The origin of tree names and their role in uzbek literature (dendronyms)
Department of theoritical aspects, 3rd faculty teacher
Department of theoritical aspects, 3rd faculty teacher
Etymology is a branch of linguistics that studies the history of the origin of words. The term "etymology" in nineteenth-century linguistics means “grammar” also used in the sense of the main task of etymology is to restore the process of formation of the language vocabulary, its original state and antiquity. For example, in some languages, the relationship between the shape of words and the meaning of a word has become unclear.
THE ORIGIN OF TREE NAMES AND THEIR ROLE IN UZBEK
Soatova Gulsunoy Kupaysinovna
Uzbekistan State World Languages University, Department of theoritical aspects,
3rd faculty teacher
Etymology is a branch of linguistics that studies the history of the origin of
words. The term "etymology" in nineteenth-
century linguistics means “grammar” also
used in the sense of the main task of etymology is to restore the process of formation
of the language vocabulary, its original state and antiquity. For example, in some
languages, the relationship between the shape of words and the meaning of a word
has become unclear. This is due to the fact that words change historically, as there
is a difference between their original form and meaning, and they cannot be explained
only by the laws of word formation. Etymological origin, the meaning of etymological
analysis, is to determine when a particular word originated, to which language it
belonged, and in what form and meaning it originated.
The origin of many names of trees, shrubs and plants can be found in some
sources. But in fact, the Swedish botanist K. Linney is the creator of a unique
classification system of flora and fauna. K. Linney is also valued as one of the
founders of modern Swedish [4; 3-10]. He created a reproductive system of plants
that was actively used in the XVIII-XIX centuries. In this regard, his contribution to
botany is enormous.
Until then, there was no clear definition of animal and plant names in the
classification. K. Linnaeus did a great job of solving such a big problem by introducing
clear terminology in the description of plants and animals. His greatest contribution
to terminology was that, depending on the morphological features of plants, he
introduced about 1,000 terms into science, and it has survived and is still being
studied in science. Therefore, the author of most terms is K. Linney. The rest of the
terms can be found in the works of other botanists. The following is an analysis of the
origin history of several tree names in a row.
For example, the name “magnolia” tree was given by S. Plyume in 1703 in
honor of the French botanist Pierre Manolla before K. Linnaeus. The name was later
used by Linnaeus in Species plantarum (1753). Originally used in Russian as
“Manolia”, it has become “magnolia” due to phonetic changes.
Pavlovniya is referred to in Latin as Paulownia or Adamova derevo in Russian,
in some sources as the Mary tree [1; 5], in others as the Abraham tree [2; 4]. It is a
plant of the Paulowniaceae family, and the name Paulownia was coined by German
naturalists Philipp Sibold and Joseph Stukkarin. They want to name Anna Pavlovna
(1795-1865), the daughter of Emperor Paul I. However, such names were not
possible. Because the plant species associated with the name Anna already existed,
they named the tree after the emperor’s daughter.
The bread tree’s Latin name, Artocarpus altilis, is derived from the Greek word
artos, meaning bread and carpos, fruit. The bread tree was originally native to New
Guinea, from where the Polynesians brought it to the Oceanian islands. The English
sailor William Dampier told Europeans in the late 17th century about a tree whose
fruit replaced bread. At the end of the 18th century, after the famine in Jamaica, the
idea of planting breadfruit on plantations emerged as a source of cheap and high-
calorie food. For this purpose, breadfruit seedlings were sent to the island of Tahiti,
but the seedlings did not reach West India. As a result, the first bread tree was
brought to Jamaica and St. Vincent Island in 1973 on the ship Providence, and then
to other islands in West India, creating large plantations.
“avocado” is derived from the Spanish aguacate, which in turn means
“avocado”. The word nauatl is sometimes used to mean “testicle”. Probably because
the avocado resembles a testicle. The modern English name is derived from the
English translation of aguacat as avogato in Spanish. Its earliest written use in
English was confirmed in 1697 as avogato noki, a term that was later misinterpreted
as alligator noki. As the word avogato sounds similar to the word
“advocate” in Uzbek
“lawyer” in other languages, its meaning has been revised in several languages.
In French, a lawyer means a lawyer, in fact. In several Germanic languages, for
example, Advogato-Birne in German, Advokat-
pære in Old Dutch, and Advokat in
Dutch, it is now called avocado.
Regional names are also very diverse. In other Spanish-speaking countries in
Central America and the Caribbean, it is known by its Mexican name, and the word
is used in South American countries as Quechua. The fruit is sometimes called
avocado pear or alligator pear because of its shape and rough green skin of some
varieties. In the UK, the term avocado was first coined in the 1960s. In some parts of
India it is known as
– Robinia pseudoacacia was named by K. Linney in honor of the
French botanists Jean Robben (1550-1629) and Vispasian Robben (1579-1662).
