Prospects and Problems of Implementation of Recreation Works in Degradated Areas

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Norkulov, M. (2023). Prospects and Problems of Implementation of Recreation Works in Degradated Areas . in Library, 1(1), 506–516. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/19838
Masudjon Norkulov, Samarkand state universiteti

Sharof Rashidov nomidagi Samarqand davlat universiteti, Ilmiy loyihalarni boshqarish va innovatsion ishlanmalarni tijoratlashtirish sektori yetakchi ilmiy hodimi, biologiya fanlari bo'yicha falsafa doktori (PhD). 2022 yilda 03.00.05 - Botanika (lichenologiya) “Zarafshon daryosi o'rta oqimi havzasi lishayniklari” mavzusida nomzodlik dissertatsiyasini himoya qilingan. 30 dan ortiq ilmiy nashrlar, 2 ta uslubiy ishlanmalar va 1 ta oʻquv qoʻllanma muallifi va hammuallifidir.

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Аннотация

This article is devoted to work aimed at normalizing the condition of degraded soils in open-pit mines as a result of anthropogenic influences through phytomass. By creating a biological cover from plants, it has been achieved to improve the composition of the soil. Plants such as Datura starmonium, Portuluca oleracea,Caspella bursa-pastoris, Chenopodium vulvaria, Chenopodium album, Plantagolanceolata, Vaccaria hispanica,
Vicia angustifolia were used for the research. The effect of micronutrients on plants was studied.

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American Journal of Plant Sciences, 2023, 14, 506-516

https://www.scirp.org/journal/ajps

ISSN Online: 2158-2750

ISSN Print: 2158-2742

DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2023.144034 Apr. 30, 2023

506

American Journal of Plant Sciences

Prospects and Problems of Implementation of

Recreation Works in Degradated Areas

Abdukholikov Farrukh Bakhrom O’g’li

1

, Karshibaev Hazratkul Kilichevich

1

,

Masudjon Norkulov Marufovich

2

1

Gulistan State University, Guliston, Uzbekistan

2

Samarkand State University, Samarkand, Uzbekistan


Abstract

This article is devoted to work aimed at normalizing the condition of

degraded soils in open-pit mines as a result of anthropogenic influences

through phytomass. By creating a biological cover from plants, it has been
achieved to improve the composition of the soil. Plants such as

Datura

starmonium

,

Portuluca oleracea

,

Caspella bursa

-

pastoris

,

Chenopodium

vulvaria

,

Chenopodium album

,

Plantago lanceolata

,

Vaccaria hispanica

,

Vicia

angustifolia

were used for the research. The effect of micronutrients on plants

was studied.

Keywords

Flora, Introducer, Phytomass, Degradation, Technical Recultivation, Biological

Recultivation, Microelement

1. Introduction

Nowadays, as a result of the activities of industrial enterprises, the extraction and
use of minerals and other anthropogenic factors, chemical pollution of the soil
cover, changes in soil properties and productivity are observed all over the
world. Various types of soil pollution lead to soil degradation, a decrease in the
quality and quantity of productivity, as well as the formation of other problems
related to the ecosystem

[1] [2]

.

Land recultivation (latin prefix meaning re-return, restoration; cultivated-

restoration of land that has become unusable due to extraction of minerals, con-
struction of water facilities, construction of cities and other reasons, environ-
ment a set of activities aimed at improving environmental, ecological conditions

[3] [4] [5]

. The main task of land recultivation is to restore the disturbed fertile

How to cite this paper: O’g’li, A.F.B.,

Kilichevich, K.H. and Marufovich, M.N.
(2023) Prospects and Problems of Imple-

mentation of Recreation Works in Degra-
dated Areas.

American Journal of Plant

Sciences

, 14, 506-516.

https://doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2023.144034

Received: February 21, 2023
Accepted: April 27, 2023

Published: April 30, 2023

Copyright © 2023 by author(s) and
Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

This work is licensed under the Creative
Commons Attribution International

License (CC BY 4.0).

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Open Access


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layer of the soil and create conditions that ensure the effective management of
agriculture or forestry

[6] [7]

.

In the Republic of Uzbekistan, including in the area of irrigated agriculture,

the following types of unusable land are considered to be in need of land recul-
tivation: land where materials for construction (sand, gravel, stone, etc.) have
been mined; exploration and inspection of gas and oil products and lands allo-
cated for their use; lands whose fertile layer has been damaged due to the forma-
tion of depressions, humps or depressions that are excessively busy due to irriga-
tion, draining, construction and repair of road networks; the part of the land al-
located for temporary use during the construction of various construction struc-
tures and buildings, etc.

[8]

.

