The ways of usage examples of introductory transitions constructions in simultaneous interpretation
Master student, Simultaneous interpretation
Master student, Simultaneous interpretation
Looking at definitions of the word “translation”, we have almost the same description in all dictionaries. For instance, “spoken or written words that have been changed into a different language” [https://www.macmillandictionary.com/], “a text or word that has been changed from one language into another” [https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/], so on and so forth.
THE WAYS OF USAGE EXAMPLES OF INTRODUCTORY
TRANSITIONS CONSTRUCTIONS IN SIMULTANEOUS
G‘ayratova Maftuna Uyg‘un qizi
Master student, Simultaneous interpretation,
Uzbekistan State World Languages University
Looking at definitions of the word
“translation”, we have almost the same
description in all dictionaries. For instance,
“spoken or written words that have been
changed into a different language
“a text or word that has been changed from one language into another”
[https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/], so on and so forth.
Many consider translation as a word for word translation of a source language
to the target one, however, we should not forget that sentence structures, styles, all
vary from language to language, therefore, getting a translator do it, would cause a
huge problem both for the translator and the target language reader. Let us, at this
point, distinguish between the language from which a translation is being made and
the language into which the translation is being made with the help of two technical
terms. The language from which the translation is being made is called source
language and the language into which the translation is being made is called target
language or receptor language. If a translation adequately communicates the
message of the original and is presented in a style similar to the original, it is expected
that it will make an impression on its readers which is similar to the impression made
by the original on its readers. This could be a possible objective, unless the translator
has set up other goals as well. Generally speaking, a translator must translate into
his/her mother tongue or the language of 'habitual use'. But this is not to say that s/he
should not have sufficient competence in the language from which s/he is translating.
“Here, then, is the full process of
. At one point we have a writer in a
room, struggling to approximate the impossible vision that hovers over his head. He
finishes it, with misgivings. Some time later we have a translator struggling to
approximate the vision, not to mention the particulars of language and voice, of the
text that lies before him. He does the best he can but is never satisfied. And then,
finally, we have the reader. The reader is the least tortured of this trio, but the reader
too may very well feel that he is missing something in the book, that through sheer
ineptitude he is failing to be a proper vessel for the
book’s overarching vision”. (Michael
“Found in Translation”.
The New York Times
, Oct. 2, 2010).
Simultaneous interpretation uses the source text transformation method. The
method of transformation of the source text in simultaneous translation aims to
prepare the source text for operations at the formal sign level, that is, for the use of
the sign method of translation, which R.K. Minyar-Beloruchev considers as the main
method of simultaneous translation. They are the following:
– lexical transformations with the search for speech units included in the
semantic (thematic) systems formed by the translator;
– grammatical transformations that take into account the most common and
simple syntactic constructions of the target language;
– speech compression, which is achieved by using all possible types of
Speech compression is
“... such a compression of it, determined by the specific
conditions of communication, in which only what is necessary for a given task of
communication is retained in it, and everything else is swept
In fact, speech compression is generated by the specific conditions of the
’s activity (time constraints and the simultaneity of the
processes of listening to the speaker's speech and generating speech in the target
language), and its dimensions are determined by the need to maintain an even rate
of the interpreter
’s speech in the target language. Speech compression, therefore, is
a form of adaptation of translation actions to the conditions of activity.
In the theory and practice of translation, the principle of economy in language
is most clearly manifested in compression. Compression in translation is carried out
by converting the source text into a more concise form
– by omitting redundant
elements of the statement, i.e. elements replenished from the context and
extralinguistic situation, as well as by using more compact forms of expression.
Studies have shown that most often compression as a translation technique is
used in simultaneous translation. Compression is usually used in cases where the
rate of speech is high and the simultaneous interpreter cannot keep up with the
speaker, because it is necessary not only to quickly interpret with a delay of no more
than 1-3 seconds, but also at the same time process information received from the
sender at the time of translation of the previous speech segment. Experimental data
indicate that a message rate of 150-200 words per minute is the upper limit, after
which any normal simultaneous translation is impossible.
In particular, G.V. Chernov, identified the size of compression by comparing
the compressed texts obtained as a result of simultaneous translation with
uncompressed texts made in writing. As a result, it turned out that the compression
during translation can reach 30-37%. The main factor influencing the size of the
compression of the original message is the speed of the speaker
Compression is typically used when:
– the pace of the speaker’s speech is quite high;
– there are repetitions in the original message;
– there are insignificant words in the original message;
– the speaker’s thought can be expressed using fewer words.
Speaking about the methods of speech compression in simultaneous
translation, it should be noted that it is carried out by means of synonymous or close
to them replacements of words, phrases and sentences with shorter words, phrases
and sentences, omission of segments that duplicate information contained in the
previous context, omission of semantic units, redundant in a particular situation of
communication, and the omission of semantic units that are redundant from the point
of view of the task of communication, as well as generalization i.e. collapsing a
syntagma to a word with a common meaning.
The study of the features of simultaneous translation from the point of view of
the preparation process and its direct implementation arouses research interest
among domestic and foreign linguists, which is due both to the growing need for this
type of interpretation in the context of the active development of economic, political
and cultural ties between different states, and the increase quality requirements.
Much attention on the part of researchers was paid to the study of psycholinguistic
aspects of simultaneous translation (Kochkina Z.A., Chernov G.V.), psychological
mechanisms of simultaneous translation, in particular, the mechanism of probabilistic
forecasting (Ilyukhin V.M., Feigenberg I.M.), methods of teaching simultaneous
translation (Visson L., Latyshev L.K., Semenov A.L.), which explain the special
status of this type of translation. Over the past five years, studies have also been
carried out that affect the psychological aspects of teaching simultaneous translation,
the theoretical foundations of simultaneous translation, in particular, the issues of
using speech compression techniques in simultaneous translation and its phonetic
aspects, which shows the persistence of the relevance of the identified problems.
L. Wisson identifies the following cases when the translator has reasons to
apply one or another method of speech compression:
1. There are repetitions in the original language.
2. There are words in the target language that don
’t mean anything.
3. The speaker speaks too fast.
4. The subject situation makes it possible to express the same thought in fewer
words, which leads to time savings and, accordingly, the ability to more fully
concentrate on incoming semantic groups.
The active development of economic, political and cultural ties between
different countries, as well as the scale of international cooperation in the field of
education, science and art, make translation one of the most sought-after activities
and at the same time increase the requirements for it. The era of globalization,
information technology and the intensification of international contacts creates a
growing demand for professional translators. As the need for simultaneous
interpreters grows, it brings out question on how to improve interpretation skills. Thus,
here comes compression in handy, since it is considered as one of the best methods
to be used in simultaneous interpretation.
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Chernov, «notebooksofinterpreter” 1969.