Main aspects of the influence of "brain leaks" on economic security

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Шаюсупова L. (2021). Main aspects of the influence of "brain leaks" on economic security. in Library, 21(2), 1–8. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/7737
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Аннотация

This article is devoted to one of the key issues of threats to economic security, through the basis of national security. The article discusses the main components of national security, partially presents the problems associated with its provision. The external and internal threats are considered, in the aspect of economic security, in particular, the problems that have arisen with the emigration of the scientific intelligentsia. On the example of Uzbekistan, the results of the work carried out on the development of science and education, affecting the decrease in the emigration rate of the scientific intelligentsia, while ensuring economic security, are considered.

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T R A N S A s i a n J o u r n a l o f

M a r k e t i n g M a n a g e m e n t

R e s e a r c h

(TAJMMR)

( D o u b l e B l i n d R e f e r e e d & P e e r R e v i e w e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l )

DOI:

10.5958/2279-0667.2021.00018.3

MAIN ASPECTS OF THE INFLUENCE OF "BRAIN LEAKS" ON

ECONOMIC SECURITY

Lobar Rixsievna Shayusupova*

*Military Technical Institute NG RUz,

Tashkent, UZBEKISTAN

ABSTRACT


This article is devoted to one of the key issues of threats to economic security, through the basis
of national security. The article discusses the main components of national security, partially
presents the problems associated with its provision. The external and internal threats are
considered, in the aspect of economic security, in particular, the problems that have arisen with
the emigration of the scientific intelligentsia. On the example of Uzbekistan, the results of the
work carried out on the development of science and education, affecting the decrease in the
emigration rate of the scientific intelligentsia, while ensuring economic security, are considered.


KEYWORDS

:

national security, economic security, financial security, energy security, defense-

industrial security, food security, external threats, internal threats, "brain drain", innovation

.

INTRODUCTION

Modern problems arising in the last ten years, more and more force people to think how solvable
they are, as their essence is multifaceted and unfortunately in the geographical format every year
covers more and more countries. The question may arise, how can problems be multifaceted?

The fact is that any development of the state is a dependent process, whether it is economic,
political, and social or another format. All systems of this process are links, united in a single
whole. More precisely, the relevance of the topic, taken as the basis of this article, are the issues
of economic security, along with information, public, environmental and other types of security,
which are the components of national security of the state. To begin with, let us consider the
basic concepts of national security.

Man, creating favorable conditions for improving the quality of life, is the source of problems
that have taken on a global nature. For example, the changing demographic situation in the world
every year is increasingly affecting a diverse range of issues related to improving the quality of


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life of the population, which include the level of health, education of the population, provision of
the population with food, the creation of new jobs that constitute the basis for a decrease rate of
migrants to other states.

But, unfortunately, statistics do not give the most comforting forecasts, where the process of
migration is increasingly out of control.

In addition, international conflicts arising for one reason or another in a number of countries lead
to an increase in the production of weapons, including nuclear weapons, which poses a particular
threat to national security.

Unstable situation in the economy, arises under the influence of various factors, for example, the
period of pandemic, which covered almost all countries of the world, has led the economy of
virtually all countries in a difficult, or rather in a stagnant state. The pandemic not only hit the
economic side, the saddest result is the death of more than 2 million people in the world [1], the
loss of faith in a stable future. And there was a feeling that nature was putting in order and
balancing the population. The only positive side is that all countries revised quite an established
system of economic, social development, the work of structures at all levels and optimized the
work process, actively using infocommunication technologies.

At the same time, however, the crime rate in the countries has not decreased, such problems as
human trafficking, the manufacture and distribution of drugs, the development and expansion of
terrorism remain a particular national threat.

As mentioned above, national security includes several concepts, among which economic
security will be discussed in more detail in this article.

For a deeper study of the main aspects of economic security, it is necessary to clarify the main
components of economic security, which include:

Financial;

Energy;

Defense industry;

Food industry.

Financial security:

The state of the banking system of the state, which is a guarantee of normal

operation of state and non-state institutions.

Energy security -

the development of the fuel and energy complex, whose products are the basis

of the country's exports, and taxes constitute a significant part of state budget revenues.

Defense-industrial security -

is the development and production of state-of-the-art equipment to

maintain the state's combat effectiveness.

Food security -

is the ability to quantitatively and qualitatively satisfy the need for food.

Highlighting the main concepts of economic security, we can say that they are directly related to
the economic interests of the state, the competitiveness of the state, business, individuals,
improving living standards, the stability of the banking system, the optimal export and import


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structure of the country, the innovative development of industries, government security measures
to prevent criminal situations, government regulation of the economy to implement social policy.