Land reclamation is carried out using two-stage measures: technical and bio-

logical. First of all, preparatory works such as identification of unusable land,
study, drawing up a future use plan and development of project-estimate docu-
ments are carried out. The technical stage of land reclamation is the preparation
of the land for the purposeful use of the national economy, and the biological
stage involves the restoration of the landscape and soil, making it suitable for
agriculture or forestry

[9]

.

In the territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan, there are 200,000 hectares of

unusable land, of which 65,000 hectares correspond to areas with well-developed
agricultural sectors. They were mainly caused by irrigation, drainage and con-
struction of road network. As a result of their return to the agricultural cycle, it
is possible to grow an additional 300 - 400 thousand tons of cotton and many
vegetables, fruits, and fodder necessary for livestock every year

[10] [11]

.

As a result of anthropogenic activities of mankind, hundreds of hectares of

fertile land with fields, forests and other useful land are in danger of being com-
pletely destroyed. Natural landscapes are dying after large-scale man-made in-
fluence. In order to bring them back to life, it is necessary to carry out complex
reclamation work on the restoration of degraded soils

[12]

.

2. Research Object and Used Methods

As a research object, degraded areas in the area of “Marjonbulak gold beneficia-
tion factory belonging to the Southern Mining Department” located in the Mar-
jonbulak village, Gallaorol district, Jizzakh region, were selected (

Figure 1

).

For planting in the designated area, the common plants in the Marjonbulak

mine area include

Solanaceae

family,

Datura starmonium

belonging to the

Da-

tura

family,

Portulacaceae

family,

Portuluca oleracea

belonging to the

Portuluca

family,

Brassicaceae

family,

Caspella bursa-pastoris

belonging to the

Caspella

family,

Amaranthaceae

family,

Chenopodium vulvaria

belonging to the

Cheno-

podium

family and

Chenopodium

album,

Plantagianaceae

family,

Plantago lan-

ceolata

belonging to

Plantago

family,

Caryophyllaceae

family,

Vaccaria hispanica

belonging to

Vaccaria

family,

Fabaceae

family,

Vicia angustifolia

belonging to

Vicia

family were selected

[13] [14]

.


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Figure 1.

Experimental site on the territory of the Marjonbulak gold enrichment plant.

Comparative, chemical-analytical methods were used in the research work.

Field-soil studies were carried out based on the methods of “Legal aspects of soil
conservation and land cadaster works

[15]

.

Sowing and measuring the seeds of the selected plants were carried out according

to “Методы фенологических наблюдений при ботанических исследований” by
G. E. Shuls

[15]

and “Research works on the science of plant introduction” rec-

ommended by I.V. Belolipov, B.Y. Tokhtayev, H.K. Karshibaev, methodical in-
structions for transfer

[16]

were used. The obtained data were calculated on the

basis of mathematical and statistical analysis.

3. The Obtained Results and Their Analysis

Cleaning and rehabilitation of soil contaminated with waste can be divided into
the following stages:

1) Preparatory stage: study of the contaminated area, preparation of the field

for conducting experiments, cleaning of the surface layers of the soil from large
wastes;

2) Technical recultivation: removal of heavily polluted soil layer, mixing it

with clean soil, carrying out chemical reclamation measures;

3) Biological recultivation: cleaning and restoring fertility by planting the

seeds of selected plants in the prepared area (phytomelioration)

[17]

.

Recultivation works were carried out in 2014-2022. For this, soil samples were

taken from the soils of the hills filled with waste for chemical laboratory analysis
(

Figure 2

).

For sampling, pits were dug at 40 cm intervals from every 100 meters of the

sites, and samples were taken at 0 - 10 cm, 10 - 20 cm, and 20 - 30 cm and 30 -
40 cm was done.

Determination of the elemental composition of the obtained samples was

checked by the ICP-OES (Inductive Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer) in-
strument at the “Experimental Biology Laboratory” of Gulistan State University.


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This tool provides a quantitative analysis of more than 20 elements in the soil
(

Table 1

). A similar experiment was conducted to determine the heavy metals in

plants (

Table 3

).

Figure 2.

Soil sampling process.

Table 1.

Elemental composition of soil that has become waste as a result of anthropogenic influence.

Soil

sample

Mn

257.610

(mg/L)

Cr

267.716

(mg/L)

As

193.696

(mg/L)

Mg

280.271

(mg/L)

Ca

315.887

(mg/L)

Al 396.15

(mg/L)

K 766.49

(mg/L)

Se 196.02

(mg/L)

Ni 231.60

(mg/L)

Zn

206.200

(mg/L)

1 Example 1 6.404

0.002

0.605

23.781

10.002

0.998

0.001

−0.017

0.216

2.416

2 Example 2 0.012

0.001

0.327

0.619

11.503

0.975

0.337

−0.004

−0.004

0.026

Soil

sample

Fe 238.20

(mg/L)

Cu

327.39

(mg/L)

Mg

253.652

(mg/L)

V

292.46(mg

/L)

Se

189.927

(mg/L)

Ag

328.06

(mg/L)

Pb

220.353

(mg/L)

Na

589.592

(mg/L)

Cd

226.502

(mg/L)

Sb

206.830

(mg/L)

1 Example 1 0.338

0.146

−0.027 −9.271E− −4.957E− 0.015

−0.104

0.166

0.004

−0.011

2 Example 2 0.633

0.011

0.002

0.086

−0.001

0.815

−0.001

2.261

−3.268E− −0.006

Table 2.

