Особенности самообучения в преподавании медицинского английского языка в условиях карантина

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Шарипова, Ф., Джалилова, Н., Толипова, Ш., Айметова, К., & Гузачева, Н. (2021). Особенности самообучения в преподавании медицинского английского языка в условиях карантина. in Library, 21(1), 990–996. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/20494
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Аннотация

В настоящее время в связи с пандемией COVID-19 большая часть вузов Узбекистана перешла на дистанционную форму обучения, в частности иностранного языка (преимущественно английского) на первых курсах с большим использованием принципов самообучения. первый опыт дистанционного обучения на принципах самостоятельного изучения дисциплины «Медицинский английский язык» студентов 1 курса педиатрического факультета Ташкентского педиатрического медицинского института в условиях карантина в связи с пандемией COVID-19. Целью настоящего исследования является проверка предположения о том, что при обучении медицинскому английскому языку, в частности в условиях дистанционного обучения, такие педагогические стратегии, как тесты и ситуационные задания, способствуют развитию навыков самостоятельной работы учащихся и помогают отработать методики оценивания обучающихся. самообучение. В этом контексте в статье делается акцент на самостоятельном обучении как части дистанционного обучения и подчеркивается важность развития навыков самостоятельного обучения с помощью инновационных педагогических технологий. Затем следует экспериментальное исследование. Результаты этого исследования могут быть использованы в качестве справочного материала при анализе методов обучения, которые развивают навыки самообучения учащихся. Наконец, авторы делают вывод о педагогических методах, актуальных для обучения навыкам самообучения.


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PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION (2021) 58(3): 990-996

ISSN: 0033-3077

Article Received: 13th September, 2020; Article Revised: 25th January, 2021; Article Accepted: 12th February, 2021

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Self-study Specificities in Teaching Medical English in Quarantine
Conditions

Sharipova Feruza I.

1*

, Jalilova Nilufar D

2

., Tolipova Shakhnoza Sh

3

., Aymetova K

4

., Guzacheva N

5

.

1,2,3,4,5

Tashkent Pediatrician Medical Institute, Uzbekistan

*sharipova.feruza19@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

At present time due to COVID-19 pandemic the most part of Uzbekistan high schools started distance form of teaching, in
particularly a foreign language (mostly English) in the first courses with great using of self-study principles.. The article is
focused on the first experience of the distance learning based on self-study principles discipline "Medical English" of the 1st
course students of Pediatrics faculty in the Tashkent Pediatric Medical Institute under the quarantine conditions due to COVID-19
pandemic.

The aim of the present study is to check the assumption that in teaching the Medical English language, in particular in

distance learning conditions, such pedagogical strategies as tests and situation tasks contribute to learner self-study skills
development and help work out techniques for assessing learner self-study. In this context, the article foregrounds self-study as a
part of distance learning and highlights the importance of developing self-study skills via innovative pedagogical technologies .
This is followed by an experimental study. The findings of this study can be used as a reference when reflecting on teaching
practices that develop learner self-study skills. Finally, the authors conclude with pedagogical methods relevant for teaching self-
study skills.

Keywords

self-study, distance learning, pandemic, medical school, English language, situation task

Introduction

Learning English by students became quite a
fashionable trend 20 years ago in the Republic of
Uzbekistan and it has been on its rise since. Many
institutes all over the Republic offer the
opportunity

of

second

language

learning,

particularly English although in the capital city,
Tashkent, there are institutes providing also
French or German languages. However, these are
usually lingual institutes and they use language
immersion as their main teaching method. Other
non-lingual institutes, technical or medical ones,
offer the possibility of second language learning
with the help of different foreign methods. Such
classes are usually held once or twice in a week.
But what in fact is self-study in the distance form
of learning? What do the students do during off-
line English lesson in medical institute such as
Tashkent Pediatric Medical Institute? How
motivating should the lesson be? In the Republic
of Uzbekistan many universities and institutes
offer this possibility, some, particularly lingual
ones, offer programmes only in English. However,
these are just rare cases for medical ones. Most
often high medical schools provide an English
course for their students as basic curriculum