To improve the quality of life of citizens, the state must reduce income inequality, which in turn
will significantly reduce the level of the shadow economy, to control the safety of goods,
particularly imported goods, to build a social policy for a decent life of citizens.

Another component that affects the economic growth of the state is built innovation system,
which enables the introduction of new technologies, increasing productivity of goods, providing
new jobs, increasing and improving the quality of services, ensuring the rational use of natural
resources, improving the environment and environmental protection [2].

When assessing economic security, threat degrees play an important role, which include

external

and

internal threats

.

External threats

-

are sharp changes in the exchange rate of the national currency, world prices,

reduced foreign investment, terms of foreign trade, a large share of raw materials in exports of
products, a large foreign debt.

Sharp changes in the exchange rate of the national currency occur during an unstable situation in
the economy, in the crisis phase. When the world prices of oil and gas decrease, in the main
export positions of the state there is a sharp jump in prices in the domestic market. In such a
situation, when investment risks increase, foreign investment in the economy of the state
decreases.

Internal threats

- a small share of innovative products, ineffective state regulation of the

economy, depreciation of fixed capital, insufficient investment in various industries, low
competitiveness of products, low living standards of most of the population, capital flight abroad.

In the modern era, the territorial division of the world is increasingly transformed into an
intellectual division of the world. In the fierce competition, the intellectual resource has not yet
been divided. Therefore, intellectual migration is the most important international problem. In
recent years, it has become especially relevant for many post-Soviet countries, because the
economic security of the country, society and the individual largely depends on how this
problem will be solved.

The "brain leaks" or emigration of the scientific intelligentsia, is a consequence of the decreasing
demand for science. The reasons for emigration are closely linked to the crisis of science, which
is primarily caused by a decrease in its funding. The experience of developed countries shows
that the share of government spending on science cannot be lower than 2% of GDP.

At present, there is a problem of loss of the state's scientific staff. The loss of the cadre in science
is due, in particular, to the emigration of scientists.

"Brain leaks" is the process of mass emigration, in which specialists, scientists, and skilled
workers leave a country or region for political, economic, religious, or other reasons. At the
same time, in another, economically developed country, they are provided with housing and
better working conditions.


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The term "brain leaks" was coined by the British Royal Society to describe the migration of
scientists and engineers during and after World War II to the United States[3].

A joint study conducted by specialists of the National Fund for Economic Research and the
Institute for the Study of International Migration, Georgetown University (the results were
published in the World Bank Economic Review), showed that in the period from 1990 to 2000,
the "brain drain" followed certain patterns. In particular, small countries on the periphery of
industrialized nations suffer most from the brain drain. This group also includes former colonies,
from which talents migrate to former metropolises. The activity of the process of outflow
increases when political instability in the home country of the talents and the growth of
nationalism take place.

For its part, a World Bank/World Bank study that analyzed data from 33 countries found that
less than 10 percent of their citizens with a college degree go abroad. The term "brain drain"
applies to only five countries (Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Mexico, Guatemala, and
Jamaica), where more than two-thirds of all educated people have moved abroad (mostly to the
United States).

According to the African Capacity Building Foundation, every year about 20,000 highly skilled
people from the African continent leave to seek their fortunes in industrialized countries. One
result of this is a chronic shortage of qualified personnel in African states, which slows down
their development process and aggravates the situation in the fields of science, economy,
medicine, etc. The Fund estimates that the departure of specialists leads to budget losses (those
who left do not pay taxes at home), reduced rates of new job creation, reduced competitiveness
of the local economy (up to the fact that foreign specialists have to be imported from abroad and
paid them much more than their local colleagues - according to World Bank/World Bank
estimates, African countries annually spend about $4 billion to pay foreign programmers,
teachers, engineers, managers, etc.).

The consequences of the "brain drain" from Africa, Latin America and Asia also include the
"erosion" of the middle class, which is considered the foundation of any modern society. As a
result, the cumulative losses from the departure of one specialist can reach $1 million, taking into
account indirect losses. As a result, it has become popular to compare the brain drain with a new
kind of colonialism: if colonies supplied metropolises with raw materials and imported finished
products, nowadays "poor" countries supply former metropolises with their specialists, receiving
in return products created by these specialists [4].

A sharp decline in science and a high rate of leakage of scientific potential was observed during
the collapse of the USSR and the formation of the former Soviet Union as an independent
country. And here, the transition from a planned economy, which was the basis for the
development of the former Soviet Union, to a market economy had a huge impact. Absolutely
everything has changed, medicine, education, industry, transport, communications and other
sectors that develop the economy of the country.