Elemental composition of planted plants.

Plant

sample

Mn 257.610

(mg/L)

Cr 267.716

(mg/L)

As 193.696

(mg/L)

Al 396.15

(mg/L)

K 766.49

(mg/L)

Se 196.02

(mg/L)

Zn 206.200

(mg/L)

Fe 238.20

(mg/L)

1 Example 1

0.005

0.001

0.422

1.119

−0.036

0.013

0.008

0.204

2 Example 2

3.471

0.004

−0.154

12.959

−0.058

0.025

0.985

0.230

Plant

sample

Cu 327.39

(mg/L)

Hg 253.652

(mg/L)

V 292.46

(mg/L)

Sn 189.927

(mg/L)

Ag 328.06

(mg/L)

Pb 220.353

(mg/L)

Na 589.592

(mg/L)

Sb 206.830

(mg/L)

1 Example 1

0.003

0.001

0.005

−1.586E−4

0.010

−1.818E−4

0.895

0.017

2 Example 2

0.748

−0.017

4.277E−4

0.002

0.011

0.004

0.205

0.012


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Table 3.

Effect of trace elements on

Althaea officinalis plant.

Name

plant

02.04.2019

14.04.2019

21.04.2019

28.04.2019

05.05.2019

Pl

an

tin

g d

ay

C

on

tr

ol

((N

H

4

)

6

Mo

7

O

24

)

Mg

C

l

4

C

on

tr

ol

((N

H

4

)

6

Mo

7

O

24

)

Mg

C

l

4

C

on

tr

ol

((N

H

4

)

6

Mo

7

O

24

)

Mg

C

l

4

C

on

tr

ol

((N

H

4

)

6

Mo

7

O

24

)

Mg

C

l

4

A.

officinalis

50

50 50 24

12

13

24

15

19

25

18

15

27

18

12

Figure 3.

ICP-OES laboratory instrument. (ICP-OES is an optical emission spectrometer

based on inductive plasma. The device for high-precision (0.001 mg/l) measurement of
elements from solutions in argon flow.)

During the field experiments, the seeds of

Datura starmonium, Portuluca ole-

racea, Caspella bursa-pastoris, Chenopodium vulvaria, Chenopodium album,
Plantago lanceolata, Taeniatherum crinitum, Vaccaria hispanica, Vicia angusti-
folia

were collected and separated from them into 100 seeds. received. A place

was set aside for planting seeds on one of the hills filled with waste around the
Marjonbulak mine (

Figure 3

). The area was clearly marked and the soil was loo-

sened for planting the seeds. Soil samples with 5 different conditions were pre-
pared for seeds. For this, natural soil was mixed with degraded soil in different
percentages and 100 seeds were planted.

Datura stramonium

L. is an annual weed belonging to the

Solanaceae

family.

The stem is spreading and grows with upright branches; 1.2 m tall. The leaf is
ovate, banded, pointed at the tip. The flowers are white, one in each leaf axil. The
fruit is a green, four-celled ovoid capsule covered with thorns: up to 4.5 cm long,
it produces about 500 kidney-shaped, black seeds. It blooms and fruits from May
to June. It grows from the seed. The leaves, stems, and roots contain toxic


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Table 4.

Germination indicators of planted plants.

T/r

Familia

Genus

Spesies

Control % 100%

75/25%

50/50%

25/75%

1

Solanaceae

Datura

Datura starmonium

20

45

32

30

22

2

Portulacaceae

Portuluca

Portuluca oleracea

15

37

30

25

17

3

Brassicaceae

Caspella

Caspella bursa-pastoris

27

53

45

40

34

4

Amaranthaceae Chenopodium Chenopodium vulvaria

10

45

27

17

12

5

Amaranthaceae Chenopodium Chenopodium album

15

36

32

28

25

6

Plantagianaceae

Plantago

Plantago lanceolata

16

17

16

18

15

7

Caryophyllaceae

Vaccaria

Vaccaria hispanica

24

32

11

21

14

8

Fabaceae

Vicia

Vicia angustifolia

13

35

27

21

16

alkaloids such as hyoscyamine, scopolamine, and atropine. Medicines used in
the treatment of rheumatism and neuralgia are prepared from the leaves. Con-
trol measures: Fields are sown by hand. All parts of the plant contain alkaloids

[1]

.

