Word formation in english linguistics

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Косимова, М., & Аташова, Ф. (2023). Word formation in english linguistics. Ренессанс в парадигме новаций образования и технологий в XXI веке, 1(1), 218–221. https://doi.org/10.47689/XXIA-TTIPR-vol1-iss1-pp218-221
М Косимова, Каракалпакский государственный университет имени Бердаха

Студентка 3 курса кафедры английского языка и литературы

Ф Аташова, Каракалпакский государственный университет имени Бердаха

Научный руководитель, Старший преподаватель

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Аннотация

In this article, the word structure in English linguistics, Grammatical formation and types of word formation are discussed.

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WORD FORMATION IN ENGLISH LINGUISTICS

Qosimova M.

Nukus, Uzbekistan

3

rd

year Student, English Language and Literature Department

Berdakh Karakalpak State University

Atashova F.D.

Nukus, Uzbekistan

Scientific advisor, Senior teacher, Berdakh Karakalpak State University

Abstract:

In this article, the word structure in English linguistics, Grammatical

formation and types of word formation are discussed.

Keywords:

word formation, types of word-formation process, affixation, borrowing,

compounding, blending, clipping, conversion, back formation, acronyms.

The English language is known for its wonderful quality of way in which words

and sentences are formed and used. Making of new words from an existing root word by
adding a syllable or another word is the general process; however, there are several ways
in which it can be done.word formation, according to Hans Marchand, is the branch of
linguistics that studies patterns that form new lexical units, words. Word formation can
only be related to formally and semantically analyzed compositions.

As for Crystal, word formation is, in a more practical way, considered as «the

process of creating words out of sequences of morphemes.» In the process of word-
formation, there are generally known at least eight broad ways how English words are
formed affixation, conversion, compounding, reduplication, neologisms, clipping,
blending, and acronym.

1. Affixation.

Adding prefix or suffix or both into the Root Word is called Affixation.

For instance,
Un (prefix)- Unemployed;
Sub (prefix)- Subheading;
Cy (Suffix)- Vacancy;
Less (Suffix)- careless.

Prefixes and suffixes

Looking more closely at the previous group of words, we can see that some affixes

have to be added to the beginning of the word (e.g. un-, mis-). These are
called

prefixes

. Other affixes have to be added to the end of the word (e.g. -less, -ish) and

are called

suffixes

. All English words formed by this original process have either prefixes

or suffixes, or both. Thus, ‘overwork’ has a prefix, ‘unacceptable’ has both a prefix and a
suffix, and ‘carelessly’ has two suffixes.

Prefixes
Prefix

meaning

example

Anti-

against

Antisocial

Bi-

two

Bilingual

Co-

With, together

Co-driver


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Counter-

Opposing or reacting to sth

Counterproductive

Ex-

previous

Ex-husband

Inter-

Between

International

Mis-

Done wrongly or badly

Misunderstand

Mono-

One

Monorail

Non-

Not

Non-smoker

Out-

Do/be more than

Outnumber

Post-

After

Postwar

Tri-

Three

Triangle

Uni-

One

Unicycle

Re-

Again

Redecorate

Suffixes

-er/-or/-ar

Verb+ -er/-or/-ar

Painter/inventor/liar

-ist

Noun/verb/adjective+ -ist

Novelist/typist/realist

-ant/-ent

Verb+ -ant/-ent

Participant/student

-ian

Noun+ -ian

Librarian

2. Conversion.

Conversion happens when a word changes from one word to another. For

example, the verb ‘

to name

’ is formed from the noun ‘

name

’; or the verb ‘

to slow

’ is

formed from the adjective ‘

slow

’. For instance:

He named his dog. (

named

is a verb formed from the noun

name

).

Maria slowed the car. (

slowed

is a verb formed from the adjective

slow

).

Conversion is the derivational process in which an item changes its word-group

without the adding of an affix. It is an efficient way of creating of new English words
because there are no morphological restrictions on the forms that can be converted .
Conversion seems to be able to produce words of almost any form class (i.e.noun, verb,
adjective, adverb). The main types of conversion are:
noun+ verb (a telephone for to telephone ),
verb + noun (to attack + attack ) and
adjective + verb (slow+ to slow ).

3. Compounding.

A compound is a unit consisting of two or more bases. But this

definition is not quite sufficient, because derivational processes can sometimes be appied
to forms combining more than one base (e.g. super-high-way) : In such cases, it is said
that the base of the derivational process is a compound but not that the whole lexeme is a
compound. A compound, Bauer (1973) suggests, may therefore be more fully defined as
a lexeme containing two or more potential stems that has not undergone a subsequent
process of derivation. In English four major types of compounds are generally
distinguished.

A) compound Nouns

: ice cream, lunchtime, firefighter, seafood, heartache.

B) compound Verb:

sky-dive,

freeze-dry, soft-land, over-look, bad mouth

,

breath test.

C) compound Adverbs.