This transition occurred differently in the CIS countries and had a strong impact on social policy,
in many countries, such as Russia, Georgia, Ukraine, due to a sharp transition, there was a


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stratification of the population, where the indicator of the middle layer decreased significantly. In
other countries stratification also occurred, but at a slower pace.

The consequences of the transition to a market economy, led to the emergence of poverty, which
was a great blow to the population of the CIS countries. People lost faith in the future, in a
country where the concept of "stable income" lost its meaning, where education and science took
a back seat, and the importance of entrepreneurship increased, there was a choice either to go
with the flow and accept this policy, or find their development in other countries, where
intellectual labor at the time was more valued. This was the main reason for the increase in
emigration to other countries.

The systemic crisis that has struck society has led to a crisis of value consciousness. The pursuit
of science has become less prestigious.

In connection with market reforms and as a result of property differentiation, not only have the
standard of living and quality of life of the scientific intelligentsia decreased, but its very
existence, not to mention the creation of acceptable conditions for active creative work, is also
called into question. Wages in science are below the subsistence level, and compared to
developed countries.

There is no consensus among researchers on the sociocultural consequences of the "brain drain.
Some believe that the intellectual losses are not so great, for it is not the most talented people in
science who leave the country, but those who are able to settle down.

The opposite position is that the emigration of the scientific intelligentsia represents a real loss of
the best that a country possesses - the nation's intellect, those who largely determine the
contribution to world civilization. And this is a serious threat to the national security of any
country.

The following facts give an idea of the contribution that emigrated scientists make to the
country's science. In the last 25 years alone, 10 Nobel laureates in medicine have been from the
Third World, but with American citizenship. In a number of cases, Europeans who received
prizes for various research headed laboratories where more than 50% of the researchers were
emigrants from other countries.

Some experts believe that the emigration of intellectuals is a consequence of the normalization of
our ties with the world scientific community and compensation for our earlier informational
isolation from the West.

I would like to separately note that the bulk of those emigrating are young people.

This process did not bypass Uzbekistan as well. The formation and further development of a
market economy had its negative side, which was reflected in a slowdown of science and
changes in the age of people with scientific potential, more precisely, the number of scientific
potential among them was reduced youth.

Today, the position of Uzbekistan in the modern world has changed greatly, Uzbekistan in recent
years has been actively cooperating with many countries, as part of the solution of many issues,
especially the issue of national security.


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The main priorities of our state in ensuring national security are:

Public and state security;

National defense.

The policies pursued in Uzbekistan have had a significant impact on reducing the "brain leaks,"
although, to some extent, the problem remains acute.

Separately, I would like to note that our head of state paid great attention to the opinion of the
people; adopted in 2017 the Strategy of Action on the five priority areas of Uzbekistan's
development in 2017-2021 radically changed the approach of further development of
Uzbekistan.

The most vulnerable, but at the same time the most significant systems are the education system
and medicine. For the first time Uzbekistan created a system of pre-school education, revised the
system of public education, significant reforms occurred in the system of higher and secondary
special education, taking into account the experience of developed countries, in order to improve
the quality of education and compliance with international standards of education in universities
introduced a credit-module system, revised terms of service and significantly increased the
remuneration of teaching staff, in particular the payment of teachers with scientific potential.

The results of this large-scale work did not take long, the motivation gave its fruit, the society
understood and significantly tightened, the interest in education increased, the rate of applicants
to universities increased, changed the attitude to science as the main foundation of the country's
development.

Established on the basis of the Presidential Decree No. PD-5264 of November 29, 2017, and
Presidential Decree No. PD-3416 of November 30, 2017, the Ministry of Innovative
Development of the Republic of Uzbekistan:

implements a unified state policy in the field of innovation and scientific and technological
development of the Republic of Uzbekistan, aimed at the comprehensive development of public
and state life, increasing the intellectual and technological potential of the country;

Assesses innovative activity on the basis of its performance indicators, determines the main
directions of development of the relevant industries and spheres that require the primary
introduction of advanced technologies;

Coordinates the activities of public administration bodies, research, information and analytical
institutions and other organizations on the implementation of innovative ideas, developments and
technologies;

Is a single customer of state scientific and technical programs and projects implemented by
research, educational and other institutions;

Within the framework of entrusted tasks, studies the state of affairs in state bodies and other
organizations, collects and summarizes proposals for the improvement of innovative activity;

is financed from the state budget of the Republic of Uzbekistan and other funds not prohibited by
law [5].


