About some problems of dictionary usage in translation process
1 st year Master student, Translation/Interpretation
1 st year Master student, Translation/Interpretation
Who will call the child by the right name”, Shakespeare says. Translation torments and editor’s torments are largely related to the choice of the “right name” for a word, phrase, idiom, foreign reality and much more. And the right choice of the right word, the “right name” for the word of the source language is largely determined by the ability – and art – to work with a dictionary, more precisely, with dictionaries.
to the language. They represent not a simple family of words, but a system of words
or phrases organized in a certain way [5. P. 28].
The most important problem in achieving translation equivalence of scientific
and technical texts is the reproduction of the original content of the text using the
terminological system of the target language. The difference in the terminological
systems of the source language and target language is the cause of the greatest
difficulties in translating scientific and technical texts. Hence there is need to study
the term systems and find ways to translate partially equivalent and non-equivalent
vocabulary. The problem of exploring terminology is one of the key issues in the study
of scientific and technical texts. A term or a phrase denotes a concept of a special
field of knowledge or activity. Identification of differences in the concept system
expressed by the terms of the source language and the target language is an
important step on the way of term system interlanguage harmonization, providing a
solution to the problems of term translation in the fields of their functioning [1. P. 8].
So, terms are units of linguistic and professional knowledge that ensure the
intercultural communication effectiveness. For this reason, equivalent translation of
terminology is of great significance in the translation of scientific and technical texts
[6. P. 138].
Without a specific understanding of the term it is impossible to understand the
message of the idea described by the author of the text. However, if a term and its
specific semantic meaning are more common for the Russian language, then the
term in the English technical literature can have a rather multifaceted value: from the
specific translation to the translation, requiring scientific literacy of the interpreter.
Thus, the best technical translation of the English text into Russian is mainly
determined by the general polytechnic training of the interpreter, the knowledge of
’s area of expertise. First and foremost, one needs to remember that
the translated technical terminology in a specialized text is full of various difficulties
we mentioned above. In conclusion it should be noted that for the adequate
translation of the authentic scientific and technical texts, containing a large number
of special terminology requires accuracy and unambiguous understanding that can
provide interpreters with the high level of linguistic and professional skills.
1. Ahmanova OS 2004 Slovar
’ lingvisticheskih terminov. Dictionary of
Linguistic Terms (Moscow: Editorial).
2. Bauer L., Nation I.S. 1993 Word families. International Journal of
Lexicography, 6 (4) 253-279.
3. Chung T.M., Nation I.S. Identifying Technical Vocabulary.
4. Horace B., Ava Champney 1958 A Comprehensive Dictionary of
Psychological and Psychoanalytical Terms (New York: Longmans, Green and Co.).
5. Grinev S V 1991 Terminology and Scientific Cognition (
Мoscow) 1 15-27.
6. Goode J.P. Russi
a’s leaders are happy about Brexit, but it won’t help the
regime much at home [Electronic resource].
ABOUT SOME PROBLEMS OF DICTIONARY USAGE
IN TRANSLATION PROCESS
year Master student, Translation/Interpretation, Uzbekistan State World
Uzbekistan State World Languages University
“Who will call the child by the right name”, Shakespeare says. Translation
torments and editor
’s torments are largely related to the choice of the “right name”
for a word, phrase, idiom, foreign reality and much more. And the right choice of the
right word, the
“right name” for the word of the source language is largely determined
by the ability
– and art – to work with a dictionary, more precisely, with dictionaries.
A distinctive feature of all modern lexicography is the synthesis of philology
and culture in the broad sense of the word. A significant part of the culture of any
nation is realized through its language, and the language in all its richness is fixed,
first of all, in the dictionary.
Awareness of the special role of the dictionary as a conductor of culture and
the key to it led to an unprecedented surge of lexicographic activity in post-war
Europe and America.
In the regard of translation and traditional practice, we will mainly focus on
linguistic dictionaries, although encyclopedic dictionaries (primarily terminological ones)
also play a significant role in the translation and editorial preparation of many materials
of a special nature. Since the main object of the description of a linguistic dictionary is a
– a unit of language that can be characterized from a variety of sides (from the
semantic structure, stylistic attribution, origin, etc.), there are, as mentioned earlier,
various types and types of dictionaries. They are determined mainly by two factors: the
composition and number of words to be explained, i.e. the vocabulary of the dictionary;
the nature of the explanation of the meaning of the word.
When translating a work of fiction, scientific, educational and references
literature and preparing it for publication, the dictionary is inevitably the main tool of
the translator and editor.
It goes without saying that the most important assistant, translator's and
’s tool is a bilingual translation dictionary. Russian lexicography has
accumulated a lot of experience in compiling such dictionaries.
However, it should be noted that not all specialists
– translators and editors –
who prepare texts for publication are in the same position. Translators from French
and Italian, for example, do not have at their disposal such a thorough and detailed
references edition. In addition, bilingual translation dictionaries do not always contain
all the contextual meanings required by the translator. Hence the need to refer to
sensible monolingual dictionaries of the source language.
In some cases, it is recommended to resort to the help of a thesaurus
dictionary that most fully reflects the layers of vocabulary that relate to certain areas
of human knowledge. Such a dictionary is, for example,
“Roget’s Thesaurus of
English Words and Phrases
”, which includes six sections: abstract relations; space;
matter; intelligence; will; feelings.