Portulaca oleracea

L. is an annual weed belonging to

Portulaca

family. The

stem is straight, lying, sometimes upright. The leaves are small, fleshy, cylindric-
al, forming a ball. The flowers are yellow, simple or double petals. It blooms and
bears fruit from May to November. One bush gives 50 - 75 thousand seeds. In
Central Asia, it is widespread in irrigated farming zones. It grows abundantly in
fields rich in humus when soil fertility is high. One bush of oleander produces
up to 10,000 seeds.

Capsella bursa-pastoris

(L.) Medic. is an annual weed belonging to cabbage

family. 6 types are known. There is 1 species in Uzbekistan -

C. bursa-pastoris.

Hairy, sometimes glabrous stem, simple or branched, 10 - 50 cm tall. The leaves
on the stem are crowded, simple, mostly feathery. The flowers are small, col-
lected in sparse spikes. The crown is white. The fruit is an inverted heart-shaped
triangular or pod. One plant produces up to 70,000 viable seeds. The plant be-
gins flowering in early spring and continues to develop until late autumn. Grass
forms a ball on the surface of the ground. The common gorse overwinters under
the snow and resumes development in early spring. It is spread everywhere. It
grows as a weed in many fields. It also grows on roadsides and ditches

[18]

.

Chenopodium

is a group of annual herbs belonging to the family of

Cheno-

podium.

In temperate climate zones, the city’s

Ch. vulvaria,

Ch. foliosum,

(Ch.

rubrum,

Ch. album,

Ch. murale

and other types are distributed. The height is 10

- 100 cm, the leaves are banded, triangular or ovate, covered with dust. The flowers
are collected in a tufted inflorescence. It blooms and seeds in May-September. It
grows from the seed. In Uzbekistan, salt marshes are found as a spring weed in
almost all fields

[19]

.

Plantago major

L.

is a group of 1 - 2 and perennial herbs belonging to the

family of pantago. 260 species are known. There are 6 species in Uzbekistan. 4
types are used as medicinal plants. The leaves are arranged in a ball at the root


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neck, banded, broadly ovate or broadly elliptic, rascally and strap-like. The flow-
ers form a simple spike at the end of the stems and branches. The fruit is two- or
many-seeded. The leaves and seeds contain vitamins C and K, carotene, mucila-
ginous and other substances. Tincture prepared from the leaves is used in the
treatment of gastrointestinal diseases and wounds, and the mucilaginous solu-
tion of the seeds is used as a weak suppository

[20] [21]

.

Vaccaria hispanica

(Mill). is an annual weed of the carnation family. The stem

is bare, grows upright, the upper part is branched, 30 - 100 cm tall. The leaves
are opposite, ovate-rascally without bands. The flowers are collected in a pink or
light-red shield-shaped inflorescence. The fruit is a spherical capsule with many
seeds. It blooms and bears fruit from May to August. It grows from the seed.
One bush contains 400 - 500 seeds. The seed turns blue at 5˚ - 10˚. The seeds
contain poisonous saponin. It is not given to thousands of animals, widespread
in Central Asia. Contaminates irrigated and dryland cereal crops, as well as mil-
let and flax fields

[1]

.

Vicia angustifolia

L. is an annual herb. Height 15 - 65 cm. Flowers are located

in the axils of 1 - 2 leaves. Pod 4 - 5 cm. It blooms and seeds in April-August. It
grows as a weed in fields

[22]

.

The genus

Vicia.

Representatives of this genus are perennial or annual herbs.

Their stems are thin and delicate. They cling to other plants with the tips of their
leaves and grow upright. This genus includes 150 species. They are distributed in
the middle zone of the northern hemisphere and in North America. In the flora
of the former union, there are 84 species of gorse, 16 species in the flora of Uz-
bekistan. They grow in different natural conditions

[23]

.

Althaea officinalis

plant was selected in order to determine the effect of mi-

cronutrients on plants. First, to determine the seed germination of the plant, 150
unripe seeds of

A. officinalis

were counted and divided into 50.50 of the isolated

seeds were taken as a control and were not exposed to any substance, 50 were
exposed to a 0.05% solution of Ammonium molybdate ((NH

4

)

6

Mo

7

O

24

) and the

remaining 50 were exposed to Magnesium (IV) 0.05% solution of chloride
(MgCl

4

) was exposed. It was planted in the area designated for the experiment

on 02.04.2019 and seed germination was calculated every 10 days (

Table 3

).

When

A. officinalis

was exposed to microelements, it gave the best results

compared to other plants. This plant germinated very quickly after planting, that
is, it germinated on 14.04.2019. The percentage of germinated seeds is 38%. 54%
in the seeds planted for control. 36% of seeds germinated in a 0.05% solution of
ammonium molybdate ((NH

4

)

6

Mo

7

O

24

). In the 0.05% solution of magnesium (IV)

chloride (MgCl

4

) it gave a good result with 24%.

