Maktabgacha yosh davrida bolalarning sensor taraqqiyoti o‘rganilishi

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Мамаекубова, Ш., & Норбекова, М. (2022). Maktabgacha yosh davrida bolalarning sensor taraqqiyoti o‘rganilishi. Анализ актуальных проблем, инноваций, традиций, решений и художественной литературы в преподавании иностранных языков, 1(01), 313–315. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/analysis-problem/article/view/12998
Шахло Мамаекубова, Самаркандский государственный институт иностранных языков

Научный руководитель

Мафтуна Норбекова, Самаркандский государственный институт иностранных языков

студентка 2 ступени

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Аннотация

Maqolada maktabgacha yosh davridagi bolalarning sensor taraqqiyoti va xususiyatlari uni yoshga bog`liq xolatlari va aqliy taraqqiyotni sensor taraqqiyotga bog`liq ekanligi sensor taraqqiyotni amalga oshirish yo`l-yo`riqlari ko`rsatib o`tilgan bo`lib sensor taraqqiyotni rivojlantiruvchi mashqlar va o`yinlar haqida malumotlar berilgan.Bundan tashqari sensor taraqqiyot bo`yicha olib borilgan ilmiy ishlar va
olimlarning fikrlari bayon etilgan

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are so many visual learners, that is why learning new words with the help of Pictionary is one of the most
essential part of making passive vocabulary into active one.

VOCABULARY BINGO

This game is mostly observed in teaching new words to young learners. However, we can use it with

the students as well in institutions. Teachers can make students to create their own bingo cards through
writing vocabulary in isolated spaces.
.Firstly, create cards and read all definitions

. students should be able to understand what words did you choose.

.tell learners to say “ BINGO” when they find 5 words in a line.

. provide a prize for winners that will raise students’ mood. [1]

BALL GAMES

After finishing input part of the lesson , you can use it so as to check students knowledge whether

they get new topic or not. Actually, this game is suitable at the end of the lesson which motivates students to
learn better. Just music an important part of this game
. put some music which should be energetic song
.give a ball to learners and start the game
.when some students can not catch it he or she should reply to questions
.questions should be taken from new words that are taught in the beginning part of the lesson.

TABOO WORDS

For practicing synonyms and descriptions, taboo games are suitable. Have students to sit with looking
opposite to each other and divide them into 2. Team member will choose themselves one student who sit in
front of them in “hot seat”. Standing in behind the student who sit in “hot seat”, you raise a paper with word
on it, but, student in “hot seat” will not be able to see it. Then the game starts. Teams have some minutes to
explain the word on paper and student on “hot seat” should find it. You can give them 2 or 3 minutes to
explain the word.
Notion! There are some groups that consist of many students, for example, more than 12 students. In that
case, the class will be a bit noisy. In that situation you should have a game with one team.[2]

WORD SEARCH

One of the common classroom vocabulary games is word search. This classroom activity is used

with handouts. There are several samples of word search that teachers can use according to their students’
language level. [3]
Taking all into account, there a great number of games that can be utilized in teaching new vocabulary for
student which make teaching process more enjoyable and interesting for not only teachers but also for
language learners.

REFERENCE:

1.https://schools.magoosh.com/schools-blog/9-classroom-vocabulary-games-to-use-with-your-students
2.https://www.fluentu.com/blog/educator-english/esl-vocabulary-games
3.https://teambuilding.com/blog/vocabulary-games

MAKTABGACHA YOSH DAVRIDA BOLALARNING SENSOR TARAQQIYOTI O‘RGANILISHI

Ilmiy rahbar: Mamayoqubova Shahlo Obloqulovna

Norbekova Maftuna SamDCHTI, 2 bosqich talabasi

Annotatsiya:

Maqolada maktabgacha yosh davridagi bolalarning sensor taraqqiyoti va xususiyatlari

uni yoshga bog`liq xolatlari va aqliy taraqqiyotni sensor taraqqiyotga bog`liq ekanligi sensor taraqqiyotni
amalga oshirish yo`l-yo`riqlari ko`rsatib o`tilgan bo`lib sensor taraqqiyotni rivojlantiruvchi mashqlar va
o`yinlar haqida malumotlar berilgan.Bundan tashqari sensor taraqqiyot bo`yicha olib borilgan ilmiy ishlar va
olimlarning fikrlari bayon etilgan.

