Особенности эпитетов, описывающих героев в английских, казахских и русских сказках

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Касымбекова, А. (2023). Особенности эпитетов, описывающих героев в английских, казахских и русских сказках. Ренессанс в парадигме новаций образования и технологий в XXI веке, 1(1), 163–167. https://doi.org/10.47689/XXIA-TTIPR-vol1-iss1-pp163-167
А Касымбекова, Международный казахско-турецкий университет имени Х.А.Ясави

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Аннотация

В статье анализируются наиболее значимые группы эпитетов из английских, казахских и русских сказок. Эти группы определяют внешность, возраст, социальное положение, положительные и отрицательные черты и особенности героев. В статье рассматриваются - особенности героев в английских, казахских и русских сказках на протяжении многих лет, что закрепилось как традиция и, таким образом, оказалось наиболее устойчивым и важным для британской, казахской и русской национальных культур.


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THE PECULIARITIES OF EPITHETS DESCRIBING HEROES IN ENGLISH,

KAZAKH, AND RUSSIAN FAIRY TALES

Kasymbekova A.K.

Turkestan, Kazakhstan

Senior Teacher, H.A.Yasavi International Kazakh-Turkish University

Summary:

The article discusses the most significant groups of epithets from English,

Kazakh and Russian fairy tales. The groups determine the appearance, age, social
position, positive and negative features and peculiarities of heroes. Peculiarities are
united during many years of conveying fairy tales, which was fixed as a tradition and
thus appeared to be most stable and important for British, Kazakh and Russian national
cultures.

Резюме:

В статье анализируются наиболее значимые группы эпитетов из

английских, казахских и русских сказок. Эти группы определяют внешность,
возраст, социальное положение, положительные и отрицательные черты и
особенности героев. В статье рассматриваются - особенности героев в

английских, казахских и русских сказках на протяжении многих лет, что
закрепилось как традиция и, таким образом, оказалось наиболее устойчивым и
важным для британской, казахской и русской национальных культур.


A close connection between studying of the folklore language and culture is

undoubtful. As Ter-Minasova S.G. has mentioned in her book “Language and cross-
cultural communication”: ‘Language is a transmitter, bearer of culture; it transfers the
treasures of the folk culture, stored in it across generations’ [1]. That is why a full-scale
research on the spiritual and moral traditions is impossible without involving the works
of oral folk art, the language of fairy tales and ballads in particular. An outstanding
researcher of Russian folklore Arnold I.V. formulates the following definition of a fairy
tale: “The fairy tale is mostly prosaic fictional narration of magic, adventurous or
everyday character which is presented as an imaginary story” [2].

The combination of the most unbelievable fantasy and reality is one of the main

features of the poetic content of a fairy tale. An antithesis between dream and reality is
usually the basis of the fairy tale. The plot offers a complete though utopian solution to
this problem. The dream triumphs in the fairy tale. ‘In fairy tales even the most
dangerous adventures... happen only to highlight the fatal luck of the chosen ones.
Readers find an optimistic charm in these happy characters. Fairy tale as one of the most
widespread, virtually universal folklore genres is that common basis that serves as a
background for visual representation of nationally driven differences in mentality [3].
The classification of epithets into six groups according to the different peculiarities they
describe:
1.

Physical appearance

2.

Age

3.

Social position

4.

Positive features and peculiarities

5.

Negative features and peculiarities of heroes


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6.

Static epithets

Epithets describing the appearance of characters

The appearance of protagonists is often portrayed as beautiful and young. Epithets

describing the beauty of the heroine: beautiful(beauteous), fine, bonny, fair. Examples:
And there she grew up into the most beautiful maiden that ever was seen («The Fish and
the Ring»).

The giant had a bonny daughter, and she and the lad grew fond of each other («Nix

Nought Nothing»).

Epithets describing the appearance of male characters: handsome, good-looking,

fine-looking, fine-bonny. Examples:

He was handsome enough to make all the women of the world fall in love with

him («Three Feathers»).

In English fairy tales cheeks, lips, eyes, and hair are the most important elements

of externals.

But after a time he looked upon the younger sister, with her cherry cheeks, and

golden hair, and his love grew towards her till he cared no longer for the eldest one
(«Binnorie»).

The girl was as white as milk, and her lips were like cherries («The Rose-Tree»).

Hair: golden, long, beautiful, shining, yellow, golden silk.

She was as fine and tidy as ever with her beautiful golden hair («Childe

Rowland»).

...her hair was long and golden and people used to like looking upon her («The

Two Princesses»).

In those days, the Mount of St. Michael in Cornwall was the fastness of a huge

giant whose name was Cormoran («Jack the Giant-Killer»).