Althaea officinalis

L.-Medicinal marigold belongs to the

Althaea

L. family,

Malvaceae

family. It grows in orchards, gardens, swamps and meadows. The life

form is a perennial herb. The arrow has a root system. The height of the stem
reaches 70 - 150 cm. The cross-section of the stem is oval-circular, green in col-
or, the branches are branched monopodially. The stem grows upright

[24]

.


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The leaves are simple, long-lobed, ovate, triangular, sometimes with 3 - 5

lobes. Both the stem and the leaves are covered with soft hairs

[25]

.

The flower is located singly in the leaf axil, the flower is white or pink, 5 - 9

cm in diameter. The calyx is located in 2 rings. In the 1

st

ring, 3 sepals are joined,

and in the next ring, 5 sepals are joined, corolla 5 free

[26]

.

Androceum consists of an infinite collection of anthers. The color of the

powder is pink. Geniceus also consists of infinite seeds. Pollination is allogamy,
mainly pollinated by insects. The flower formula is Ca

(3)+(5)

Co

5

A

G

∞.

It blooms and bears fruit in June-September. The fruit is a berry with many

seeds. During the dispersal of fruits and seeds, mainly zoochorea and partially
anemochora are observed. Hemicryptophyte, hemixerophyte, glycogallophyte,
heliophyte, thermophilic plant. It is a plant rich in medicinal and honey. A de-
coction prepared from the root is used against cough

[27]

.

Reclamation works are carried out in two stages. According to Y.V. Yurchen-

ko, technical and biological stages are separated for recultivation. In his article
“Requirements for Recultivation of Degraded Lands”, he noted that it takes an
average of 7 months to implement recultivation.

Engaged in biological recultivation works. T.S. Chibrik and G.I. In his pub-

lished monograph, Baturin selected 30 of the most resistant species from more
than 200 perennial and annual grasses for recultivation and recommended plant-
ing them. Among these selected plants there are also representatives of

Fabaceae

family

[28]

.

Biological stage of reclamation T.S. Chibrik, M.A. Glazirina, Y.I. Filimonova

and N.V. Lukina’s data, it is stated as follows: Biological recultivation is a set of
works carried out after technical recultivation, and it is a stage of measures to
restore the fertility of the land. It includes a complex of agrotechnical measures
aimed at restoring flora and fauna

[29]

.

In order to carry out recultivation works, it is recommended to first select

plants that absorb free nitrogen from the air. It is advisable to use herbaceous
representatives of the

Fabaceae

family. Another plant used in recultivation is

Populis nigra

[30]

.

Despite the fact that the development of human production, the development

of the industrial sector has made great progress in the development of mankind,
this sector has been and remains dangerous for the ecology and health of our
planet. The reason for this is that mass mining of minerals and rocks, creation of
mines and mines, large amount of industrial waste does not remain on the sur-
face of the soil and is not processed for many years.

4. Summary

In conclusion, it can be said that the biological reclamation of the waste mounds
around the “Marjonbulak gold enrichment factory”, where useful ores have been
extracted and subsequently degraded, is one of the most urgent issues facing bi-
ologists and ecologists.


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American Journal of Plant Sciences

The results obtained as a result of the laboratory analysis of the soil showed

that the soil of the mining hills enriched with industrial waste as a result of
anthropogenic influence contained harmful heavy metals.

As a result of the experiments carried out in this area, it was found that all the

selected species have the highest index for recultivation and are fast-adaptable
species, and their resistance to external adverse effects has been proven to im-
prove the ecological condition of the area.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this pa-
per.

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[2]

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(2006) Legal Aspects of Soil Conservation and Land Cadaster Works.

Eurasian Soil

Science, 39, 693-698.

https://doi.org/10.1134/S1064229306070015

[3]

Roy, J., Reichel, R.,

et al. (2022) Functional, Not Taxonomic, Composition of Soil

Fungi Reestablishes to Pre

-

Mining Initial State after 52 Years of Recultivation.

Mi-

crobial Ecology.

[4]

Peng, J.Q., Zhao, Z.H. and Liu, D.N. (2022) Impact of Agricultural Mechanization

on Agricultural Production, Income, and Mechanism: Evidence From Hubei Province,
China.

Frontiers in Environmental Science, 10, Article ID: 838686.

https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2022.838686

[5]

Kholdorov, S., Jabbarov, Z. and Aslanov, I. (2021) Analysing Effect of Cement
Manufacturing Industry on Soils and Agricultural Plants.

E3S Web of Conferences,

284, Article No. 02005.

https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202128402005

[6]

Baier, C., Modersohn, A., Jalowy, F., Glaser, B. and Gross, A. (2022) Effects of Re-

cultivation on Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration in Abandoned Coal Mining Sites:

A Meta-Analysis.

