Grammatical categories of adjectives in new English

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Мамирова, Н. (2022). Grammatical categories of adjectives in new English. Анализ актуальных проблем, инноваций, традиций, решений и художественной литературы в преподавании иностранных языков, 1(01), 210–213. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/analysis-problem/article/view/12923
Ноиля Мамирова, школа № 40

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Аннотация

In this article we analyze an adjective is a word that defines, qualifies or modifies the meaning of a noun, or more rarely of a pronoun. It expresses a quality or attribute of the word it qualifies

Похожие статьи


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210

QARASHLAR: MUAMMO VA YECHIMLAR, 197-199.

9.

Eshchanov, B., Odilov, B., & Khakimov, O. (2019, October). Residential electricity demand in Uzbekistan.
In

Energy Resources of the Caspian and Central Asia: Regional and Global Outlook, 4th IAEE Eurasian

Conference, October 17-19, 2019

. International Association for Energy Economics.

10.

Аззамов, Ю. Р. (2022). ТЕРМИНЛАР ТАРЖИМАСИНИНГ НАЗАРИЙ АСОСЛАРИ. Oriental
renaissance: Innovative, educational, natural and social sciences, 2(Special Issue 24), 518-531.

GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES OF ADJECTIVES IN NEW ENGLISH

Mamirova Noila Bahtiyorovna

A teacher of school № 40 in Jambay

Abstract:

In this article we analyze an adjective is a word that defines, qualifies or modifies the

meaning of a noun, or more rarely of a pronoun. It expresses a quality or attribute of the word it qualifies.

Key words:

substantive, conjunction, descriptive words, comparative adjective

Many English words belong to more than one part of speech. Thus

hope, love, sleep,

etc., may be

nouns as well as verbs;

chief; general, vegetable, etc.,

may be nouns as well as adjectives;

clean, dead, wide,

etc.,

are adjectives as well as adverbs;

while

may be either a noun, a verb or a conjunction;

since

may be an

adverb, a preposition, or a conjunction; adjectives as well as verbs. The examples are as follows:

They like

black shoes,

the word

black

is an adjective

,

and in the sentence:

They black their shoes once a week,

the

word

black

here is a

verb.

So it is not so easy to say whether a word is an adjective just by looking at it in an

isolation or form. It should be understood that an adjective is a word which is used with a noun or pronoun to
describe the animate or inanimate things designated by the noun or pronoun. In other words, an adjective is a
word which functions as a modifier to describe a noun or other substantive and traditionally, an adjective has
been considered as a part of speech and used to denote word classes. An adjective has some characteristics
such as follows:

1.

It can freely occur in attributive position as a pre-modifier of a noun, for example: a beautiful park,

naughty boys. 2. It can occur alone after a verb as a subject complement, e.g.: The car is beautiful. My father
looks old.

3.

It can be preceded by very and other intensifying words, for example: The car is very beautiful.

4.

It can take comparative and superlative forms whether it is inflectionally or by the addition of pre-

modifier, e.g.: happy, happier, the happiest, and beautiful, more beautiful, the most beautiful.

5.

Most of

adjectives can be added with –ly to form adverbs, e.g.: happy - happily, beautiful -beautifully. However, not
every adjective has these characteristics. A word can be considered as an adjective when it can function as an
attribute or predicate and it cannot function as a direct object. Descriptive words are the prototypical
modifiers. Descriptive words are moreover one of the foremost troublesome categories to classify, since they
share numerous characteristics of either things or verbs. Descriptive words, being less well-established as a
category, are a more likely target for alter. Descriptive words in English have two unmistakable capacities:
they can be predicative (as within the beat is important) or attributive (as in modern verse). Within the
previous case they are closer to the verbal conclusion of the continuum, because beside the copula verb they
frame the verbal state, and within the last-mentioned case they may (but require not) be closer to the
ostensible conclusion of the cline. There are different formal implies of recognizing between these two
functions: it may be done by position, by pitch or stretch, or by emphasis. Within the history of English,
there have been vital changes. which is able be the most theme of discourse here