Once upon a time there was a teeny-tiny woman who lived in a teeny-tiny house in

a teeny-tiny village («Teeny-Tiny») [4].

Epithets characterizing the age of heroes

Basically, two epithets are used, old and young: old man, old woman, old wife,

young lady, young lord, young prince. For example:

There was an old soldier who can been long in the wars… («Jack Hannaford»).

Epithet little is also used in the meaning of young: little boy, little girl.

She upped and opened it, and there was the little old thing with five skeins of flax

on his arms («Tom Tit Tot»).

Epithets determining a social position of heroes

The most prevalent epithets are poor and rich. For example:

Now, I must tell you that near his house dwelt a poor widow with an only daughter («The
Ass, the Table and the Stick»).

Well-off heroes of fairy tales live in castles and palaces. Epithets fine, great,

beautiful, bonny, splendid, noble, wonderful are used to describe them:
a fine castle; a very big and bonny castle; the finest castle; a great palace;
a great and mighty castle; a great house; splendid castle; wonderful castle.
The great beautiful castle standing on golden pillars («Jack and His Golden Snuff-Box»).

Epithets describing positive features


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Common epithets: good, goodly, kind, fine, bonny(bonnie), sweet, nice: good

wife, good man, bonny bride, bonny boy, sweet girl, nice girl.
Epithets formed by adjective good: good-natured, good-tempered , good-hearted, or their
synonyms kind-hearted, soft-hearted.
Jack’s mother was a good-tempered woman...(«Jack and the Beanstalk»).
...a very good-hearted woman («The History of Tom Thumb»).
Part of English fairy tales is dedicated to simple protagonists, described with the epithets
like silly, stupid, foolish, simple: poor silly Jack, poor silly country fellow, foolish man,
foolish farmer, foolish good wife, simple woman, foolish woman, silly fellow.

Epithets describing negative peculiarities

The main part of this group make up the antonyms of good: cruel, bad, ill-

tempered, spiteful, wicked, unkind, monstrous, awful, awesome, terrible, cruel, horrible,
great, dreadful, fierce, cruel giant, monstrous giant, monstrous beast, dreadful, double-
faced giant. For example:
...being in want of money, the King at last married a rich lady, who was ugly, ill-
tempered and spiteful («The Well of the Three Heads»).
So the young man went on, and by and by he saw a multitude of very dreadful beasts,
with two heads, and on every head four horns («Jack the Giant-Killer») [5]

Static epithets

Epithets that indicate the character of heroes: Simpleton Peter , Lazy Jack.

Epithets describing one detail of the portrait: the Red Ettin («The Red Ettin»), Yallery
Brown («Yallery Brown»), Tom Thumb («The Story of Tom Thumb»), the Black Bull
(«The Black Bull of Norroway»).
Epithets in Kazakh and Russian fairy tales

To the first group of epithets, which describe women’s beauty we can add these

adjectives and nouns: Асқан сұлу, ай десе аузы, күн десе көзі бар,әдемі, алтын
бұрым, қыпша бел.
Күн десе көзі бар, ай десе аузы бар сұлу қызды көрді. («Күн астындағы Күнекей
қыз»)

And Russian epithets are: прекрасная, девица-красавица, царевна-краса,

красота без покрова, красна девица.
У него, у царя, было два сына и красавица дочь. («Сказка о Василисе золотой косе,
непокрытой красе и об Иване- Горохе»)

In describing female characters particular attention is paid to the hair of heroine:

густые, златошелковые, золотые, золотая коса.

Волосы ее густые, златошелковые, не покрытые ничем, в косу связанные,

упадали до пят, и царевну Василису стали люди величать: золотая краса,
непокрытая краса. («Сказка о Василисе золотой косе, непокрытой красе и об
Иване- Горохе»)

And the following epithets describe male characters: Ержүрек, батыл, тепсе

темір үзер, аяқ-қолы балғадай, жауырыны қақпақтай. For example:
Аузы үлкен ошақтай,
Азу тісі пышақтай,
Көзі терең зындандай... (« Алпамыс»)


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In Russian fairy tales: храбрый богатырь, могуч богатырь, храбрый воин,

непобедимый, сильный, славный богатырь.
Ах,ты, храбрый воин! Чего убоялся? («Иван-Царевич и Белый Полянин»).
Напускаются сильномогучие богатыри на войско вражее.
And epithets like жас, кәрі кемпір, шал, ата describe the age of heroes. For example,
Ағарған сақал, шашым бар! Қартайып келген жасым бар! («Ер Төстік»)

In Russian fairy tales these epithets characterize hero’s age: молодой молодец,

старый старик, старуха, дедушка, молодой богатырь, молодица, старая-престарая
старушка.
Вдруг выходит из хуторка старая-престарая старушка(«Елена Прекрасная»).