Kalit so`zlar:

Yosh, davr, sensor, taraqqiyot, xususiyat, aql, ilmiy ishlar,mashq,o`yin, xolat.

Maktabgacha yosh davri bolaning jismoniy fiziologik va psixologik taraqqiyotida muhim davr

ekanligi tufayli bu davrdagi bolaning psixik taraqqiyotini o‘rganish borasida bir qancha ilmiy tadqiqotlar olib
borilgan. Maktabgacha yosh davridagi bolaning sensor taraqqiyoti borasiga rus olimi L.A.Venger tatqiqotlar
olib borgan. U bolaning aqliy taraqqiyoti bilan sensor madaniyatning bog`liqligini psixologik jihatdan yoritib
bergan. Chunki u olamni bilishning idrok etish bilan bog`lanishini ko`rsatib o`tadi. Shu bilan birga u har bir
yosh davrida bolaning sensor taraqqiyoti xususiyatlarini yoritib berishga xarakat qilgan. Sensor taraqqiyotni


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amalga oshirish yo`lyo`riqlarini ko`rsatib bergan. Bularni sensor rivojlantirisg mashq va o`yinlarni ishlab
chiqqan. Chet el psixologiya soxasida salmoqli tatqiqotlarni olib borgan olim M.Montessori ham bolaning
sensor taraqqiyoti soxasida olib borgan tatqiqotlari diqqatga sazovordir. U maktabgacha talimtarbiya
soxasiga sensor madaniyat‖ tushunchasini olib kirgan. U shakl,rang, katta-kichikni farqlashga o`rganishda
sezgi azolarini mashq qildirishni tavsiya etadi. Chet el olimlaridan F.Frebel,O.Dekram bolaga sansor tarbiya
berish bolalarda sensor taraqqiyotni taminlashga yo`naltirilgan faoliyat ekanligini ko`rsatib, bu bolaga
maktabgacha yosh davrida talim tarbiya berishning asosiy tomonlaridan biri ekanligini takidlab o`tadilar.
Rus olimi A.V.Zaporojes bolaga sensor tarbiya berishda sensor etalon‖tushunchasiga urg`u bergan. U
bolalarda sensor etalonlar haqida tasavvurlarni xosil qilishga etiborni qaratib sensor etalonlar bu olamning
tashqixususiyatiga ko`ra umumiy qabul qilingan namunalar ekanligini takidlab o`tadi.Rus psixologlaridan
E.I.Tixiva, A.B.Usova, N.T.Sakumenalar ham bolaning sensor taraqqiyoti va uning aqliy taraqqiyoti dagi
o`rni yuzasida tatqiqotlarolib borganlar. Maktabgacha yosh davrida bolaning taraqqiyoti va shaxsning
shakillanishi borasida ilmiy tatqiqotlar olib borar ekan, bolaning sensor taraqqiyoti, sezgi va idrok
xususiyatlari ba uni olamni bilishdagi o`rniga nazariy jihardan talqin qilgan. T.A.Kisilyuk va L.A.Teneviskiy
ilk yoshda bola idroki buyumlarning payqash va olishning o`ziga xos xususiyatlarini o`rganib chiqqanlar
bola malum bir narsani aniq bo`lmagan detallar bilan bog`lab o`rganishlarini ko`rsatib o`tganlar. Masalan
dumaloq shaklni chizib biri, bu qizcha‖ deb atasa, ikinchi bola‖bu kartoshka‖deb takidlagan. Ayni dumaloq
shakl bolaning fantastik fikrlariga asos bo`lganligini ko`rsatib o`tadilar. Shu bilan birga katta yoshli
bolalarning idrok qilish xususiyatlarini o`rganib turli yosh davrida taraqqiy etib borishini ko`rsatib o`tganlar.
O`zbek psixolog olimlaridan N.S.Safiyev sensor tizim fenomenlari va ularga tizimli yondashuv muammosi
bo`yicha tatqiqot ishlarini olib borgan . O`znavbatida eshitish, ko`rish idroklarining o`ziga xos
xususiyatlarini ochib bergan R.A.Tursunov o`z tatqiqotlarida idrok badiy obraz masalasini yoritib berishga
xarakat qilgan. Ko`rinib turibdiki, sensor taraqqiyot muammosi bo`yicha ilmiy tatqiqotlar yetarli darajada
olib borilmagan. Barcha sezgi azolari go`dak hali onaning qornidagilik paytidanoq ancha takomillga erishgan