Scientific Reports, 12, Article No. 20090.

https://www.nature.com/scientificreports

https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-22937-z

[7]

Rajpar, H., Zhang, A.L., Razzaq, A.,

et al. (2019) Agricultural Land Abandonment

and Farmers’ Perceptions of Land Use Change in the Indus Plains of Pakistan: A

Case Study of Sindh Province.

Sustainability, 11, 4663.

https://doi.org/10.3390/su11174663

[8]

Feng, Y., Wang, J., Bai, Z. and Reading, L. (2019) Effects of Surface Coal Mining and
Land Reclamation on Soil Properties. A Review.

Earth-Science Reviews, 191, 12-25.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2019.02.015

[9]

Karshibaev, H.K. and Abduhkolikov, F.B. (2021) Use of Flora of Wild Plants in
Land Recultivation.

Bulletin of Gulistan State University, 4, 16-21.

[10]

Nedbaev, I.S., Elsukova, E.Y., Kushnir, E.A. and Treschevskaya, E.I. (2021) Forest
Recultivation of Overburden Dumps of the Kingisepp Phosphorite Field.

IOP Con-

ference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 875, Article ID: 012029.


background image

A. F. B. O’g’li

et al.

DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2023.144034

515

American Journal of Plant Sciences

https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/875/1/012029

[11]

Antoninova, N.Yu., Usmanov, A.I., Sobenin, A.V. and Gorbunov, A.A. (2022)

Effect of Peat-Diatomite Ameliorant on Grass Cover Persistency in Disturbed Land
Reclamation.

Mining Informational and Analytical Bulletin, No. 5, 131-141. (In Russian)

https://doi.org/10.25018/0236_1493_2022_5_0_131

[12]

Frouz, J. (2021) Soil Recovery and Reclamation of Mined Lands. In: Stanturf, J.A.

and Callaham Jr., M.A., Eds.,

Soils and Landscapes Restoration, Academic Press,

Cambridge, 161-191.

https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-813193-0.00006-0

[13]

Tymchuk, I., Malovanyy, M., Shkvirko, O.,

et al. (2021) Review of the Global Experience

in Reclamation of Disturbed Lands.

Ecological Engineering & Environmental

Technology, 22, 24-30.

https://doi.org/10.12912/27197050/132097

[14]

Gafurova, L. and Juliev, M. (2021) Soil Degradation Problems and Foreseen Solutions in

Uzbekistan. In: Dent, D. and Boincean, B., Eds.,

Regenerative Agriculture, Springer,

Berlin, 59-67.

https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-72224-1_5

[15]

Norkulov, M., Khaydarov, K. and Umurzakova, Z. (2021) Taxonomy and Ecology
of the Lichens of the Ohaliksai River Basin.

American Journal of Plant Sciences, 12,

1380-1386.

https://doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2021.129097

[16]

Dominguez-Haydar, Y. Velasques, E., Carmona, J., Lavelle, P., Chavez, L.F. and Ji-
menez, J.J. (2019) Evaluation of Reclamation Success in an Open-Pit Coal Mine In-

tegrated Soil Physical, Chemical and Biological Quality Indicators.

Ecological Indi-

cators, 103, 182-193.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.04.015

[17]

Norkulov, M. (2022) Taxonomical Analysis of Epigean Lichens Districted in the

Lichenoflora of the Ziaddin-Zirabulak Mountains.

Scientific Journal, 5, 103-107.

[18]

Storoshchuk, U., Malovanyy, M. and Tymchuk, I. (2022) Substrates Based on Com-

posted Sewage Sludge for Land Recultivation.

Ecological Questions, 33, 1-16.

https://doi.org/10.12775/EQ.2022.039

[19]

Avezboyev, S., Sharipov, S. and Xujakeldiev, K. (2023) Development of Projects for

Recultivation of Lands Using GIS Technologies.

International Conference on Ad-

vanced Agriculture for Sustainable Future, 1-6.

https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/1138/1/012019

[20]

Huot, H., Simonnot, M.O. and Morel, J.L. (2016) Pedogenic Trends in Soils Formed

in Technogenoic Parent Materials.

Soil Science, 180, 182-192.

https://doi.org/10.1097/SS.0000000000000135

[21]

Hoffmann, J. and Wahrenberg, T. (2021) Effects of Cultivation Practice on Floristic

and Flowering Diversity of Spontaneously Growing Plant Species on Arable Fields.

Ecology and Evolution, 11, 15351-15363.

https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.8223

[22]

Pazúr, R., Lieskovský, J., Bürgi, M.,

et al. (2020) Abandonment and Recultivation of

Agricultural Lands in Slovakia—Patterns and Determinants from the Past to the
Future.