Necessity to resort to using explanatory dictionaries of the source language, the
translation language and thesaurus dictionaries in the process of translation and
editing is also dictated by the fact that a bilingual translation dictionary does not always
give a specific contextual meaning of a word, and this meaning can be determined
through the meanings of the closest synonyms offered by explanatory dictionaries. But
even the meanings of the closest synonyms will not be able to exhaust all the potential
possible meanings of the word. However, the greater the number of normative
meanings of a word the translator and editor were able to determine, the easier the
process of finding a specific contextual meaning becomes.
– in the source language and in the target language –
become a huge help in the work of the translator and editor. If it is difficult to find the
normative or contextual meaning of a word of the source language, synonyms of this
word are found in the dictionary of synonyms of the source language, and then their
meanings are found in a bilingual translation dictionary, trying to determine which of
these meanings will be closest to the specific required contextual meaning. Or,
having determined the meaning of a word from the source text, using a bilingual
translation dictionary, then resort to the dictionary of synonyms of the translation
language and find in it the synonym whose meaning is closest to the desired
contextual meaning. Russian translation will be useful to use the
Synonyms of the Russian language
” edited by A.P. Evgenieva – the first experience
of a complete collection of synonyms of the Russian language, in which the
explanation of the use of each of the above words is confirmed by a large number of
illustrations, as well as the
“Dictionary of Synonyms of the Russian language” by
It is less common to use dictionaries of antonyms
– as a rule, either when
performing an antonymic translation, or in cases where the specific contextual
meaning of a word can be determined through the meaning of the word-antonyms.
Sometimes the use of dictionaries of synonyms of the target language should
be combined with the use of dictionaries of homonyms of the target language
especially in those difficult cases when the word in the target language is a homonym
that arose as a result of the collapse of polysemy. It will also be useful to refer to the
dictionary of homonyms of the source language in parallel with the use of a bilingual
Separately, we should focus on phraseological units
– combinations of words
with fully or partially reinterpreted meaning
– in bilingual translation dictionaries. No
dictionary can provide for all the uses of phraseological units in the context, but the
more complete and representative it is, the more phraseological units can be given,
the more structurally and semantically complex phraseological units will be
semanticized. However, when translating structurally and semantically complex
phraseological units, especially with context variations, it is the creative intuition of
the translator and editor that will play a big role.
In the work of a translator and editor, it is impossible to overestimate the
importance of special terminological dictionaries. Being a kind of encyclopedic
dictionary, a terminological dictionary explains the terms of any specialty. Russian
dictionaries are the most valuable, expensive and least common bilingual terminology
dictionaries, where the terms of one language are explained by the terms of another
language (let's name as examples the Large English-Russian Polytechnic Dictionary
and the English-Russian Dictionary of Printing and Publishing). The tasks of a
terminological dictionary (in particular, a multilingual one) do not include grammatical,
stylistic or other linguistic characteristics of the words and phrases that make up the
dictionary. The dictionary of the terminological dictionary (as a type of encyclopedic
dictionary) is fundamentally different from the dictionary of the linguistic dictionary: it
usually includes only nouns or phrases with nouns.
The principle of the arrangement of vocabularies is also fundamentally
different: the alphabetic-nest system is adopted in the terminological dictionary. The
leading terms are arranged in alphabetical order. Compound terms consisting of a
definable and a defining component should be searched for by the word being
defined. When translating and editorial correction of texts saturated with terminology
of any branch of knowledge, the following should be remembered. No dictionary,
especially a polytechnic dictionary, even with its large volume, can serve as the only
manual. It is advisable, together with the polytechnic dictionary, to use a bilingual
translation dictionary of the largest possible volume, as well as an industry dictionary
– in some cases also a narrowly specialized one.
It is very important to know how to find the word, the meaning
and how to use dictionaries, accessing the dictionary remains one of the best ways
to determine the meaning of a word to this day. To implement it, it is necessary to
develop the skill of using a dictionary. In this regard, there is a need to choose a
dictionary. Today there are several types: printed dictionaries, electronic dictionaries,
thesaurus dictionaries, bilingual, monolingual and translation programs. But thus, the
dictionary, regardless of the form, printed or electronic, is an excellent tool that can
be used not only to search for meanings, check spelling, pronunciation and grammar
of unfamiliar words when translating special literature, but also a tool for developing
the skills of foreign language activity in general, which is very important for the
formation of a professional.
1. Dubrovin M.I.
“English-Russian dictionary” Manual for students. – 2nd ed. –
M.: Enlightenment, 1991.
2. Zakharenko E.N., Komarova L.N., Nechaeva I.V.
“New dictionary of foreign
” – M.: “ABC book”, 2003.
3. Kuznetsova A.I., Efremova T.F.
“Dictionary of morphemes of the Russian
“Popular dictionary of foreign words” Edited by I.V. Nechaeva. M.:
Dubrovin M.l. “English-Russian dictionary” Manual for students. - 2nd ed. -M.: Enlightenment, 1991.
Zakharenko E.N., Komarova L.N., Nechaeva LV. "New dictionary of foreign words” - M.: “ABC book”, 2003.
Kuznetsova A.I., Efremova T.F. “Dictionary of morphemes of the Russian language”.
“Popular dictionary of foreign words” Edited by I.V. Nechaeva. M.: Azbukovnik.