Comparative analysis of phraseological units with components denoting money in english and uzbek languages
Senior teacher of the Department English theoretical aspects-2
Senior teacher of the Department English theoretical aspects-2
A comparative study of the phraseological foundation of various languages is one of the main tasks of phraseology as a linguistic science. This science is engaged in the study of such aspects as the stability of phraseological units, the consistency of phraseology, the semantic structure of phraseological units, their origin and basic functions. There were plenty of scholars’ opinions that studied these terms differently and in many cases.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS
WITH COMPONENTS DENOTING MONEY IN ENGLISH AND
Polvanova Mahzuna Farxadovna
Uzbekistan World State Languages University Senior teacher of the Department
English theoretical aspects-2
A comparative study of the phraseological foundation of various languages is
one of the main tasks of phraseology as a linguistic science. This science is engaged
in the study of such aspects as the stability of phraseological units, the consistency
of phraseology, the semantic structure of phraseological units, their origin and basic
functions. There were
plenty of scholars’ opinions that studied these terms differently
and in many cases. To Smirnitski’s opinion, “word equivalent” highlights semantic
and functional inalienability of concrete word groups their heaviness to the function
in speech as single w
ords”. [6;78] According to Koonin’s opinion, “a fixed word- group
is described as a completely or partially carried meaning”. In order to differentiate
free word groups from phraseological units we should see two criteria: semantic and
structural criteria” [3; 57].
A phraseological unit is an established, universal and essential element that,
used with care, ornaments and enriches the language. Phraseological units are
interesting because they are colorful and lively and also they are linguistic curiosities.
At the same time, they are difficult because they have unpredictable meanings and
grammar, and often have special connotations. The investigation into phraseological
units shows that they have important role in language. Since we study phraseology
as an independent linguistic discipline which began its existence, another discussion
has begun in the linguistic world, and dedicated to the difference in lexical meaning
and phraseological meaning. The fact is that the complexity of lexical semantics and
the diversity of semantic classes of words do not exclude the selection of the lexical
meaning of a word, which allows us to establish the diversity of this meaning. We
adhere to a very productive idea put forward by a linguist and that the phraseological
sense cannot be realized without the existence of certain structures, that is, it is
impossible to study the features of phraseological units with “money” component
without knowing their structure.
By analogizing the word “money” in etymological point of view, it was clarified
that, the word money refers to two concepts: the abstract unit of account in terms of
which the value of goods, services, and obligations can be compared and anything
that is widely established as a payment. Frequently the standard of value also served
as a medium of exchange, but that is not always the case. Many ancient
communities, for instance, took cattle as their standard of value but used more
manageable objects as means of payment. Exchange involving the use of money is
great improvement over barter, since it permits elaborate specialization and provides
generalized purchasing power that the participants in the exchange may use in the
future. When we glance to history of the proverbs about money, there are some
sources that were effective in development of the folk and culture. For instance, the
“Get the money honestly if you can”.
English proverb appeared early 19
century in the poetry of Horace (65-8BC). The English proverb
“Money has no smell”
used firstly in 20
century, but originally deriving from a comment made by the
Roman Emperor Vespasian (AD 9-79), in response to an objection to a tax on public
lavatories. In Uzbek language also there are majority amount of proverbs about
money and its saving like “Suvdek kelgan pul suvdek oqib ketadi”, “Pul-belgi, quv
vat”, “Pul jigardan bunyod bo‘ladi.”. In Uzbek language all of the proverbs and sayings
about money represent nations’ deep history and custom that possess deep meaning
and morality. [2;56]
From the given examples we may say researches distinguish two concepts for
the term “phraseology”, according to the narrow and broad view. If we consider the
narrow view, it would just refer only to idioms or set expressions. They are such word
combinations where the meaning of the whole cannot be determined by the meaning
of the words entering it. However, if we investigate the phraseology from the broad
sense then it includes proverbs, saying, etc.
Phraseological unit is more difficult to describe in the dictionary than the word.