OLD ENGLISH ADJECTIVE

The period of the Ancient English is from 450 to 1150 and it is now and then portrayed as the period

of full intonations, since amid most of this period the endings of the thing, the descriptive word, and the verb
are protected more or less whole. An imperative include feature highlight of the Germanic dialects is the
improvement of a twofold declension of the descriptive word: one, the solid declension; and the other is the
powerless one. The solid declension is utilized when the descriptive word alone must bear the essential
burden of demonstrating the development of the thing, and the powerless or non-distinctive descriptive word,
or a possessive has as of now performed the office of case, number and sex sign. The Ancient English
descriptive word has three sexual orientations: manly, female and impartial. It too has the same cases as on:
nominative, genitive, dative, with the expansion of an instrumental within the manly and impartial solitary. It
is necessary to mention only such distinctive endings as the masculine accusative singular

-ne,

the feminine

genitive and dative

-re

, and the genitive plural

-ra

as illustrations of this point. In the sense that this


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inflectional pattern contains such inflections especially associated with certain case and gender forms, it is a

strong

declension. It can be seen clearly in the following table that we find the ending

-a

for a masculine

nominative singular adjective,

-an

for the accusative singular of the same gender, and

– e

for a feminine

nominative singular. In fact, the weak adjective declension corresponds point for point with the weak noun
declension, even to the distinctive

-e

form in the neuter accusative singular. For example: An O.E noun

eag =

eye

becomes

eage

in the neuter nominative singular, and

nam = name

becomes

naman

in the masculine

dative singular. The strong declension is used predicatively and attributively without any other defining
word, or when the adjective is not preceded by a demonstrative or possessive pronoun, such as follows:

Waes

seo faemne geong

the woman was young

Dol cyning

a foolish king The weak declension is used after the

demonstrative and possessive pronoun or after a definite article:

Se dola cyning

the foolish king

Se

ofermoda cyning

the proud king

^ Min leofa sunu

my dear son The comparative adjective was formed of the

suffix

– ra

, and the superlative

- ost

, a few adjectives have

–est

. Examples:

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Meaning

eald

ieldra

ieldest

old

earm

earmra

earmost

poor

We also find some words with the comparative formed from an adverb or preposition with the superlative

um

, or

–uma

, in Latin loan words: optimus (best), summus (highest). For the word ending in

–m

ceased to

be felt as having superlative force, some words taken by analogy the additional ending

-est

. It makes the

double superlative with the suffix

-umist-

, then becomes

-ymist-

and develops further into

-imest -

,

-emest

-,

and

mest

, such as in formest, midmest, and further examples are:

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Meaning

inne

innemra

innemest

within

after

after

aftermest

after

There are also some irregular comparisons in Old English adjectives, such as:

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

got

bettra

betst

micel

mara

maest

MIDDLE ENGLISH ADJECTIVE

The English dialect between the year 1150 and 1500 has as of now been characterized as Center English. It
was stamped by pivotal changes in English dialect, changes were broader and more crucial than those that
have taken put at any time some time recently or since. The changes of this period influenced English in both
its linguistic use and its lexicon and the changes in English linguistic use may be portrayed as a common
lessening of emphasis. Endings of the thing and descriptive word checking refinements of number and case
and frequently of sex were so modified in articulation as to lose their unmistakable shape and thus their
usefulness.
The result of the changes was that in Center English the sign of sexual orientation recognizing the manly
shape was misplaced, since the finishing –a (manly nominative) and -e (fix nominative - accusative and
ladylike nominative) fell together in a single shapes as, For example:
Old English Middle English

Se ealdu man

the olde man(masculine)

Se ealde talu

the olde tale (feminine)

Paet ealde swurd

the olde sword (neuter)

The weak adjective ending

-an

and

-urn

had already fallen together as

-en.

And because of the loss of final

-

n

they also became to have only -

e.

But, there are very few sunrivals of the Old English genitive plural in

–ra

as Middle English

-er,

notably in

aller

from Old English

ealra.

Thus , the singular and plural forms of the

weak adjective declension,

-a, -e, -an, :em,

and

-urn,

were reduced to a single ending in

-e.


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212

Middle English monosyllabic adjectives ending in consonants remained uninflected throughout the singular
and had

-e

throughout the plural:

Singular Plural
Brod brode
God gode
Glad glade
The ending of accusative masculine singular

-ne,

the genitive and dative feminine singular

-e (-ere)

and a

few isolated forms of the genitive plural were remained unchanged.