discipline once a week through telephone
applications such as ZOOM, Telegram and Whats
App.
Distance learning - means of getting a specialty at
a distance from school at the house. One of the
forms of distance learning there's an e-learning in
which the teacher's communication and the
student is by correspondence via mail, social
networks, computer and telephone programme
applications.
New computer programs and platforms have
appeared, with the help of which distance
education has received opportunities of closer
communication between the teacher and students,
getting certain special knowledge and control over
its practical application. New modern educational
programs are being developed aimed at spreading
various forms of distance education in the world
medical industry [1].The use of modern electronic
devices such as laptop, tablet, and mobile phone
has allowed teacher-student communication face-
to-face online, no matter how far away they are
from each other. These possibilities have become
us in the case of the spread of the pandemic
COVID-19 around the world and the need to
continue the educational process.


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PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION (2021) 58(3): 990-996

ISSN: 0033-3077

Article Received: 13th September, 2020; Article Revised: 25th January, 2021; Article Accepted: 12th February, 2021

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In accordance with the decisions and orders of the
Special Republican Commission to fight against
the

Coranovirus,

many

high

schools

in

Uzbekistan, including the Tashkent Pediatric
Medical Institute, since 1 April 2020 the first
among medical universities in Uzbekistan has
started distance learning for students using the
latest technologies, computer programs and
platforms such as Zoom and Moodle, where
students and teachers could organize full-scale
practical classes, credits, exams from the first days
of introduction to the completion of COVID-19
quarantine.
The main problem was adapting general principles
of self-education to distance learning practice.
The teacher was tasked with teaching and
monitoring the application of self-study skills of
medical students in English lessons during
distance learning, with the use of tests and
situation tasks.
The effectiveness of students’ performance
within the field of higher education is significantly
determined by learner self-study. Fostering learner
self-study’s skills has received great interest from
researches all around the world (Dam, 1995;
Holec, 1980; Little, 1991). This issue is closely
related to learner-centered methods (Benson,
2011). The methods interpret autonomous learners
to possess the ability to control and take
responsibility of their learning (Cotterall, 2000).
Learners are viewed as active interpreters and
processers of knowledge, which is based on their
own interests and needs (Littlewood, 1996,
Brown, 2006). Scientists argue that development
of self-study is more efficient. They consider that
being able to take responsibility for one’s own
learning

implies

intrinsic

motivation,

metacognitive skills, and awareness of the subject
(Lewis & Reinders, 2008). The issue of assessing
learner autonomy in learning foreign languages is
also of great importance, though it has not been
studied that widely. The education process itself is
provided by teacher possesses not only a degree
in teaching English but also pedagogical

technologies. For successful supply of the course
in teaching Medical English to students with
development of self-study skills, itis considered
that teaching English as natural as native
language. Moreover, also psychologists claim (Cai
Y.) that it is good to start learning a foreign
language because all the perceptions is stored in
the same area of one’s brain[2,36p.]. However
each foreign speech has a different network of
neurons, which consequently requires switching
among individual networks. Therefore, as a
proverb goes “The limits of my language mean
the limits of my world”. In addition to that, it has
already

been

scientifically

proven

that

professionals with knowledge and skills of
English language and autonomic professional
development actually has a strong potential to
acquire almost an infinite number of new
information, especially when second language
learning

is

concerned.

In

according

to

psychological tests self-study principle learning
improve cognitive activity at students in
comparison to those, who do not. In socio-lingual
sphere students that use self-study principle in
learning English language have less barriers in
professional and household communication.
The aim of the present study is to check the
assumption that in teaching the Medical English
language, in particular in distance learning
conditions, such pedagogical strategies as tests
and situation tasks contribute to learner self-study
skills development and help work out techniques
for assessing learner self-study. In this context, the
article foregrounds self-study as a part of distance
learning and highlights the importance of
developing self-study skills via innovative
pedagogical technologies . This is followed by an
experimental study. The findings of this study can
be used as a reference when reflecting on teaching
practices that develop learner self-study skills.
Finally, the authors conclude with pedagogical
methods relevant for teaching self-study skills.

