in meaning to an English word. Knowing such
correspondences is important for the translator, as it is a widely used method of
conveying meanings. Let’s talk about English-Uzbek dictionaries.

There are English-Uzbek dictionaries, however; they are not very large, so they do

not cover the meanings of many terms. Translators use English-Russian dictionaries (e.g.
Müller, Galperin’s dictionaries). Then they will find the meaning of the necessary word
or words in the Russian-Uzbek dictionary. This, in turn, poses a challenge. We hope that
in the future a wide range of not only English-Uzbek, but also Uzbek-English dictionaries
will be created.

Returning to the above, in order to correctly use lexical correspondences in the

translation process, it is necessary to take into account that when comparing units in the
English and Uzbek lexical system there are 2 main spiritual relations between them (as
mentioned above). They are:

The meaning of the English term corresponds exactly to the meaning of the Uzbek

term. This correspondence indicates that the English word in the text is represented by
the same Uzbek word. Such constant compliance is called equivalent. Equivalents mainly
consist of terms, person names, geographical names, or terms and phrases that are not
related to the context. Stable equivalents can also be found in general expressions: Many
equivalents can be found in the texts. As an example, take the following passage:

An invitation to dinner was soon afterwards dispatched; and already had Mrs.

Bennet planned the courses that were to do credit to her housekeeping, when an answer
arrived which deferred it all. Mr. Bingley was obliged to be in town the following day,
and consequently unable to accept the honor of their invitation. Mrs. Bennet was quite

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disconcerted. She could not imagine what business he could have in town so soon after
his arrival in Herdforshire; and she began to fear that he might be always flying about
from one place to another and never settled at Netherfield as he ought to be (J. Austin
“Pride and Prejudice” England, 1996, vol. 1 chapter II).

This text has the following equivalents: invitation - invitation, Mrs. Bennet, Mr.

Bingley, Herdforshire, Netherfield, etc. The meaning of an English word partially
corresponds to the meaning of several Uzbek terms, i.e. the English term has lexical
similarities similar to the meaning in Uzbek. For example, circle - circle, circle, circle,
circle, sphere to fail - to fall, to collapse, to fail, such adaptation is called variability and
is more commonly used. The translator will need to express the English term a particular
context by selecting the appropriate variant of the translation. Choosing one of the
options in translation is one of the most difficult tasks and the translator must know how
to solve it. The role of context is important in this.

There are two stages in translating a word:
a) determine the meaning of the term in the context;
b) to give the meaning of the word in the Uzbek language, i.e to translate.
In the process of interpreter practice, these two stages are inextricably linked.

Usually, the translator determines the meaning of the term in the text and at the same
time finds the appropriate variant in Uzbek. While comparing these variants of the
translation, he returns to it again, determining the meaning of the English term.

«С точи зрения языка,термины не выделяются из других слов,тем не менее у

них есть свои собственные характерные черты,позволяющие отли-чать их от
нетерминов» [1; 128].

Apparently, here the gai is not about the translation of the separated word, but

about its translation in the text. Contextual analysis plays an important role in the text at
all stages of term translation. It is well known that many terms in a language have many
meanings, and it is precisely in this context that finding the meaning that corresponds to
it again depends on that context. As noted above, there is a narrow context (phrase or
sentence) and a broad context (paragraph, chapter, and sometimes an entire work). In
many cases, the meaning of a word is quickly determined in a narrow context: She
excelled in making little elegant good-for-nothing lady-like knickknacks of all kinds.
(Washington “The Sketchbook”) In translating this context, we will of course use an
English-Russian dictionary, and then translate it into Uzbek.

To excel - to mean such as превосходить, выдаваться,
To make - делать, производить, создавать, готовить, meanings,
Good – for – nothing means бездельник, никчемный.
Comparing these meanings with the context,
first word: To excel - выдаваться,
second: To make - делать,
third: Elegant - изящный,
fourth: Knickknack - безделушка,
Fifth: We translate Good-for-nothing into Uzbek with the following meanings:
He also advanced in the ashes, and the house was filled with all sorts of useless

blankets. The context takes on a more specific meaning when a new meaning of a term
that has not yet been included in the dictionary is used in the context, or when the author

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uses a word that only has an additional special meaning in that context. Here is a quote
from Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice:“The ladies of Longbourn soon waited on those
of Netherfield and the visit was returned in due form”.

The term waited on is known in the text without much difficulty, if we pay

attention to the next sentence after the conjunction and. The meaning of the visit was
returned in due form, which concludes that it is close to the meaning of waited on visit.
So we have the following translation:

“The Sungra Longborn ladies visited that Nezerfield, and they too came to

Longborn in return”.

The translator must always monitor the use of words in the context in a new sense.

He should always write down such cases and compare them with other contexts. Thus,
the context also plays an important role in correctly determining the meaning of the word
in the text.


1. А.В.Суперанская, Н.В.Подольская, Н.В.Васильева. Общая терминология. – М.,
«Наука», 1989.

Библиографические ссылки

А.В.Суперанская, Н.В.Подольская, Н.В.Васильева. Общая терминология. – М., «Наука», 1989.

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