The old English comparative ending

–ra

became

– re

, and the superlative suffixes

–est

and

–ost

fell together

as

-est

, as in:

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

hard

harder

hardest

fair

fairer

fairest

clene

clener

clenest

In Middle English there was also a process of shortening vowel.It happened when the root of an adjective
was long , for example:

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

swete

swetter

swettest

Middle English adjectives also had irregular comparison, for example:

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

god

better

best

bade

worse

werst

micel

more(mara)

mest(most,mast)

List of used literature

1.

Abney, Steven. 1987. The English noun phrase in its sentential aspect, MIT: PhD thesis.pp 105.

2.

Ackema, Peter & Maaike Schoorlemmer. 2006. Middles. In The Blackwell companion to syntax,
eds. Martin Everaert & Henk van Riemsdijk, 131-203.

3.

Baltin, Mark. 2006. Extraposition. In The Blackwell companion to syntax, eds. Martin Everaert &
Henk van Riemsdijk. Malden, MA/Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.pp 237-271.

4.

Barbiers, Sjef. 1995. The syntax of interpretation, University of Leiden/HIL: PhD thesis. Barbiers,
Sjef, Hans Bennis, Gunther De Vogelaer, Magda Devos & Margreet Van de Ham. 2005.pp 68-70.

5.

Den Besten, Hans. 1978. On the presence and absence of wh-elements in Dutch comparatives.
Linguistic Inquiry.pp 641-671.

6.

Den Besten, Hans & Gert Webelhuth. 1990. Stranding. In Scrambling and barriers, eds. Günter

Grewendorf & Wolfgang Sternefeld, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.pp 77-92.

7.

KUSHBAKOVA, M., Zarina, R. U. Z. I. M. U. R. O. D. O. V. A., & Shahram, A. S. L. O. N. O. V.

(2020). Innovative Methods and Ways to Teach and Learn Foreign Language. ECLSS Online 2020a,
146.

8.

Ахмеджанова, Н., & Аслонов, Ш. (2020). Семантические типы предикатов и фазовая

членимость глагольного действия. Интернаука,(12-1), 27-29.

9.

Yusuf, A. (2022). LINGUISTIC AND CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE

GASTRONOMIC

TERMS

IN

ENGLISH

AND

UZBEK

LANGUAGES. ILM-FAN

TARAQQIYOTIDA ZAMONAVIY QARASHLAR: MUAMMO VA YECHIMLAR, 197-199.

10.

Eshchanov, B., Odilov, B., & Khakimov, O. (2019, October). Residential electricity demand in

Uzbekistan. In

Energy Resources of the Caspian and Central Asia: Regional and Global Outlook,

4th IAEE Eurasian Conference, October 17-19, 2019

. International Association for Energy


background image

213

Economics.

11.

Аззамов, Ю. Р. (2022). ТЕРМИНЛАР ТАРЖИМАСИНИНГ НАЗАРИЙ АСОСЛАРИ. Oriental

renaissance: Innovative, educational, natural and social sciences, 2(Special Issue 24), 518-531.

THE ROLE OF ENGLISH AS A WORLD LANGUAGE

Sirojiddinova Shahribonu Sirojiddinovna

The senior teacher of Samarkand State Institute of Foreign Languages;

Abduvokhidova Shakhribonu Akmalovna

Abstract:

This article provides facts and ideas about the international role and importance of the

English language. Each of these points is summarized after some research. There are also some shortcomings
in the spread of the English language.

Key words:

"global village", UN, Dickens, Shakespeare, Oscar Wilde, the Beatles, the Rolling

Stones, guru, babu, chorpoy, curry,

Today's world is known as the "global village" and is the result of scientific inventions made in the

second half of the 19th century. Language has played a key role in the development of mankind, in the
dissemination of ideas in the past and will play a more important role in its future growth and development.
Thus, the study of language(s) is of the utmost importance to humanity, and the necessary attention must be
given to ensuring that humanity moves smoothly into the stage of maturity or universal consciousness.

English language is a language belonging to the Germanic group of the Indo-European family.

English is the working and official language of the UN. Every world act, technical publication, book,
instruction, song, poster, letter will be read and understood by different nations and peoples if they are
presented in English.

English is so popular that it has become the standard language of international communication.