In order to describe social position of characters this kind of epithets are used:

Бай, төрт түлік малы сай, кедей, сіңірі шыққан кедей, байлығы жұрттан асқан хан,
жетім сорлы. For example:
Ерназар өзі бай болыпты, төрт түлік малы сай болыпты.
Арықтаған, азған, киімі жыртық Төстікті ешкім ескермейді. («Ерт Төстік»)
Common Russian epithets describing social position: Богатый, нищий.
Жил купец, богатый человек, у него было три сына.(«Бесчастный Иван»)
Перед городскими воротами увидел он нищего- хромого, слепого старика с
клюкой. («Иван- Горох»)
The next group of epithets includes мейірімді, ақылды әйел, білгір, әділ, that describe
positive features of heroes. For example:
Кенжекей ақылды, білгір қыз болады.(«Ер Төстік»)
To this group of epithets добрый да ласковый молодец, разумный да грамотный
молодец, мудрая жена, премудрая, простой, бесхитростный could be added.
Что, добрые молодцы, дела пытаете иль от дела лытаете?(«Баба Яга»).
To the fifth group of epithets describing negative features the following epithets could be
added: Қақпас, жалмауыз, мыстан кемпір, ақымақ, жарым ес, арамза, қу, зұлым. For
example:
Қақпас кемпір өтірік айтады.(«Ер Төстік»)
Бала жалмауыз кемпірден құтылғанына қатты қуанады.(«Алтын сақа»)
Қаңбақ шалдың алдынан ақымақ, жарым ес көлтауысар шығады. (« Қаңбақ шал»)
Fifth group includes the following Russian epithets: Злая жена, полутоватая баба,
жадная старуха, злые сестры, дочери завистливые, лютый змей.
Невзлюбила злая баба девочку…(«Баба Яга»)

In the sixth group we collected epithets that are used for the features people

consider to be permanent and named them static epithets. The most recognizable Kazakh
static epithets are: Керқұла атты Кендебай, Қаңбақ шал, Ер Тарғын, Ер Төстік, Алты
жасар Алпамыс, Алдар Көсе, Ай астындағы Айбарша сұлу, Күн астындағы
Күнекей қыз.

The most prevalent Russian static epithets are: Елена Прекрасная, Василиса

Премудрая, Белый Полянин, Бесчастный Иван, Баба Яга костная нога, Царевна
Неоцененная Красота, Иван крестьянский сын, Финист Ясный Сокол, Василиса
золотая коса непокрытая краса, Крошечка-Хаврошечка, Жар птица, Царь-девица,
Иван-царевич.


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In conclusion, I can say that fairy tales are of great significance in people’s lives

and their culture. Because the fairy tales transfer from generation to generation by word
of mouth. From the vocabulary of fairy tales we can see our ancestors’ outlook. Fairy
tales of three nations, have their own peculiarities and the role of the epithet is great. In
describing physical appearance in fairy tales English and Russian epithets are similar, and
Kazakh epithets differ from them. Static epithets are different for each language. Other
groups of epithets that describe age, social position, positive and negative features have
similarities.

REFERENCES:

1.

Ter-Minasova S.G. “Language and cross-cultural communication // «Лингвистика

и межкультурная коммуникация». М., 2000. – 262 с.
2.

Арнольд И. В. – Стилистика современного английского языка М.: Флинта,

Наука, 2012. — 384 с.
3.

Бердібаев Р. Қазақ фольклорының типологиясы. Алматы, 1981. – 86 б.

4. McCarthy M English vocabulary in use. McCarthy, F O Dell. – Cambridge University
Press, 2002. – 315 c.
5. Green, ‘Tom Thumb and Jack the Giant-Killer’, pp. 132-35.
6. T. Green, Concepts of Arthur (Stroud: Tempus, 2007), - pp. 112-18.

Библиографические ссылки

Ter-Minasova S.G. “Language and cross-cultural communication // «Лингвистика и межкультурная коммуникация». М„ 2000.-262 с.

Арнольд И. В. - Стилистика современного английского языка М.: Флинта, Наука, 2012, —384 с.

Берд1баев Р. Казак фольклорыныц типологиясы. Алматы, 1981. - 86 б.

McCarthy М English vocabulary in use. McCarthy, F О Dell. - Cambridge University Press, 2002. -315 c.

Green, ‘Tom Thumb and Jack the Giant-Killer’, pp. 132-35.

T. Green, Concepts of Arthur (Stroud: Tempus, 2007), - pp. 112-18.

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