Structural metamorphosis of thyroid status initiated by saponin introduction.

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Нишанова A., Дон A., Шарипова P., & Реймназарова G. (2022). Structural metamorphosis of thyroid status initiated by saponin introduction. in Library, 22(4), 139–143. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/14009
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Аннотация

In the article, the study of morphometric parameters using the test-point method was carried  out.  The  object  of  the  study  was  the  thyroid  gland  during  the  experimental administration of ladyginozid, which has an anti-atherosclerotic effect. The results obtained by morphometric methods rightly indicate that the daily administration of ladyginozid at a dose  of  20  mg/kg  leads  to  a  change  in  the  structure  of  the  thyroid  gland,  indicating  an increase in its morphofunctional activity.

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UDK: 612.4.09:611.441-615.322

STRUCTURAL METAMORPHOSIS OF THYROID STATUS INITIATED BY

SAPONIN INTRODUCTION.

Nishanova A.A

Don A.N

Sharipova P.A

Reimnazarova G.D

Tashkent State Dental Institute, Tashkent, Uzbekistan


Resume.

In the article, the study of morphometric parameters using the test-point method was

carried out. The object of the study was the thyroid gland during the experimental
administration of ladyginozid, which has an anti-atherosclerotic effect. The results obtained
by morphometric methods rightly indicate that the daily administration of ladyginozid at a
dose of 20 mg/kg leads to a change in the structure of the thyroid gland, indicating an
increase in its morphofunctional activity.

Key words: morphometry, test-point method, thyroid gland, ladiginoside.

Introduction.

The study of morphometric parameters of the thyroid gland using the test-point

method complements and expands the possibilities for researchers in describing the
morphofunctional activity pattern of the organ [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6].

Thyroid gland studied by

morphometric methods when experimentally administered with a preparation from plant
raw material - saponin ladiginoside. The drug, having antiatherosclerotic and hypolipidemic
effects [7, 8, 9], is a triterpene glycoside synthesized from Ladiginia bucharica plant
growing in Uzbekistan. It was obtained in glycosides laboratory of the Institute of Plant
Substances Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan (Head -
Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan,
Professor N.K. Abubakirov).

Considering the role of the thyroid gland in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, on the

one hand, and the availability of ladylginoside with anti-atherosclerotic properties, on the
other hand, it was decided to study the structural metamorphosis of the thyroid gland during
its administration using a complex of morphometric analysis.

Materials and methods.

The experimental design involved 37 sexually mature male

inbred rabbits with a baseline weight of 2.1 - 3.0 kg at the beginning of the experiment. The
animals were divided into the following groups: Group 1 - 18 rabbits received ladyginoside
orally daily at a dose of 0.002 g/kg animal weight, Group 2 was made up of intact control
animals. In addition, the animals in each group were divided into subgroups according to the
duration of the experiment: 7, 15 and 30 days.

After finishing the experiment and anatomical dissection the thyroid glands were

weighed with the accuracy of 1 mg, carried out by the standard method before making
micro preparations with slices of 5 - 10 microns thickness. Histological slices were coloured


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with haematoxylin and eosin, for RNA according to Brasch, for DNA according to Felgen,
SHIK reaction according to McManus-Hochkiss was carried out.

The numerical values of the structural components were determined using the test-

point method with volumetric percentages of the thyroid components: intrafollicular colloid,
follicular epithelium, interfollicular epithelium, and organ stroma [10, 11, 12].

The weight of the thyroid gland, colour reflecting the degree of bloodiness, and

consistency were also taken into account in assessing the condition of the thyroid gland.
Particular attention was paid to histostructure: size of follicles, condition of colloid,
intensity of its staining, presence of vacuoles. The height of follicular epithelium was
determined. The number of small, colloid-free follicles was taken into account. Colloid
accumulation index "Follicle/Epithelium" - "F/E" was calculated [4] according to the
formula:

Average follicle diameter, µm
"F/E" = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Doubled average height of follicular epithelium, µm
In addition to the above indices, an aggregate morphofunctional thyroid index (АMI)

was calculated [1, 3, 4, ], which implies that two groups of characteristics must be
integrated to assess the performance of any organ by indirect indices. One group is the
number of working elements (mass, volume, percentage, proportion, etc.), the other is the
intensity of their functioning (indicators of cytometry, karyometrics, epithelium height,
quantitative histochemistry, etc.).