Land, 9, 316.

https://doi.org/10.3390/land9090316

[23]

Alimbaev, Т.А., Mazhitova, Zh.S. and Omarova, B.K. (2019) Environmental Problems
in the Kazakhstan Coal Industry and Their Solutions.

IOP Conference Series:

Materials Science and Engineering, 663, Article ID: 012041.

https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/663/1/012041

[24]

Jabbarov, Z.A. and Abduraxmonov, M.T. (2021) Nomozov Economic Costs of
Recultivation of Oil-Contaminated Soils.

Newsletter of Khorezm Mamun Academy,

3, 43-49.

[25]

Norkulov, M.M. (2022) Lichens of the Middle Course of the Zеravshan River Basin.
Dissertation Abstract, Samarkand State University, Samarkand, 14-15.


background image

A. F. B. O’g’li

et al.

DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2023.144034

516

American Journal of Plant Sciences

[26]

Darinka, C.G., Reinaldo, L.C., Eduardo, P., Wully, B.S., Antônio, D.B. and António,

M.L. (2021) Assessing Ecological Disturbance in Neotropical Forest Landscapes Using
High-Level Diversity and High-Level Functionality: Surprising Outcomes from a

Case Study with Spider Assemblages.

Land, 10, 758.

https://doi.org/10.3390/land10070758

[27]

Abdukholikov, F.B. (2017) Problems of Using Plants in Mining Waste Reclamation.

Bulletin of Gulistan State University, 2, 37-40.

[28]

Ruszczyk, A., Motta, P.C., Barros, R.L. and Araújo, A.M. (2004) Ecological Correlates

of Polyphenism and Gregarious Roosting in the Grass Yellow Butterfly.

Brazilian

Journal of Biology, 64, 151-164.

https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842004000100017

[29]

Abdukholikov, F.B. (2020) Prospects for the Use of

Capparic herbacea in the

Reclamation of Degraded Areas.

Bulletin of Gulistan State University, 3, 24-29.

[30]

https://www.uz.wikipedia.org/wiki

Библиографические ссылки

Alsaedi, S. and Aljeddani, G. (2022) Phytochemical Analysis and Bioactivity Screening of Primary and Secondary Metabolic Products of Medicinal Plants in the Valleys of Medina Region Saudi Arabia. Advances in Biological Chemistry, 12, 92-115. https://doi.org/10.4236/abc.2022.124009

Yakovlev, A.S., Loiko, P.F., Sazonov, N.V., Prokhorov, A.N. and Sapozhnikov, P.M. (2006) Legal Aspects of Soil Conservation and Land Cadaster Works. Eurasian Soil Science, 39, 693-698. https://doi.org/10.11/S1064229306070015

Roy, J., Reichel, R., et al. (2022) Functional, Not Taxonomic, Composition of Soil Fungi Reestablishes to Pre - Mining Initial State after 52 Years of Recultivation. Mi-crobial Ecology.

Peng, J.Q., Zhao, Z.H. and Liu, D.N. (2022) Impact of Agricultural Mechanization on Agricultural Production, Income, and Mechanism: Evidence From Hubei Province, China. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 10, Article ID: 838686. https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2022.838686

Kholdorov, S., Jabbarov, Z. and Aslanov, I. (2021) Analysing Effect of Cement Manufacturing Industry on Soils and Agricultural Plants. E 3S Web of Conferences, 284, Article No. 02005. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202128402005

Baier, C., Modersohn, A., Jalowy, F., Glaser, B. and Gross, A. (2022) Effects of Recultivation on Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration in Abandoned Coal Mining Sites: A Meta-Analysis. Scientific Reports, 12, Article No. 20090. https://www.nature.com/scientificreports https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-22937-z

Rajpar, H., Zhang, A.L., Razzaq, A., et al. (2019) Agricultural Land Abandonment and Farmers’ Perceptions of Land Use Change in the Indus Plains of Pakistan: A Case Study of Sindh Province. Sustainability, 11, 4663. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11174663

Feng, Y., Wang, J., Bai, Z. and Reading, L. (2019) Effects of Surface Coal Mining and Land Reclamation on Soil Properties. A Review. Earth-Science Reviews, 191, 12-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2019.02.015

Karshibaev, H.K. and Abduhkolikov, F.B. (2021) Use of Flora of Wild Plants in Land Recultivation. Bulletin of Gulistan State University, 4, 16-21.