Literature Review


Researches

have

approached

self-study

phenomenon from different perspectives. As a
result, there exist various views on development
of learners’ self-study skills. While these points of
view may differ from one another, they do share

some underlying assumptions. Certain strategies
and processes show that learner self-study can be
developed in an institutional setting. They all view
learner self-study as a learner’s innate capacities
(Benson, 2001; Errey & Schollaert, 2005; Esch,


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PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION (2021) 58(3): 990-996

ISSN: 0033-3077

Article Received: 13th September, 2020; Article Revised: 25th January, 2021; Article Accepted: 12th February, 2021

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2010). All of them describe the promotion of
learner self-study skills as the provision of
circumstances and contexts for language learners
that will make the learners more likely to take
charge of all or part of their language learning
program. To clarify the theories on the promotion
of learner self-study, Benson [3,p.152] promoted
six

different

approaches:

resource-based,

technology-based,

learner-based,

classroom-

based,

curriculum-based,

and

teacher-based

approaches. Resource-based and technology-
based approaches refer mainly to out-of-class
strategies. The four latter approaches consider the
issue from within-a-classroom context. That is
why they are essential to this study. Learner-based
approaches, as Benson believes, show the
relationship of learner training to learner
development. Classroom based approaches, as
Benson sees them, aim to promote learner
autonomy by incorporating learners in the
decision-making

processes.

Curriculum-based

approaches, according to Benson, show that
learner control is extended to the curricular level.
Teacher-based approaches, in Benson’s view,
emphasize that learner autonomy takes into
account teacher autonomy [4,p.32]. Littlewood
(1996) offers a special framework for developing
self-study skills in and through foreign language
teaching. The offered framework, according to
Littlewood (1996), demonstrates that self-study is
a multidimensional capacity in two different ways.
The

first

variant

shows

that

self-study

development consists of three domains: as
communication (on a task level), as learning (on
learning level), and personally ( on a personal
level). The second variant believes that self-study
development in any of these three domains covers
two obligatory components, namely, ability and
willingness, which can further be subdivided into
two components: ability into knowledge and
skills, and willingness into motivation and
confidence [5, p.427].
The framework offered by Dam (2011), is, in
Benson’s (2011) terms, a classroom-based
approach to the development of learner self-study
development . Dam (2011) pays special attention
to the teacher’s role in the development of learner
self-study skills. The teacher should have students
take over the responsibility of learning, i.e.
planning, carrying out the plans, and evaluating

the outcome. Some researchers concentrated their
work on the teacher and his or her role in learner
self-study development[6,p.44]. For example,
Powell (1988) argues that, while students are
usually blamed for being heavily dependent on the
teacher in their learning, teachers rely on students
in their teaching as well, thinking that it is their
job to teach and pass on information. In contrast,
Powell (1988) points out that the role of the
teacher is crucial in creating an atmosphere of
trust and confidence, in which learners can
exercise their independent judgement and pursue
their interests[7,p.108].
Many

researches

relate

learner

self-study

development with enhanced motivation. The
relationship between the two seems quite obvious;
by allowing students to set and act according to
their own goals, they become intrinsically
motivated to achieve their goals. This is the
conclusion of Dickinson (1995), who states that
there is a dynamic relationship between such
concepts as intrinsic motivation and learner
autonomy [8,p.164]. However, the direction of the
connection has caused some debate. Spratt,
Humphreys, and Chan (2002), for example, found
that motivation may play an inhibiting or enabling
role in the realization of learner self-study
development: the connection between motivation
and self-study development seems to be
bidirectional. Thus, as Spratt et al. (2002) suggest,
when facing resistance and avoidance on the
students’ behalf, rather than immediately pushing
those students towards autonomy, the teacher
should promote intrinsic motivation and devote
time to activities that show the usefulness of
language learning[9, p.245].
The research followed the scientists’ point of view
who analyzed the problem of learner self-study
development and considered choice, goals,
motivation, metacognition, support, and emotional
climate to be the most important issues. From
these, choice and support were chosen to be
analyzed in this study. The authors of the study
aim at verifying the supposition that pedagogical
technologies in teaching foreign languages is a
strategy that incorporates choice and support and
contributes to learner self-study development.



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Article Received: 13th September, 2020; Article Revised: 25th January, 2021; Article Accepted: 12th February, 2021

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Figure 1.