АMI is calculated according to the formula: 0.25Be + 0.25IN + 0.25Me, where Be is

follicle epithelial height in µm, IN is the accumulation index: ratio of follicle diameter to
doubled follicle epithelial height, Me is epithelial mass in g.

Results and discussion.

A descriptive study of the thyroid glands of intact animals in the control group

indicated that the qualitative and quantitative parameters indicate their normal structure and
correspond to the descriptions given in the experimental works performed in this region
earlier [5, 6, 13].

The thyroid glands of animals treated with ladyginoside for 7 days were characterized

by an increase in their relative weight. Qualitative differences in this group from the control
were manifested by a decrease in the size of follicles, a change in the tinctorial properties of
intrafollicular colloid in the form of its liquefaction, the appearance of marginal
vacuolization, resulting in a colloid with festoon edges, in some places there were follicles
with "foamed" colloid.

There was an increase in the height of the follicular epithelium, an increase in the

relative volume of the interfollicular epithelium and stroma. The latter was due to the
vascular component, which, according to some authors [7, 8, 14], indicates increased
activity of the gland. There was also a decrease in the intensity of staining when using SHIF
reagent, thyrocyte nuclei were less intensely stained by Felgen due to diffuse distribution of
DNA grains, RNA was detected more clearly.


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Quantitative analysis of the thyroid gland signs in rabbits treated with ladyginoside

was carried out taking into account the currently accepted recommendations [1, 5, 6, 7].
Compared with the animals of the control group, in experimental rabbits there was an
increase in the value of indicators, the rise of which indicates an increase in
morphofunctional activity of the gland. We are talking about such indicators as the relative
weight of the thyroid, the height of the follicular epithelium, the relative volume of the
follicular epithelium, interfollicular epithelium and stroma, АMI.

The relative volume proportion of follicular epithelium changed insignificantly, while

the proportion of interfollicular epithelium increased sharply, indicating an increased
proliferation of typical thyroid epithelium and active follicular neoplasia. The SMP of the
gland, taking into account changes in the most tested indices of histophysiological state,
being 9.94 points, exceeds 3.7 times the АMI of control animals.

Increasing the experiment up to 15 days leads to further increase of relative gland mass

up to 1.34 mg/100g. Marked signs of hypertrophy of the follicular epithelium and their
nuclei, which when quantified is manifested in a further decrease in the "colloid
accumulation index - F/E", the average diameter of the follicles. As after 7 days of the
experiment, the relative volume of the follicular epithelium increased slightly, and a
significant difference was revealed in the relative proportion of the interfollicular
epithelium. SMP increased to 15.29 points on the average, differing both from the control
animals, in which SMP was 2.64, and from the previous group of animals, in which it was
9.94.

In terms of discussion of the results, taking into account the literature and our own

research data, it should be noted that the introduction of ladylinositide, leads to changes in
the structure of the thyroid gland, interpreted as a gradual increase in the morphofunctional
activity of the thyroid as the experiment lengthens [3, 11, 14].

Conclusion.

1. The results obtained in the experiment indicate that daily administration of

ledginoside at the dose of 20.0 mg/kg of weight leads to changes in the structure of the
thyroid gland, indicating an increase in its morphofunctional activity. At the same time, the
initial metamorphosis in the morphology of the thyroid gland was detected as early as day 7
of the experiment, with a gradual increase in the indices, reaching maximum expression on
day 30 of the experiment.

2. Тhe morphometric methods tested in this study, allow the metamorphosis of

thyroid status to be objectively assessed using a set of data. The value of the methods under
consideration lies not only in the fact that they bring morphological analysis to a
qualitatively higher level, but also in the affordability of using these techniques, as they do
not require expensive equipment from researchers.

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Щитовидная железа: морфометрический анализ // Научный журнал «Успехи
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the triterpene glycoside ladyginoside // Journal Innova. - №4. - 2022. - С. 13 - 17. (Russ)
Дон А.Н. Функциональная морфология аденогипофиза при введении тритерпенового
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гликозидов / Дон А.Н. – Ташкент: Издательство «Complex Print», 2022. – 176 с.

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influence of ladynoside in experiment // Journal of Medicine and Innovations, 2021, No 4,
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some morphometric methods in the study of functional morphology of pituitary gland //
Mat. IV congress of pathologists of the Republic of Belarus with international participation,
Minsk, March 24-25, 2022 - Minsk: Belarusian State Medical University, 2022. - С. 106 -
109. (Russ) Дон А.Н., Магрупов Б.А., Реймназарова Г.Д., Нишанова А.А. Применение
некоторых морфометрических методов при изучении функциональной морфологии
гипофиза // Сб. мат. IV съезда патологоанатомов Республики Беларусь с
международным участием, г. Минск, 24-25 марта 2022 г. – Минск: БГМУ, 2022. – С.
106 – 109.

