Employing incidental learning of vocabulary through videos

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Каракулова, У. (2023). Employing incidental learning of vocabulary through videos . Ренессанс в парадигме новаций образования и технологий в XXI веке, 1(1), 12–16. https://doi.org/10.47689/XXIA-TTIPR-vol1-iss1-pp12-16
У Каракулова, Международный Казахско-Турецкий университет имени Ходжи Ахмета Яссави

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Аннотация

Teaching is aimed to allow the language learners to practice developing skills. In our case it is vocabulary development. In incidental learning, the situations are chosen by language learners. This means that the language learners initiate the interaction by requesting the participation of a teacher. Most often, incidental learning is used in the study of foreign languages, and is considered here in this context. The learner’s request can be verbal or non-verbal: for example, he can reach for an object that is out of reach, damage his clothes, cry, call an a teacher by name, ask for a toy, food or information. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of the incidental learning approach.

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EMPLOYING INCIDENTAL LEARNING OF VOCABULARY THROUGH

VIDEOS

Karakulova U.E.

Turkistan, Kazakhstan

Senior teacher of Khoja Akhmet Yassawi International Kazakh-Turkish University

e-mail:

ukarakulova@bk.ru

Abstract:

Teaching is aimed to allow the language learners to practice developing skills.

In our case it is vocabulary development. In incidental learning, the situations are chosen
by language learners. This means that the language learners initiate the interaction by
requesting the participation of a teacher. Most often, incidental learning is used in the
study of foreign languages, and is considered here in this context. The learner’s request
can be verbal or non-verbal: for example, he can reach for an object that is out of reach,
damage his clothes, cry, call an a teacher by name, ask for a toy, food or information.
This study demonstrated the effectiveness of the incidental learning approach.

Key words:

incidental learning, language environment, unfamiliar words, language

skills, game technology.


Recently, communication in English is used through the Internet and social

network. Through modern technologies like incidental learning we can make use of such
information. We can not only find the necessary information and the latest events in
English. Through modern technologies we can develop language learners’ all needed
skills and abilities in the development of vocabulary.

One of the most urgent issues today is the introduction of new technologies in

English language teaching. In this regard, The possibilities of the video technologies
provide modern approaches due to the importance of learning English.

The findings of foreign scholars, such as: Willis, N., Gutterman B. & Rahman S.,

James S. Sanderson and the works of Russian scientists are widely recognized (I.A.
Zimnaya, M.M. Rosenthal, S.L. Rubinstein, I.O. Zagashev and etc.). on new technologies
in teaching foreign languages are based on development of vocabulary.

Also, many domestic scientists, S.S. Kunanbaeva, Kulibaeva, T.S. Kulpeysova,

D.N. Karaev Z.A., Turganbayeva B.A., etc. viewed the efficiency of employing modern
technologies. Employing video technologies in the classroom is always considered a big
problem. And its implementation in the classroom is an even bigger problem.

Luria A. R. states that the use of video technologies offers teachers and language

learner’s creative and practical ideas. Teachers and language learners should be able
applying video technologies with the help of various technologies in their classes. They
provide language learners with language practice and vocabulary through incidental
learning [1, p. 52].

Betty Hart and Todd R. Risley from University of Kansas created ‘incidental

learning’ method. It means the process during which children acquire the language skills
by naming and distinguishing under the conditions student-teacher interaction in natural
environment. This method was used for children of kindergarten. This study of Betty
Hart and Todd R. Risley examined 11 children’s 15-minute spontaneous speech patterns


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recorded during free play during 8 months of kindergarten attendance. After the
application of “incidental learning” to complex sentences, there was an increase in
children’s use of spontaneous complex sentences. They were addressed to the teacher or
to other children, depending on who responded to the learners’ request for toys. So,
“incidental or vocabulary learning” also stimulated spontaneous variety in speech and
proved to be generally applicable in the process of teaching children.

Nowadays this method is used in teaching foreign language. It is very effective in

school programs, too. Let’s, first define the term itself.

According to Artemenko N.A. “Incidental learning is teaching speech or

vocabulary. It is also expanding the use of vocabulary in speech” [2, p. 61].

Incidental teaching sometimes referred to as «Natural Teaching». Incidental

learning is based on the student’s initiative himself. Initiative reactions appear due to the
presence of motivational factors in the student’s usual environment.. If there are many
things in the language environment that he loves or is interested in, then he will learn
quickly. The key factor of the initiative of language learners will be effective. The fact
that the object is enhanced by the manifestation of initiative in the future.