According to the data, there is no Russian name for the species Robinia
pseudoacacia, and the following Russian names are widely used in the literature:
However, from a botanical point of view,
“white acacia” The name is common. The
“yellow acacia” common in Ukraine and the European part of Russia is neither an
acacia nor a robinia, in fact it is a tree of the genus Caragana (Caragana
arborescens). According to M. Fasmer, the word spruce means
“strong, solid wood”.
Some researchers have called the word
“knot” and in fact “knot tree”. P.Ya. Chernik
emphasizes the complexity of the word
“archa” in the “Historical etymological
”, which consists of two bases (for comparison: in Latin “juniper”).
P.Ya. Chernik says that the word mujjukha is connected with the word mzga (mozg)
in the dialect. It is interesting that the first part of the name of the Latin spruce
(juniperus) is also associated with the plant juncus
– “rump”. It has probably not been
conclusively proven that the word has historical roots in either mojjevel or mozjel .
Apparently, there are many options, but it is difficult to give a definite answer to the
question of the origin of the word mojjevelnik
The general name of the hippophae chakanda is translated from the ancient
“shiny horse” and is derived from the words “hippos” – horse and “phaos”
– glitter. The ancient Greeks fed sick and wounded horses with wild sea urchins.
From this, the animals recovered quickly, and their paths became smooth and shiny.
The Latin word rhamnoides is derived from the Uzbek word itshumurt and the
Russian word krushina, and rhamnos and oides are similar. As mentioned above, the
Russian name oblepixa is due to the peculiarity of the fruits of the plant, which are so
dense on the branches that they seem to be pressed tightly together. In parts of
Siberia, the Far East and Europe, where we do not know the retailer, there is a
window, dogwood, thorn, in the Caucasus
– djakudloy; In Central Asia, there are
such names as djidda .
In short, in our article we have focused on the history of the origin of a few tree
names. Apparently, most tree names have a long history. The names of the above
trees have undergone specific historical, phonetic and morphological changes.
1. Berdiev E.T., Kholmurodov M.Z., Berdieva B.T. German-Russian-Uzbek
Annotated Dictionary of Forestry and Landscaping. Tashkent. Editorial and
publishing department of Tashkent State Agrarian University, 2021.
– P. 5.
2. Imyaminova Sh.S., Tilovova G.A. Uzbek-German-Russian-Latin dictionary of
forestry words. Tashkent. Editorial and Publishing Department of TSU, 2019. 4. b. 3.
Oxford dictionary of the English language. 1989. https://www.oed.com/2 June. 2021.
3. Skvorstov A.K. The source is systematic. K 300-letiyu Carla Linneya: //
Priroda: magazine. 2007.
– № 4. – S. 3–10.
G. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der botanischen Pflanzennamen.
Auflage, Birkhäuser, Basel 1996. – P. 42.
5. Siegmund Seybold (Hrsg.): Schmeil-Fitschen interaktiv (CD-Rom), Quelle &
Meyer, Wiebelsheim 2001/2002. ISBN 3-494-01327-6
6. Online etymology dictionary. https://www.etymonline.com/word/avocado
2. iyun. 2021.
8. https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/pavlovniya 10. https://ru.regionkosice.com/wiki/avocado.
Berdiev Е.Т., Kholmurodov M.Z., Berdieva В.T. German-Russian-Uzbek Annotated Dictionary of Forestry and Landscaping. Tashkent. Editorial and publishing department of Tashkent State Agrarian University, 2021. - P. 5.
Imyaminova Sh.S., Tilovova G.A. Uzbek-German-Russian-Latin dictionary of forestry words. Tashkent. Editorial and Publishing Department of TSU, 2019. 4. b. 3. Oxford dictionary of the English language. 1989. https://www.oed.eom/2 June. 2021.
Skvorstov A.K. The source is systematic. К 300-letiyu Carla Linneya: // Priroda: magazine. 2007. - № 4. - S. 3-10.
Helmut G. Etymologisches Worterbuch der botanischen Pflanzennamen. 3-Auflage, Birkhauser, Basel 1996. - P. 42.
Siegmund Seybold (Hrsg.): Schmeil-Fitschen interaktiv (CD-Rom), Quelle & Meyer, Wiebelsheim 2001/2002. ISBN 3-494-01327-6
Online etymology dictionary, https://www.etymonline.com/word/avocado 2. iyun. 2021.