ZOOM class technologies

Methods

In the terms of different approaches, the authors of
the article are concerned with the idea of
introducing some creative elements (situation
tasks) into the process of studying Medical
English in distance learning process. Situation
tasks were chosen due to the fact that situation
task is one of the staples of English as a foreign
language teaching. Situation tasks are used to
allow students to practice speaking in a
conversational situation, build confidence and
fluency, assess progress, and put learning into
action [10,p.125]. It was stated that the
development of language performance occurred
during sociocultural interactions in the learning
process. Regarding the importance of speaking
skills for professional communication, the authors
made students communicate within the context of
their future profession. After years of teaching
experience, the researchers could affirm in this
study that students’ creative abilities are an
inherent part of distance learning process among
the students with higher levels of motivation and
the teacher’s contributions. This research pursues
the idea that taking part in situation tasks can
promote students’ autonomous learning, thus
considering a situation task to be a strategy that is
very important.
As we can see the most non-lingual high schools
have their own programme in a foreign language
with General English learning, not for specific
preferences of students. Most English classes
have less requirements and demands in lingual
and communicative areas at students in non-
lingual high schools. Some technical institutes
include in these classes of English professional
glossary, some invite foreign specialists for
professional debates in English classes, which is
obviously better since students motivation and
interest to English classes are much higher.
Moreover, the State Program of teaching English
language

in

Uzbekistan

published

ESL

Instructions for non-lingual institutes based on
British education reform trend (IELTS). Specifics
future profession in teaching contains

following

suggestions: 1. involvement of professional
glossary; 2. involvement interactive technologies;
3. Development social-lingual competence; 4. not
use of native language; 5. use team and individual
assignment

Table 1.

Self-study skills in teacher-student

strategy

Skills

Student

Teacher

Planning

take over the
responsibility of
learning

provide
conditions and
resources for
students

Reflection

Student faced
with the problem
of studying
English
language for
learning
purposes,
whether you are
a teacher or a
student, and then
need to choose
methods or ways
of the upcoming
work on its
design and the
concept of tasks.

As using
well-known
methods of
organizing and
teaching, the
teachers
provided
students with
the
opportunity to
conduct
reflection in
groups with
structuring
them in a
certain
semantic
order, as
required by
the material

Evaluation

Students can
send completed
tasks to each
other; participate
in their
discussion by
writing
comments and
leaving
feedback.

Teachers can
develop a
reward system
for increase
their interest
and
motivation to
study

Experience shows that the ZOOM program in
distance learning provides many opportunities for
students to study themselves. Whether during a
practical lesson or after teacher can answer


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PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION (2021) 58(3): 990-996

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Article Received: 13th September, 2020; Article Revised: 25th January, 2021; Article Accepted: 12th February, 2021

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students' questions, to start the discussion in real
time. The practical class starts with a control of
students' presence at the class in the form of a test
control or a situation problem on the topic.
The situation is a medical task, except the basic
the text, contains illustrative material. These could
be photographs, schemes for assessing physical
development of newborns and children of
different ages, X-rays, electrocardiograms, results
of laboratory and of instrumental research.
To solve a task that students receive via a link in
Chat, a certain time is entered depending on the
complexity of the task. A task can be solved in
real time with the involvement of all students in
the group, or it can be solved on its own. After
self-study the student sends results to the
Telegram channel.
Every lesson students solve from 1 to 3 tasks with
an answer to a question from the teacher and 10
tests. All sent tasks and tests are checked by the
instructor and an overall grade is given based on
the student's active participation during the class.
Assignments are received by the student at the
beginning, in the mid and at the end of the class,
the instructor has the opportunity to control the
student's constant presence in the class. If a
student has registered, but hasn't completed any of
these tasks, the teacher records his absence.
During the practical lesson, the teacher should the
opportunity to ask each student and get reply in
real time, offer students to solve a situation
problem and make a differential assessment,
consider and to evaluate photos and diagrams of
laboratory