bo`ladi. Shuning uchun bola tug`ilishidan boshlaboq uning barcha sezgi azolari tashqaridan va ichki
muhitdan bo`ladigan tasirlarni aks ettirish qobiliyatiga egadir. Masalan o`n kunlik bola o`zining ko`z
qorachig`ini biror yorug`lik manbai (elector lampochkasi) ustida to`xtata oladi. Bir oylik chaqaloq unga
engashib (yuzini yaqin olib kelib) qarab turgan onasining chexrasini o`z ko`z qorachiqlarini uzoq vaqt
to`xtatib tura oladi. Ko`rish sezgisi chaqaloq bolalarda juda tez rivojlanadi. Ikki oylik bola sekin harakat
qilayotgan narsani ko`z qorachig`i bilan kuzata oladi, to`rt oylik bola esa faqat ko`rish emas narsalarga faol
qaray oladigan bo`lib qoladi. U qarayotgan narsalari turli xissiyotlarniyuzaga keltiradi. Go`dak bolalarda
ko`rgan narsalarini tanish 5-6 oylik davrida paydo bo`ladi. Bola dastavval o`zi bilan eng ko`p munosabatda
bo`ladigan odamni yani onasini tanib oladi. Sekin asta atrofdagi boshqa yaqin odamlarini tanib oladi. Buni
biz kichik bolalarning uyga begona odam kelganda unga uzoq tikilishi va yotsirayotganidan bilamiz. Go`dak
yoshidagi kichik bolalarda ranglarni sezish juda erta ko`rinadi.Masalan professor N.I.Krasnogorskiyning
o`tkazgan tajribalariga ko`ra ranglarni farqlash bolalarda 3-4 oylik davridan boshlab ko`rina boshlaydi.
Chunonchi bola xar-xil rangli butilkalardan ovqatlantirilgan. Lekin faqat qizil butilkalardagina sut bo`lgan.
Oradan biroz vaqt o`tgash, bola faqat qizil butilkani og`ziga solgan,boshqa idishlarga befarq qaragan. Bu
tajriba bolalarda ranglarni sezish va farqlash juda erta xosil bo`lishini ko`rsatadi. Shu tariqa psihologik
taraqqiyot uchun juda katta axamiyatga ega bo`lgan ko`rish sezish yasli yoshdagi bolalarning aktiv
faoliyatlari jarayonida tez rivojlanib boradi. Go`dak yoshidagi bolalarda eshitish ham juda erta ko`rina
boshladi, lekin bola tug`ilgandan so`ng nechanchi kundan boshlab eshita boshlashini aniqlash qiyin
Bolalarning eshitish sezgirligini yoshlikdan oshirib borishi ularning aqliy o`sishiga yordam berish bilan birga
ularga estetik tuyg`u tarbiyalashda ham katta axamiyatga egadir. Malumki, ajoyib zamonaviy musiqalardan
zavqlana bilish xususuyati kishida to`satdan paydo bo`lib, qolmaydi. Biz maktabgacha yosh davrida sensor
taraqqiyotni o`rganish uchun maktabgacha talim muassasasida tatqiqot olib bordik. Bunda bog`chada talim
olayotgan 15 nafar bolalar o`rtasida ranglarni idrok etish va ajrata olish bo`yicha bolalar bilan metodika olib
bordik. Dastlabki ko`rsatkichlar va bolalar bilan ishlangandan so`ng natijalar quydagi jadvalda qayd etilgan:
Ushbu natijalarni taxlil etar ekanmiz, shuni guvohi bo`ldikki bolalarni nazorat guruhidagi natijalar avval
4,5ni tashkil etar ekan oradagi farq 0,2nitashkil etadi. Natijadagi bunday oz miqdordagi farq bolani
topshiriqni qayta qo`llash natijasida bolada hosil bo`lgan ko`nikmalar bilan bog`lash hamda ranglar bilan
avval tanishishlarining ta`siri deb olish mumkin. Eksperiment guruhida olib borilgan shug`illanish ishlaridan
keying farq 1,1ni tashkil etadi. Bola bilan qisqa vaqt shug`illanish uning ranglarni idrok eta olishlariga ta`sir
ko`rsatgan, taraqqiy etish omili deb hisoblash mumkin. Bundan kelib chiqadiki maktabgacha talim
muassasasida talim olayotgan bolalarda sensor taraqqiyotni oshirish uchun ular bilan muntazam shug`illanish
shart.