Vygotsky L.S. stated the fact that “incidental learning refers to the one-on-one

interaction between the teacher and language learners occurs naturally in an unstructured
situations. This method is used by the teacher to pass on information to the language
learners” [3, p. 50].

Rubinshtein S.L. considers that the nature and level of clues and keys used in

incidental learning to name objects and their properties. These cues describe the functions
of objects that have been reflected previously (Hart and Risley, 1974). Some questions
remain about the nature and retention of the language learned through incidental learning.
In teaching vocabulary, a teacher’s cues are needed throughout training [4, p. 56].

Language exists as a means of communication. Based on this, we will talk about

the practical goals of teaching a foreign language in secondary school. This, in turn,
determines the entire methodology of working with the language, speaking should be an
integral part of every lesson. Speaking, as in the object of education, two subjects of
education can be distinguished: listening and speaking. Listening and speaking contribute
to each other’s development in the learning process. To understand, you need to speak.
Understanding is formed in the process of speaking, and speech is formed in the process
of understanding.

At the first stage, we can put toys, sweets, books, mobile phones, video cassettes

or in transparent but closed boxes. So, the language learners would see them, but could
not get them. Additional options are to start speaking about the objects of language
learners’ interest. Language learners start talking about its main features.

At the second stage, we need to wait until language learners take the initiatives. It

is very important while waiting not to give any instructions or hints in order to awaken
the initiative. Initiatives can be shown with a look, a gesture, a single sound, a word or a
sentence.

At the third stage, after language learners have taken their initiatives, a teacher

should give the language learners a hint for more complex expressions. These cues can be
given through words or in non-verbal means of communication. Non-verbal means of
communication are gestures, mimes, written words, pictures, movement, silent videos


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and etc. They actively influence the informational interests, the needs of the audience, its
motivation, and thus exert considerable pressure on the worldview and expression of
activity. The viewer’s emotional empathy determines the depth of the film’s
(information) plot and contributes to mastering the proposed reaction. The emotional
expression of a film character is often absorbed unconsciously by a sympathetic viewer at
the appropriate level of experience. This effect is called “emotional contagion”.

At the last stage, a teacher needs to give language learners an object of their

interest. Learning occurs when language learners have received what they asked for.
Even if the language learners were not able to repeat the expressions with accuracy, they
must repeat this expression by themselves. There is no need to give additional
encouragement. It is enough that the language learners get what they wanted. This
method allows generalization to be achieved faster than other methods.

Selevko G.K. emphasized, the research has revealed that benefit from any

curriculum includes a wide range of situations and life experiences that require the use of
foreign language expressions. The incidental learning allows teachers to adapt the
learning process to a wide variety of individual characteristics [6, p. 42].

According to Kunnanbayeva S.S. “the expansion of the vocabulary occurs not only

through the words of the standard literary language” [7].

One of the effective methods of employing vocabulary is through video

technologies. Effectiveness of videos in teaching a foreign language at the professional
level, methodological guidelines for the use of interactive materials, especially audio and
video films, were proposed. At the same time, ways of developing the communicative
language ability of learners by using multimedia technologies were considered.

When using free video, the students themselves must decide what

vocabulary to use, how the action should develop, the teacher only names the topic of the
role-playing game, and then asks the students to create different situations that touch on
different aspects of this topic [35, 75].

The use of video films in teaching a foreign language is carried out in a positive

creative environment. The more comfortable students feel using videos, the more
interested. They will be in communication. Over time, there will be a sense of confidence
in one’s own abilities, that is, confidence in understanding and analyzing various video
and audio materials. It creates a sense of satisfaction and joy in students. Both the teacher
and the student can perform the main activity of using videos and preparing them during
the lesson.

Using games also can be another example of incidental vocabulary learning. Let’s

give the following examples:

Task 1. Examination of words denoting the action of the subject.
A. Instruction: “Tell me, who is doing what?”
The horse - (jumps), the pilot - (flies). Caterpillar - (crawls), doctor - (treats).
Bird - (flies), janitor - (sweeps). Fish - (swims), fisherman - (catches fish).
Dog - (runs, barks) athlete - (competes, wins). Cook - (cooks), educator (educates,

teaches).