tests,

X-rays,

tomograms,

electrocardiograms and etc. During such distance
teaching, the teacher has the opportunity to
determine the level of preparation for the
knowledge of each student, and during a
discussion or justification of answers to situation
problems - to assess the level of English medical
communication and self-education skills. Students
can connect to ZOOM using computers, tablets,
smartphones and other mobile devices. If a
student does not have a video camera or
microphone in the device, they can inform the
instructor in real time at Chat about the attendance
and send answers. Teachers can check the tasks
and tests that are presented in the Telegram
channel. In the next lesson, the teacher discusses

detected errors with students and organizes a
group discussion to correct them.
Activities during English lessons. Besides Internet
sources, there is a great number of teaching
materials for students to use and apply on medical
English learning. There are, for example,
interactive technologies and computer suppliers
that help intensify the educational process and
motive students to improve their English level.
The students also like to see all different kinds of
visuals: posters, flashcards, pictures, videos, PPT
slides. The best is to combine printed materials
with computes and audio-visual suppliers. The
students like to be engaged in practical, fun
activities and exercises on professional themes,
and participate in making things like essays or
presentations. There are several teaching methods
which keep 1st course student’s attention and
concentration during distance learning. They are
as follows:• method of monologue and
conversation on-line; • method of role-plays on-
line. Probably, the most effective method is the
method of role games (role plays) because one
remembers: 10% of what one has read, 20% of
what one has heard, 30% of what one has seen,
50% of what one has heard and seen, 70% of what
one has said, 90% of what one has done [11,
p.1997]

Results

Distance learning was very positively received by
students and accompanied by high and stable
attendance.
Taking into account the constant and gradual
extension of quarantine due to the COVID-19
pandemic, the organized form of distance learning
with development of self-study skills was
constantly changing and adapting to the current
problems and, in our opinion, quite allows
students to perform the training in a qualitative,
timely and complete manner a plan for the
Medical English discipline and prepare for the
credits. During distance learning in the department
“Foreign Languages” in the Tashkent Pediatric
Medical Institute there were 70 groups in the 1st
year at the same time. Thus, during the quarantine,
the department organized distance learning with
700 students in real time according to the
curriculum and class schedule. The help of such
social networks as Telegram, What’s App and


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PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION (2021) 58(3): 990-996

ISSN: 0033-3077

Article Received: 13th September, 2020; Article Revised: 25th January, 2021; Article Accepted: 12th February, 2021

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videoconference ZOOM, organized the distance
learning. The social networks help to both teacher
and students to be in contact for all time,
controlling the processes of self-education. The
videoconferences by application ZOOM, the
English lessons for medical students were
organized in creative way, by using audio and
visual aids. Taking into account the time and
space limitations, the department “Foreign
Languages”

in

the

TashPMI

organized

presentations and handouts in the MOODLE
system. This system provides full control of
students’ activity and develops self-education
skills in learning English lesson. The presentations
on Power Point Program with photos and audio
links on medical themes, for instance “Human
div”, “Skeletal system”, “Cardiovascular
system” improve reading and listening skills of
Medical English language. The handouts in the
form of homework such Worksheet, Tests,
Crosswords and other grammar and lexical
graphic organizers help students to increase
motivation and improve writing skills. Speaking
skills of English language as well as medical
professional dialogues, monologues, retelling the
text, debates, reports can be mastered by students
during ZOOM videoconference.
English e-learning classroom activities often
include role plays. The teacher tries to control the
process during on-line English lesson and students
respond

to

instructions

requiring

general

knowledge of English language conversation and
medicine. This approach can be used for
practising and teaching various things and using it
in students’ activities is double effective.
Moreover, it does not really take much for the
students to prepare role plays-based English
language activities because this approach requires
not only basic language, but also professional
medical themes: • Our Institute • Medical
Education in GB• Anatomy • Physiology of
human organism • Symptoms • Diagnostic tools •
At the Chemist. Some of the interactive activities
might be graphic organizers. For example, when
talking about the div parts, teachers can use the
fish bone for pointing shoulders, knees and toes.
Or when learning diseases symptoms, students can
work in brain storm style. For example, the
teacher says: Angina Pectoris! And all the
students tell the known symptoms of the given

disease. When they find out them, they discuss
and sharing with own opinions in on-line mode.