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FOYDALANILGAN ADABIYOTLAR RO`YXATI:

1.Karimov I.A. O`zbekiston buyuk kelajak sari Toshkent, O`zbekiston 1998 yil
2.Karimov I.A. Yuksak manaviyat yengilmas kuch Toshkent 2008 yil
3.O`zbekiston Respublikasi ―Talim to`g`risidagi‖qonuni Marifat gazetasi 1997 yil 1-oktiyabr.
4.M.Rasulova Maktabgacha yoshdagi bolalar talim-tarbiyasiga qo`yiladigan davlat talablari Toshkent 2000
yil

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHOD IN LANGUAGE TEACHING

Abrueva Malika

SamSIFL, Master student of English faculty

Scientific supervisor: Zubaydova N.N.

Abstract:

Learning is an active communication between students and the teacher, so it does not have

a one-way property. Basically, the success of the process of teaching a foreign language directly depends on
the teacher. Each teacher, based on his professional experience, chooses methods and techniques of work.
Language teaching approaches and methods have cast light on the language teaching theory and practice.
There are still many controversies about their usefulness and appropriateness. This article tries to analyze the
effectiveness of one of the most influential teaching methods: Grammar-translation Method, in order to have
a better understanding and application in the future teaching practice. Using theoretical materials made in
this sphere, it is obvious that, there is no inherent contradiction between grammar instruction and
communicative approach, and a sort of explicit grammar instruction can complement communicative
language teaching to raise learners’ conscious awareness of the form and structure of the target language.

Key words:

grammar-translation method, effectiveness of GTM, aim of GTM, principles of GTM,

exercises for GTM

In the modern methodology, the problem of finding and choosing the most appropriate techniques

and methods of teaching foreign languages that would meet the requirements of the standards of modern
education remains relevant. Nowadays, there are many productive methods for learning a foreign language in
higher educational institutions. Each of the methods has its own characteristic features. This article will
consider the grammar-translation method of teaching as one of the effective methods for students to learn a
foreign language. Practice shows that the grammar-translation method is the main one in the modern
education system. Despite the fact that it is a classic method that has been used for more than one decade,
most teachers use it actively in the educational process.

The basic principles of grammar-translation method are: 1) the written word, as a basis for training;

2) memorizing grammatical rules and words and composing sentences based on them; 3) assimilation of
language material by translation and mechanical memory, as well as the use of analogy based on the mother
tongue.

GTM claims that students can easily understand the target language by memorizing the grammatical

rules and structures of the target language. In grammar, translation is taught deductively, with an emphasis
on memorizing grammatical structures and vocabulary. Grammar rules are taught and students learn the
language by practicing the rules authentically. The student learns the language to become familiar with the
literature in the target language. The text in the second language is translated into the local language;
Vocabulary and grammar rules are memorized. It is considered that the grammatical translation method to be
a useful method for learners of all levels of second language learning. Similarly, Damiani (2003) in his study
on the grammatical translation method states that it is the best way to teach grammar and vocabulary and the
teacher believes that his students learn while the teacher in any other method is not sure how students should
learn the language.

Considering grammar-translationmethod in grammar lessons, it should be noted that it must be

known historically and has been widely used in different schools for centuries. If this problem is
methodically exacerbated, then some of the formal-pedagogical tasks of foreign language teaching can be
pointed out, which arose on the basis of traditional language learning of the Renaissance.

The aim of the grammar-translation method is to read and translate using grammatical rules and read

literature. The sentence is the basic unit of learning through this application. Written speaking is central, and
listening and speaking are only means of learning. The main advantages of grammar-translation method are
learning techniques for working with the text: analysis of complex sides of text, grammatical and lexical

Библиографические ссылки

.Karimov LA. O'zbekiston buyuk kelajak sari Toshkent, O'zbekiston 1998 yil

Karimov LA. Yuksak manaviyat yengilmas kuch Toshkent 2008 yil

O'zbekiston Respublikasi —Talim to’g'risidagilqonuni Marifat gazetasi 1997 yil 1-oktiyabr.

M.Rasulova Maktabgacha yoshdagi bolalar talim-tarbiyasiga qo'yiladigan davlat talablari Toshkent 2000 yil

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