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influence of ladylginoside and its aglycon hederagenin: Ph. - Tashkent. 1994.-20с, 1994.

(Russ) Дон А. Н. Морфофункциональное состояние гипофиза и щитовидной железы
под влиянием ладыгинозида и его агликона хедерагенина: канд. дис. – Ташкент.
1994.-20с, 1994.

8. (Russ) Дон А. Н. Гистоморфометрия аденогипофиза и щитовидной железы под

влиянием ладыгинозида в эксперименте // Журнал "Медицина и инновации", 2021, №
4, С. 55-63.

9. Don A.N. Histomorphometry of adenohypophysis and thyroid gland under the

influence of ladynoside in experiment // Journal of Medicine and Innovations, 2021, no. 4,
pp. 55-63. (Russ) Дон А. Н. Функциональная морфология аденогипофиза при введении
тритерпенового гликозида ладыгинозида // Журнал «Innova». – 2021, №4, С. 13 – 17.
https://doi.org/10.21626/innova/2021.4/03.

10. Don A. N., Kakharov Z. A., Artykov D. D. Atherosclerosis: Socio-economic

Challenge of the Present and Ways to Improve Public Health //Re-health journal. - 2022. -


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№. 3 (15). - С. 31-33. (Russ) Дон А. Н., Каххаров З. А., Артыков Д. Д. Атеросклероз:
социально-экономический вызов современности и пути улучшения общественного
здравоохранения //Re-health journal. – 2022. – №. 3 (15). – С. 31-33.

11. Don, A., Reimnazarova, G., Nishanova, A. (2022). Evaluation of the

morphofunctional status of the thyroid gland during administration of ladyginoside and
hederagenin // Medicine and Innovations. - 2021. - №4, С. 8-13. (Russ) Дон, А.,
Реймназарова, Г., Нишанова, А. (2022). Оценка морфофункционального статуса
щитовидной железы при введении ладыгинозида и хедерагенина // Медицина и
инновации. – 2021. - №4, С. 8–13.

12. Aleksandrov N. G. et al. On the mechanism of action of triterpene glycosides //

Proc. of Scientific Proceedings. "Republican Scientific and Practical Conference of
Pathologists of Uzbekistan". - Tashkent. - 1995 г. - С-16-17. (Russ) Александров Н. Г. и
др. О механизме действия тритерпеновых гликозидов // Сб. науч. тр.
«Республиканской

научно-

практической

конференции

патологоанатомов

Узбекистана». - Ташкент. – 1995 г. - С-16-17.

13. Don A., Nagai S., Sadykova D. Assessment of morphological changes in the

thyroid gland by test-point method with the introduction of dipsacoside //Астана
медициналық журналы. – 2022. – №. S1. – С. 181-186. DOI 10.54500/2790-
1203.S1.2022.181-186.

14.. Bykov V.L. Histophysiology of the thyroid gland in postnatal ontogeny. Archives

of Anatomy. - 1979. -№3. -С. 80-95. (Russ) Быков В.Л. Гистофизиология щитовидной
железы в постнатальном онтогенезе. Архив анатомии. - 1979. -№3. -С. 80-95.


Библиографические ссылки

Chumachenko P.A. Thyroid gland: morphometric analysis // Scientific journal "Advances of modern natural science". - 2008. - №12. - C. 21-25. (Russ) Чумаченко П.А. Щитовидная железа: морфометрический анализ // Научный журнал «Успехи современного естествознания». - 2008. - №12. - С. 21-25.

Don A.N. Functional morphology of the adenohypophysis during administration of the triterpene glycoside ladyginoside // Journal Innova. - №4. - 2022. - C. 13 - 17. (Russ) Дон A.H. Функциональная морфология аденогипофиза при введении тритерпенового гликозила ладыгинозида И Журнал «Innova». - №4. - 2022. - С. 13-17.

Atherosclerosis and thyroid gland in experimental introduction of tritcrpcnc glycosides / Don A.N. - Tashkent: Complex Print Publishing House, 2022. - 176 c (Russ) Атеросклероз и щитовидная железа при экспериментальном введении тритсрпсновых гликозидов / Дон А.Н. - Ташкент: Издательство «Complex Print», 2022. - 176 с.