If to present the word in the dictionary, it is enough to show its origin and to put the
vocabulary entries in the alphabetical order. This method is impossible to use with
the units, which consist of more than one word. The main objective of the
phraseological dictionary is to achieve high adequacy in the process of transferring
PU of one language by the means of the other language. Different scholars can add
or distinguish other types of translation; for example, there can be full and partial
equivalents, full and partial analogues, transcription and transliteration, but these four
are constant [1; 128]. Phraseological equivalents themselves are divided into two
subgroups: full equivalents and partial equivalents. Full equivalents have the same
significative-denotative meaning, the same subjective-evaluative, functional, stylistic,
emotional and expressive components of connotative meaning and the same
grammatical and componential structures. For example, an English phraseological
Money begets money
has the full equivalent in the Uzbek language
Both of this PUs has the same connotation, positive
evaluation. They are also structurally equal and have
Other examples: Eng.
Penny and penny laid up will be many
these PUs have the same components of connotation, the same evaluation
and the same structure;
is used to describe an attitude to every situation or person without
any sense. In English language the word “money” is used more positively. This word
somehow means power and superiority in English as
“Money makes the world go
while in Uzbek language this word takes negative sign like
“Pul- qo‘lning kiri”
in the light of the impact historical events. This is usually said to encourage someone
to either not be disappointed because they feel are lack of money. Or in order to
remind he people those who are focusing too much money.
Changing the meaning of phraseological units that have not passed the
variable word combination stage can be established by comparing the meaning of a
phraseological unit with the literal meanings of its components. Vocabulary
definitions can also be used; for example:
‘a rich wife’
– means ‘money makes eyes blind’. With a partial comprehension of
components with literal meaning in the composition of phraseological units, it is
usually included in the definition. In order to formulate the definition of rethinking
should highlight its most important features by considering the main types of this
process. The choice of the object of the analysis is determined by the fact that the
named phraseological units are abundant, descriptive and expressive.
All in all, identifying semantic features and making the translation of
phraseological unit is not only copy out the book from one language into another but
it requires more than componential or structural approach and it is necessary to give
exactly main idea of a target proverb or set expression in a translation. In the view of
the observations made above, it is important to point out that phraseological unit or
proverbs with component ‘monetary system’ in English and Uzbek languages contain
social practices that can be visualized in a real or possible world.
1. Arsentiyeva E.F Contrastive analyses of phraseological units. Kazan: Izd-vo
Kazanskogo universiteta, 1989. P-128.
2. Djalilova N.D. The analysis of idioms comparison in Uzbek and English
– P. 49–50.
3. Kunin A.V. Osnovnie ponyatiya frazeologii kak lingvisticheskoy dissiplini. M.:
«Visshaya shkola», 1964. – S. 201.
4. Kunin A.V. Anglo-
russkiy frazeologicheskiy slovar’. Izdanie 4-e, Moskva,
“Russkiy yazik” 1984 – S. 512.
5. Mieder W. International Proverbs Scholarship. New York: Garland
– P. 234.
A.I. Leksikologiya angliyskogo yazika. M.: «Drofa», 1996. – S. 380.
7. Shomaqsudov Sh, Shorahmedov
Sh. O‘zbek maqollarining izohli lug‘ati.-
Tashkent; 1990. P. 527.
Arsentiyeva E.F Contrastive analyses of phraseological units. Kazan: Izd-vo Kazanskogo universiteta, 1989. P-128.
Djalilova N.D. The analysis of idioms comparison in Uzbek and English Languages. 2019 - P.49-50.
Kunin A.V. Osnovnie ponyatiya frazeologii как lingvisticheskoy dissiplini. M.: «Visshaya shkola», 1964. - S. 201.
Kunin A.V. Anglo-russkiy frazeologicheskiy slovar’. Izdanie 4-e, Moskva, “Russkiy yazik” 1984- S. 512.
MiederW. International Proverbs Scholarship. New York: Garland Publishing, 1993.-P. 234.
Smirniskiy A.I. Leksikologiya angliyskogo yazika. M.: «Drofa», 1996. - S. 380.
Shomaqsudov Sh, Shorahmedov Sh. O'zbek maqollarining izohli lug'ati.-Tashkent; 1990. P. 527.