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The creation of the Ministry of Innovative Development has absolutely changed the attitude to
scientific research, which created the possibility of scientific research as young researchers and
those who are interested in the creation and implementation of innovative products in various
industries.

In the short period of existence of the Ministry of Innovative Development a lot of work has
been done to organize, analyze, monitor and evaluate research projects in all fields, as part of
basic, experimental and experimental research, start-ups, as a result of which science and
practice have become more closely linked.

An example of this is the work carried out on the basis of the Decree of the President of the
Republic of Uzbekistan "On the State Program for the implementation of the Strategy of action
in the five priority areas of the Republic of Uzbekistan for 2017-2021" PD-5953 of March 2,
2020 in the "Year of development of science, education and digital economy", paragraph 170
"Electronic platform of scientific achievements, formation of a base of domestic and foreign
scientific developments, strengthening cooperation with prestigious foreign universities and
research centers of each higher educational institution and research institution", 146 most
effective projects were selected from 1246 implemented, which were financed by the state
budget [6].

In recent years, the Ministry of Innovative Development in close cooperation with the relevant
government agencies and departments has carried out significant work to enhance the prestige of
Uzbekistan in the international arena and ensure its inclusion in the Global Innovation Index.

The positive changes in innovation in our country are regularly recognized by international
organizations. In particular, this year's edition of the Global Innovation Index, pointing to
changes in the innovative activity of our country, notes that the results of continuous and
systemic reforms in recent years have served to the inclusion of Uzbekistan in the Global
Innovation Index in 2020. It is worth noting that Uzbekistan in this ranking took fourth place in
Central Asia and South Asia [7].

In his address to the Oliy Majlis, President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Shavkat Mirziyoyev
said: "Science and enlightenment are of paramount importance for raising the intellectual and
spiritual potential not only of the youth, but also of our entire society. Where science is not
developed, there is regression and backwardness of society in all spheres.

The great thinkers of the East said, "The greatest wealth is intelligence and science, the greatest
inheritance is a good education, the greatest poverty is lack of knowledge.

The desire to acquire modern knowledge, to be enlightened and to have a high culture should
become a vital necessity for all of us". [8].

Summarizing the above, it should be noted that to date, the attitude of society to education has
changed dramatically, the number of researchers among young people in many scientific fields in
Uzbekistan has increased, which in turn indicates the correct policy pursued in Uzbekistan.


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REFERENCES

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https://www.rbc.ru/society/21/02/2021/5e2fe9459a79479d102bada6

2.

С.М.Галузина, М.С.Туровская. Экономическая безопасность: учебное пособие.-
СПб.:МИЭП при МПА ЕврАзЭС, 2016.-186 с.

3.

В.А. Богомолов . Экономическая безопасность. Учебное пособие для студентов вузов,
обучающихся по специальностям экономики и управления.-2-е изд., перераб.и доп.-М.:
ЮНИТИ-ДАНА, 2009.-295 с.

4.

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Интернет-издание Washington

ProFile (www.washprofile.org

).

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Постановление Президента Республики Узбекистан «Об организации деятельности
Министерства инновационного развития Республики Узбекистан» № ПП-3416 от 30
ноября 2017 года.

6.

https://mininnovation.uz/ru/menu/2676.

7.

https://www.uzdaily.uz/ru/post/54786.

8.

Послание Президента Республики Узбекистан Шавката Мирзиѐева Олий Мажлису.
https://uza.uz/ru/posts/poslanie-prezidenta-respubliki-uzbekistan-shavkata-mirziyeev-25-01-
2020






Библиографические ссылки

https://www.rbc.ru/societyZ21 /02/202 !/5e2fe9459a79479d 102bada6

C.M.Галузина, M.C.Туровская. Экономическая безопасность: учебное пособие.-СПб.:МИЭП при МПА ЕврАзЭС, 2016.-186 с.

В.А. Богомолов . Экономическая безопасность. Учебное пособие для студентов вузов, обучающихся по специальностям экономики и управления.-2-е изд., перераб.и доп.-М.: ЮНИТИ-ДАНА, 2009.-295 с.

4.Интернет-издание Washington ProFile (www.washprofile.onr).

Постановление Президента Республики Узбекистан «Об организации деятельности Министерства инновационного развития Республики Узбекистан» № ПП-3416 от 30 ноября 2017 года.

https://mininnovation.uz/ru/menu/2676.

https://www.uzdaily.uz/ru/post/54786.

Послание Президента Республики Узбекистан Шавката Мирзиёева Олий Мажлису. https://uza.uz/ru/posts/poslanic-prczidcnta-rcspubliki-uzbckistan-shavkata-mirziycev-25-01-2020

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