Medical Morphometry: Manual I G.G. Avtandilov. - Moscow: Medicine, 1990. (Russ) Медицинская морфометрия: Руководство / Г. Г. Автандилов. - Москва: Медицина, 1990.

Don A.N. Histomorphometry of adenohypophysis and thyroid gland under the influence of ladynoside in experiment // Journal of Medicine and Innovations, 2021, No 4, pp. 55-63. (Russ) Дон A.H. Гистоморфометрия аденогипофиза и щитовидной железы под влиянием ладыгинозида в эксперименте // Журнал "Медицина и инновации", 2021, №4, С. 55-63.

Don A.N., Magrupov В.A., Reimnazarova G.D., Nishanova A.A. Application of some morphometric methods in the study of functional morphology of pituitary gland // Mat. IV congress of pathologists of the Republic of Belarus with international participation, Minsk, March 24-25, 2022 - Minsk: Belarusian State Medical University, 2022. - C. 106 -109. (Russ) Дон A.H., Магрупов Б.А., Рсймназарова Г.Д., Нишанова А.А. Применение некоторых морфометрических методов при изучении функциональной морфологии гипофиза // Сб. мат. IV съезда патологоанатомов Республики Беларусь с международным участием, г. Минск, 24-25 марта 2022 г. - Минск: БГМУ, 2022. - С. 106-109.

Don A.N. Morphofunctional state of pituitary gland and thyroid gland under the influence of ladylginoside and its aglycon hederagenin: Ph. - Tashkent. 1994.-20c, 1994. (Russ) Дон A. H. Морфофункциональное состояние гипофиза и щитовидной железы под влиянием ладыгинозида и его агликона хедерагенина: канд. дис. - Ташкент. I994.-20C, 1994.

(Russ) Дон А. Н. Гистоморфометрия аденогипофиза и щитовидной железы под влиянием ладыгинозида в эксперименте // Журнал "Медицина и инновации", 2021, № 4, С. 55-63.

Don A.N. Histomorphomctry of adenohypophysis and thyroid gland under the influence of ladynoside in experiment // Journal of Medicine and Innovations, 2021, no. 4, pp. 55-63. (Russ) Дон A. H. Функциональная морфология аденогипофиза при введении тритсрпснового гликозида ладыгинозида // Журнал «Innova». - 2021, №4, С. 13 - 17. https://doi.Org/l 0.21626/innova/2021.4/03.

Don A. N., Kakharov Z. A., Artykov D. D. Atherosclerosis: Socio-economic Challenge of the Present and Ways to Improve Public Health //Re-health journal. - 2022. -

№. 3 (15). - С. 31-33. (Russ) Дон А. Н., Каххаров 3. А., Артыков Д. Д. Атеросклероз: социально-экономический вызов современности и пути улучшения общественного здравоохранения //Re-health journal. - 2022. -№. 3 (15). - С. 31-33.

Don, A., Reimnazarova, G., Nishanova, A. (2022). Evaluation of the morphofunctional status of the thyroid gland during administration of ladyginoside and hederagenin // Medicine and Innovations. - 2021. - №4, C. 8-13. (Russ) Дон, A., Реймназарова, Г., Нишанова, Л. (2022). Оценка морфофункционального статуса щитовидной железы при введении ладыгинозида и хсдсрагснипа // Медицина и инновации. - 2021. - №4, С. 8-13.

Aleksandrov N. G. ct al. On the mechanism of action of tritcrpcnc glycosides // Proc, of Scientific Proceedings. "Republican Scientific and Practical Conference of Pathologists of Uzbekistan". - Tashkent. - 1995 г. - C-16-17. (Russ) Александров H. Г. и др. О механизме действия тритерпеновых гликозидов // Сб. науч. тр. «Республиканской научно- практической конференции патологоанатомов Узбекистана». - Ташкент. - 1995 г. - С-16-17.

Don A., Nagai S., Sadykova D. Assessment of morphological changes in the thyroid gland by test-point method with the introduction of dipsacoside //Астана медициналык журналы. - 2022. - №. SI. - С. 181-186. DOI 10.54500/2790-1203.S1.2022.181-186.

. Bykov V.L. Histophysiology of the thyroid gland in postnatal ontogeny. Archives of Anatomy. - 1979. -№3. -C. 80-95. (Russ) Быков В JI. Гистофизиология щитовидной железы в постнатальном онтогенезе. Архив анатомии. - 1979. -№3. -С. 80-95.

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