Task 2. What is used in extinguishing the fire?
• Construction Materials
• Cars of the Ministry of Emergency Situations


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• Aircraft
• Helicopters
In encouraging students to speak through role-playing games, importance is

attached to the following concept: it is a person-to-person communication, conversation,
that is, a person conveys his thoughts to another person orally, speaks, says.

Task 3. Join the left and right columns:
1) Zone a) incident
2) Critical b) danger
3) Emergency c) disaster
4) Liquidation d) situation
5) category e) consequences
Key: 1 c); 2 d); 3 a); 4 e); 5 b).
In addition, the effectiveness of the game as a learning depends on following a

number of requirements, i.e. they are: the presence of an imaginary situation in which
students act, a plan, and students must understand the result of the game, the rules of the
game. The game is not just collective fun, it is the main way to achieve all the tasks of
education, so it is necessary to know what skills and flexibility it requires, what the
student can do and what he learned during the game.

Task 4. Connect the meaning and the word:
1) the object does not work, does not perform its functions a) struggle
2) people leave the disaster area b) malfunction
3) the incident has not yet happened, but may happen c) a threat
4) people are trying to stop the elements d) evacuation
Key: 1 b); 2 d); 3 c); 4 a).
The use of incidental learning allows us to effectively develop all types of

language skills and vocabulary. Video materials are helpful in contributing to the value-
semantic orientation of language learners.

To enrich the passive vocabulary, it is important to update the semantics of rarely

used words. We focused on special words and occasional vocabulary. When working
with a potential vocabulary, “supports” are important. With the help of them unfamiliar
words are explained. Such “supports” in our work were the context. They are typical
morphemes, derivational structure of the word and poly-semantic words. The topics we
have touched on in video materials can be continued in different directions. The use of
problem based tasks and games have been effective in the development of vocabulary
during the organization of educational activities.

Thus, incidental learning is effective in developing learners’ vocabulary and

language skills by employing the video materials chosen by teacher. The objects and
situations that often and naturally appear in the language environment help to enrich
vocabulary extensively.

To conclude, we want to point out that:
- Teaching methods provide optimistic planning, understanding and control of

one’s own motivation and the reactions to other people, as well as influencing the success
of communicative interaction.

-Technologies have been developed to improve the effectiveness of the formation

of vocabulary by ensuring the integrity of learning and teaching processes of cognition.


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REFERENCES:


1. Luria A.R. Language and consciousness - St. Petersburg, 2020. 448 p.
2. Artemenko N.A. Enriching the vocabulary of schoolchildren based on the ideographic
approach - 2014. - P. 53–59.
3. Vygotsky L.S. Selected psychological research: thinking and speech. M., 1956. - 519
p.
4. Rubinshtein S.L. Fundamentals of general psychology. SPb., 2000. 712 p.
5. Korneeva T.A. To the question of the development of the vocabulary of schoolchildren
in the lessons of the Russian language // Philology and Science. 2016. - S. 184–189.
6. Selevko G.K. Modern educational technologies: textbook. M.: National education,
1998. - 256 p.
7. Kunanbaeva, S.S. Skill modeling of professional foreign language education. - Almaty,
2014. - p. 53 - 130.
8. Mikerova G.G., Pavlenko A.A. Development of the level of active vocabulary of
younger schoolchildren // Symbol of science. 2017. - S. 203–207.
9. Harding J. When words are not enough: why it is important to expand vocabulary // -
2017. No. 3, pp. 138–141.


Библиографические ссылки

Luria A.R. Language and consciousness - St. Petersburg, 2020. 448 p.

Artemenko N.A. Enriching the vocabulary of schoolchildren based on the ideographic approach - 2014. - P. 53-59.

Vygotsky L.S. Selected psychological research: thinking and speech. M., 1956. - 519P-

Rubinshtein S.L. Fundamentals of general psychology. SPb., 2000. 712 p.

Korneeva T.A. To the question of the development of the vocabulary of schoolchildren in the lessons of the Russian language // Philology and Science. 2016. - S. 184-189.

Selevko G.K. Modem educational technologies: textbook. M.: National education, 1998,-256 p.

Kunanbaeva, S.S. Skill modeling of professional foreign language education. - Almaty, 2014.-p. 53 -130.

Mikerova G.G., Pavlenko A.A. Development of the level of active vocabulary of younger schoolchildren // Symbol of science. 2017. - S. 203-207.

Harding J. When words are not enough: why it is important to expand vocabulary // -2017. No. 3, pp. 138-141.

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