Currently, 75% of the world's mail is in English, 60% of radio programs are broadcast in English, and more
than half of the world's periodicals are printed in English. It is estimated that about one billion people in the
world use English as their mother tongue or foreign language. The use of English as an official or semi-
official language is common in more than 70 countries and plays a very important role in another 20 states.
More than 1400 million people live in countries where English is traditionally spoken. About 75% of mail
and information in the world is stored in English. Of the approximately 50 million Internet users, most use
English.

32

This spread of the English language around the world is due to the fact that Great Britain was and is

a world maritime power. She had colonies and then dominions all over the world. Therefore, many countries
now use English on a par with their official language: India, Ireland, Canada, New Zealand, Singapore,
South Africa, the Federated States of Micronesia and a number of others. Some countries choose this
language as a state language: USA, Antigua and Bahamas, Barbados, Ghana, Dominican Republic, Nigeria,
Solomon Islands, Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica and others.

English is so popular that it has become the standard language of international communication.

Currently, 75% of the world's mail is in English, 60% of radio programs are broadcast in English, and more
than half of the world's periodicals are printed in English.

The need to introduce new information technologies in all spheres of human life is becoming more

and more obvious. It is difficult to imagine modern life without a computer. It has become as much a
necessity as a calculator, a notebook, a typewriter, a music center, a device for accessing and storing
information. The world of computer science "speaks" English. English became the "new Latin". In the field
of scientific know-how and technological development, everyone needs to know English to be part of the
21st century. It is easy to see why in Italy, for example, English is required for many technical professions.
And in China it is the main language taught in schools.

Nowadays, a huge number of people around the world are learning English, as they realize that only

with knowledge of the language can you become successful in a particular area, if you use it in combination
with your skills. All communication between people is built in English. From elementary school, children
begin to learn English.

Attempts have been repeatedly made to create a replacement for the English language, in order to

simplify the study and equalize the possibilities of all nationalities for mutual interaction. They led to the
formation of several "common" languages, the most effective of which turned out to be Esperanto. But,
having designated a certain circle of admirers, he stopped developing. Numerous experts voiced the idea that

Библиографические ссылки

Abney, Steven. 1987. The English noun phrase in its sentential aspect, MIT: PhD thesis.pp 105.

Ackema, Peter & Maaike Schoorlemmer. 2006. Middles. In The Blackwell companion to syntax, eds. Martin Everaert & Henk van Riemsdijk, 131-203.

Baltin, Mark. 2006. Extraposition. In The Blackwell companion to syntax, eds. Martin Everaert & Henk van Riemsdijk. Malden, МА/Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.pp 237-271.

Barbiers, Sjef. 1995. The syntax of interpretation, University of Leiden/HIL: PhD thesis. Barbiers, Sjef, Hans Bennis, Gunther De Vogelaer, Magda Devos & Margreet Van de Ham. 2005.pp 68-70.

Den Besten, Hans. 1978. On the presence and absence of wh-elements in Dutch comparatives. Linguistic Inquiry.pp 641-671.

Den Besten, Hans & Gert Webelhuth. 1990. Stranding. In Scrambling and barriers, eds. GUnter Grewendorf & Wolfgang Stemefeld, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.pp 77-92.

KUSHBAKOVA, M., Zarina, R. U. Z. I. M. U. R. O. D. О. V. A., & Shahram, A. S. L. O. N. О. V. (2020). Innovative Methods and Ways to Teach and Leam Foreign Language. ECLSS Online 2020a, 146.

Ахмеджанова, H., & Аслонов, Ш. (2020). Семантические типы предикатов и фазовая членимость глагольного действия. Интернаука,(12-1), 27-29.

Yusuf, А. (2022). LINGUISTIC AND CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GASTRONOMIC TERMS IN ENGLISH AND UZBEK LANGUAGES. ILM-FAN TARAQQIYOTIDA ZAMONAVIY QARASHLAR: MUAMMO VA YECHIMLAR, 197-199.

Eshchanov, B., Odilov, B., & Khakimov, O. (2019, October). Residential electricity demand in ----Uzbekistan. In Energy’ Resources of the Caspian and Central Asia: Regional and Global Outlook,

th IAEE Eurasian Conference, October 17-19, 2019. International Association for EnergyEconomics.

Аззамов, Ю. Р. (2022). ТЕРМИН ЛАР ТАРЖИМАСИНИНГ НАЗАРИЙ АСОСЛАРИ. Oriental renaissance: Innovative, educational, natural and social sciences, 2(Special Issue 24), 518-531.

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