Nedbaev, I.S., Elsukova, E.Y., Kushnir, E.A. and Treschevskaya, E.I. (2021) Forest Recultivation of Overburden Dumps of the Kingisepp Phosphorite Field. IOP Con-ference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 875, Article ID: 012029. A. F. B. O’g’li et al. DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2023.144034 515 American Journal of Plant Sciences https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/875/1/012029

Antoninova, N.Yu., Usmanov, A.I., Sobenin, A.V. and Gorbunov, A.A. (2022) Effect of Peat-Diatomite Ameliorant on Grass Cover Persistency in Disturbed Land Reclamation. Mining Informational and Analytical Bulletin, No. 5, 131-141. (In Russian) https://doi.org/10.25018/0236_1493_2022_5_0_131

Frouz, J. (2021) Soil Recovery and Reclamation of Mined Lands. In: Stanturf, J.A. and Callaham Jr., M.A., Eds., Soils and Landscapes Restoration, Academic Press, Cambridge, 161-191. https://doi.org/10.1/B978-0-12-813193-0.00006-0

Tymchuk, I., Malovanyy, M., Shkvirko, O., et al. (2021) Review of the Global Experience in Reclamation of Disturbed Lands. Ecological Engineering & Environmental Technology , 22, 24-30. https://doi.org/10.12912/27197050/132097

Gafurova, L. and Juliev, M. (2021) Soil Degradation Problems and Foreseen Solutions in Uzbekistan. In: Dent, D. and Boincean, B., Eds., Regenerative Agriculture, Springer, Berlin, 59-67. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-72224-1_5

Norkulov, M., Khaydarov, K. and Umurzakova, Z. (2021) Taxonomy and Ecology of the Lichens of the Ohaliksai River Basin. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 12, 1380-1386. https://doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2021.129097

Dominguez-Haydar, Y. Velasques, E., Carmona, J., Lavelle, P., Chavez, L.F. and Ji-menez, J.J. (2019) Evaluation of Reclamation Success in an Open-Pit Coal Mine In-tegrated Soil Physical, Chemical and Biological Quality Indicators.

Ecological Indi-cators, 103, 182-193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.04.015

Norkulov, M. (2022) Taxonomical Analysis of Epigean Lichens Districted in the Lichenoflora of the Ziaddin-Zirabulak Mountains. Scientific Journal, 5, 103-107.

Storoshchuk, U., Malovanyy, M. and Tymchuk, I. (2022) Substrates Based on Com-posted Sewage Sludge for Land Recultivation. Ecological Questions, 33, 1-16. https://doi.org/10.12775/EQ.2022.039

Avezboyev, S., Sharipov, S. and Xujakeldiev, K. (2023) Development of Projects for Recultivation of Lands Using GIS Technologies. International Conference on Ad-vanced Agriculture for Sustainable Future, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/1138/1/012019

Huot, H., Simonnot, M.O. and Morel, J.L. (2016) Pedogenic Trends in Soils Formed in Technogenoic Parent Materials. Soil Science, 180, 182-192. https://doi.org/10.1097/SS.0000000000000135

Hoffmann, J. and Wahrenberg, T. (2021) Effects of Cultivation Practice on Floristic and Flowering Diversity of Spontaneously Growing Plant Species on Arable Fields. Ecology and Evolution, 11, 15351-15363. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.8223

Pazúr, R., Lieskovský, J., Bürgi, M., et al. (2020) Abandonment and Recultivation of Agricultural Lands in Slovakia—Patterns and Determinants from the Past to the Future. Land, 9, 316. https://doi.org/10.33/land9090316

Alimbaev, Т.А., Mazhitova, Zh.S. and Omarova, B.K. (2019) Environmental Problems in the Kazakhstan Coal Industry and Their Solutions. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 663, Article ID: 012041. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/663/1/012041

Jabbarov, Z.A. and Abduraxmonov, M.T. (2021) Nomozov Economic Costs of Recultivation of Oil-Contaminated Soils. Newsletter of Khorezm Mamun Academy, 3, 43-49.

Norkulov, M.M. (2022) Lichens of the Middle Course of the Zеravshan River Basin. Dissertation Abstract, Samarkand State University, Samarkand, 14-15. A. F. B. O’g’li et al. DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2023.144034 516 American Journal of Plant Sciences

Darinka, C.G., Reinaldo, L.C., Eduardo, P., Wully, B.S., Antônio, D.B. and António, M.L. (2021) Assessing Ecological Disturbance in Neotropical Forest Landscapes Using High-Level Diversity and High-Level Functionality: Surprising Outcomes from a Case Study with Spider Assemblages. Land, 10, 758. https://doi.org/10.339/land10070758

Abdukholikov, F.B. (2017) Problems of Using Plants in Mining Waste Reclamation. Bulletin of Gulistan State University, 2, 37-40.

Ruszczyk, A., Motta, P.C., Barros, R.L. and Araújo, A.M. (2004) Ecological Correlates of Polyphenism and Gregarious Roosting in the Grass Yellow Butterfly. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 64, 151-164. https://doi.org/10.159/S1519-69842004000100017

Abdukholikov, F.B. (2020) Prospects for the Use of Capparic herbacea in the Reclamation of Degraded Areas. Bulletin of Gulistan State University, 3, 24-29.

https://www.uz.wikipedia.org/wiki

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