Conclusion


The system of distance learning with self-study
requires further development, improvement and
technical support. There is no doubt about its
effectiveness and usefulness in both normal and
emergency conditions in higher education. In
distance education, teachers improve their
qualification, mastering new forms of teaching
work, which fully meets the latest requirements in
the organization of the educational process in a
higher medical school.
The teaching of English to the 1 course students of
medical institute will be more effective and
motivated if it meets professional interests of each
student and it is appropriate to his/her level.
Moreover, it is successful if the teacher of English
has an adequate knowledge of the target language,
masters relevant methodology of teaching English
at this stage of education and s/he is enthusiastic
about teaching young people[12, p.183]. Then, it
is also an asset for the student since s/he picks up
the language in the same way as s/he acquires
his/her native language.

Limitations and Future Studies


The limitations of the study are that only 1

st

year medical students in quarantine conditions
participated in this research and that the
differential implementation of the teaching
medical English in the professional field of others
specialties was not taken into account. Finally,
we recommend to carry out similar research
studies that include control groups so that the
magnitude of the effect could be analyzed
more accurately, which will ensure a higher
degree of validity of the results.


Acknowledgement

We would like to acknowledge Tashkent Pediatric
Medical Institute for providing guidance and
insight in qualitative data analysis.




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PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION (2021) 58(3): 990-996

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Article Received: 13th September, 2020; Article Revised: 25th January, 2021; Article Accepted: 12th February, 2021

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Buranova D.D. Alimova M.Kh. The organization of activity in the course of the training to foreign language/Forum of young scientists, 2017, 1(5):125-129.

Sharipova F.I., Akhmedova A.F., Jalilova N.D. Interactive Learning in the Medical English Classroom/Universal Journal of Educational Research, 2020, 1997-2000.

Xu LN. Teacher training for teaching-in-English. Chin Out Sch Ed 2014; 12: 183-4.

Ukala GC. Clinical dialogues in hospital medicine. Philadelphia: Bookbaby; 2015, p. 8-29.

Wu F. Construction of high quality medical teaching-in-English based on medical education reform trend. Chin High Med Ed 2011; 2: 14-5.

Walker HK, Hall WD, Hurst JW. Clinical Methods: the history, physical, and laboratory examinations. 3rd ed. Boston: Butterworths; 1990, p. 6-38.

Abi RV, Raad K, Daaboul Y, Korjian S, Asmar N, Jammal M, et al. Medical education in a foreign language and history-taking in the native language in Lebanon – a nationwide survey. BMC Med Educ 2016; 16(1): 1-6.

Qian JY. English language teaching under classification of medical colleges and universities—case analysis of reform of read-writetranslation curriculum for English Master in Nanjing Medical University. J Jinlin Prov Inst Ed 2013; 5: 99-101.

Cezar DM, Paz AA, Costa MR, Pinto MEB, Magalhães CR. Doctors’ perceptions on distance education and contribution of Family Health specialization. Interface (Botucatu). 2019;23(Suppl 1):e180037. doi:10.1590/Interface.180037.

Roller-Wirnsberger R, Zitta S, Herzog C, et al. Massive open online courses (MOOCs) for long-distance education in geriatric medicine across Europe. Eur Geriatr Med. 2019;10:989-994. doi:10.1007/s41999-019-00252-7.

Changiz T, Haghani F, Nowroozi N. Are postgraduate students in distance medical education program ready for e-learning? A survey in Iran. J Educ Health Promot. 2013;2:61. Published 2013 Oct 30. doi:10.4103/2277-9531.120862.

Sargeant JM. Medical education for rural areas: opportunities and challenges for information and communications technologies. J Postgrad Med. 2005;51(4):301-307.

Sigulem DM, Morais TB, Cuppari L, et al. A Webbased distance education course in nutrition in public health: case study. J Med Internet Res. 2001;3(2):E16. doi:10.2196/jmir.3.2.e16.

Skrypnyk LM. Distance medical education: current issues and realities. Arhiv klinichnoi' medycyny. 2012;(2):116-118.

Sharipova F.I., Akhmedova A.F., Jalilova N.D. Interactive Learning in the Medical English Classroom/Universal Journal of Educational Research, 2020, 1997-2000.

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