Category of diminutiveness in the english language
1 st year Master’s studen
1 st year Master’s studen
Traditionally, the term ‘diminutive’ conveys the idea of ‘smallness’. Diminutiveness conveys the meaning of small or little size, amount, quantity, power, value, importance, etc. which are often accompanied by different emotional nuances. The fundamental assumption which most scholars share, however, is that the prototypical function of the diminutive is to indicate smallness, but that it can convey a variety of pragmatic meanings that extend well beyond the notion of smallness.
THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THE FEATURES OF THE
TRANSLATION OF LEGAL TEXTS
Rustamova Mashkhura Omonkulovna
student, Translation faculty, Uzbekistan State World Languages University
Currently, Uzbekistan seriously claims equal coexistence with other States in
the field of legal development. This, in addition to everything else, means the desire,
opportunity and organizational readiness to adequately perceive and implement the
advanced trends of world lawmaking in domestic legislation. Consequently, one of
the important tactical tasks in this regard is the application and implementation of
international and European legal norms, which can be properly ratified only if they
are translated into the State language. The main elements of international law that
need to be translated into Uzbek are international agreements, conventions,
directives, protocols, etc. The need for their translation is primarily due to the
The active development of international relations in the modern world makes
the problem of two subject areas of knowledge particularly relevant now: linguistic
and professional. Great attention to the translation of professionally oriented texts
and literature in the profile direction of students is increasing due to the development
of new means of communication and information technologies, international
cooperation with other countries on various issues, as well as academic and
professional mobility of graduates of higher educational institutions.
In particular, the volume of materials translated from English into Uzbek in this
area has increased significantly over the past decade.
In recent years, lawyers and linguists have been confronted with the fact that
the construction of a multilingual legal order necessarily faces a number of linguistic
problems that entail serious legal consequences. Various forms of co-editing,
bilingual edition, parallel edition, oppose the monolingual version of laws with
subsequent translation, that is, the traditional method of transferring a normative text
developed in one language to another language. The language of law is a general
concept of a legal language.
Currently, many works are devoted to the study of special vocabulary. In
jurisprudence, because of the emergence of new laws and additions to them, the
lexicon of a specialist in this field is replenished with new professionalism and terms.
Such a dynamic process requires constant study, therefore, in linguistic science there
is a large number of studies devoted to the "legal language". Many works of linguists
emphasize the close connection of legal terminology with common vocabulary.
Since the first days of independence, linguists of Uzbekistan have been
assigned a number of tasks for the study of professionally significant language units
and the ordering of industry terms, as well as the compilation of special dictionaries.
To date, legal terminology in our country is at the stage of formation and
development, in this process the legal terminology of English, Uzbek and other
languages plays an important role, because the study of the mutual influence of
languages is one of the priorities of modern linguistics.
– verbal designations of concepts used in the content of the
law (other normative legal act). The terminology of the original text must be accurately
conveyed in the target language, including the semantics of non-equivalent terms. In
this work, legal terms are understood as “elements of legal technique, verbal
designations of international legal concepts, with the help of which the content of the
normative legal prescriptions of the state is expressed and fixed”.
The definition of the semantics of legal terms, as well as the improvement of
the methods and techniques of translation of legal texts is of great importance both
for the development of the methodology of intercultural communication in the field of
jurisprudence and for terminology as part of linguistics. In addition, solving translation
problems in the field of international legal relations is of great importance for the
practice of international legal regulation of foreign economic activity. The special
nature of legal documents requires consideration of various linguistic aspects of their
translation and the translation strategies used.
Based on the analysis of legal texts, it is possible to draw the following
1) The legal text acts as the main communicative unit in the legal discourse,
realizing private and general interests;
2) The characteristic features of the legal text are revealed: morphological,
syntactic and lexical, in addition, some requirements for the legal text are reflected;
3) The analysis of legal texts (laws, codes, conventions, constitutions, etc.) was
carried out and revealed the presence and functioning of a variety of borrowings,
including “Latinisms”, phraseological expressions and internationalisms.
When translating legal documents, due to the requirement of maximum
similarity of the texts of the original and the translation, syntactic structures should, if
possible, be transferred by similar structures to the translation, i.e., syntactic
assimilation should be applied. For the same reason, it is impossible to use such
translation methods as splitting and combining sentences. Due to the differences in
the grammatical structure of the English and Uzbek languages, as well as the need
to accurately convey the meaning of the utterance, the syntactic structures of the TL
often require certain transformations.
Республикасини янада ривожлантириш бўйича Ҳаракатлар стратегияси
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дата обращения: 03.02.2018)
4. European Court of Human Rights. Council of Europe. 67075 Strasbourg
cedex. France www.echr.coe.int. Contents. Convention for the Protection of Human
Arnold 1966: Арнольд И.В. Семантическая структура слова в современном английском языке и методика её исследования: на материале имени существительного. Монография. - Л., Просвещение, 1966.
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Schneider 2003: Schneider K.P. Diminutives in English. Max Niemeyer Verlag Gmbh, 2003.
Schneider 2013: Schneider K.P. The truth about diminutives, and how we can find it: Some theoretical and methodological considerations. // SKASE Journal of Theoretical Linguistics [online]. 2013, vol.10, no.1, p.137-151. [cit.2013-02-04].