The most common way of forming these is by the suffixation of -

ly

to a compound

adjective.


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D) compound Adjectives:

space-born, fail-safe, turn-key, bitter-sweet.

4. Reduplication.

It is a special type of compounding. Reduplication is a morphological

process in which the root or stem of a word or part of it is repeated with an obvious or a
minor change. It is used to show majority, distribution, repetition, routine activity,
increase of size, added intensity, continuance etc.

It is found in many languages, although its level of linguistic productivity varies

from language to language. This is a process of repeating a syllable or the word as a
whole (sometimes with a vowel change) and putting it together to form a new word. For
example:

bye bye

(

exact reduplication

),

easy-peasy

(

rhyming reduplication

) or hokey-

pokey, razzle-dazzle, zigzag, tick-tock, super-duper.

5. Neologisms.

A neologism refers to any new word, identifying a new concept. In the

1980s, English neologisms included

yuppie, pocket phone,

and user

friendly;

in the

1990s,

Internet

neologisms, such as

spam

and

texting

were common; and in the 2000s,

Internet neologisms related to

blogging

, such as

videoblog

and

blogosphere

became

widespread (Cambridge Encyclopedia).

Neologisms are very effective in English. They are very few and some of them are

borrowed in Arabic.

6. Clipping

. It refers to cut off the beginning or the end of a word, or both, leaving a part

to stand for a whole. For examples:

lab

,

dorm

,

prof

,

exam

,

math

and others.

7. Blending

. it is a combination of two words, usually the first part of one word with the

part of another as in

gasohol

, from

gasoline

and

alcohol .

The resulting fusion has both original meanings .

8. Acronyms

.

They are words formed from the initial letters of several words . They are

usually pronounced as the spelling indicates:

IELTS

(International English Language

Testing System ),

NATO

(for North Atlantic Treaty Organization),

AIDS

(acquired

immunodeficiency syndrome).

To sum up, there is most of possibilities speakers of a language have at their

disposal (or in the past, when the words were first coined) to create new words on the
basis of existing ones, including the phonetic addition and subtraction (or orthographic)
material. The study of word-formation can be defined as the study of the ways how to
form new complex words on the basis of other words or morphemes.


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REFERENCES:

1. Hans Marchand. The Categories and Types of Present-Day English Word-Formation.
Munchen: Verlag C.H.Beck, 1969. – P. 2.
2. David Crystal. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language, (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1990, 1987. – P. 433.
3. See, Randolph Quirk and Sidney Greenbaum. University Grammar of English.
London: Longman, 1973. – P. 430-431.
4. Ingo Plag ,Word-Formation in English. Cambridge University Press. – P. 10-17.
5. Dr. Rami Hamdallah, English Word Formation and its Pedagogical Implications for
EFL. An-Najah J.Res. Vol. 2 Number 6. 1992. – P. 58-61.
6.

Садуллаева А. Concept―muhabbat in Karakalpak proverbs //Современные

инновационные исследования актуальные проблемы и развитие тенденции:
решения и перспективы. – 2022. – Т. 1. – №. 1. – С. 616-617.
7. Садуллаева А. The problem of the interdependence between language and
culture //Ренессанс в парадигме новаций образования и технологий в XXI
веке. – 2022. – №. 1. – С. 54-56.
8. Atashova F. D., Seytniyazova G. M. DEVELOPING COMMUNICATIVE
COMPETENCE

OF

ESP

LEARNERS

ESP

ЎҚУВЧИЛАРИНИНГ

КОММУНИКАТИВ КОМПЕТЕНЦИЯСИНИ РИВОЖЛАНТИРИШ //Mental
Enlightenment Scientific-Methodological Journal. – 2022. – Т. 2022. – №. 2. – С.
38-50.
9. Atashova F. D., Konisov G. U. THE CONCEPT OF COMPETENCE
APPROACH IN TEACHING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE ЧЕТ ТИЛИНИ
ЎҚИТИШДА КОМПЕТЕНЦИЯ ЁНДАШУВИ ТУШУНЧАСИ //Mental
Enlightenment Scientific-Methodological Journal. – 2022. – Т. 2022. – №. 2. – С.
24-37.
10. Atashova F., Konratbaeva E. CULTURE SHOCK AS THE BARRIER OF
PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT IMPACTS PSYCHOLOGY OF PEOPLE
//WORLD SCIENCE: PROBLEMS AND INNOVATIONS. – 2019. – С. 172-174.
11. Seytniyazova, G., & Atashova, F. (2022). THE CATEGORY OF PLURALITY
IN RUSSIAN AND ENGLISH LANGUAGES. Educational Research in Universal
Sciences, 1(1), 74–78. Retrieved from http://erus.uz/index.php/er/article/view/477
12. Feruza A., Dilbar P., Firuza D. CENTRAL ASIAN JOURNAL OF
THEORETICAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES. – 2021.
13. Atashova F., Djumabaeva V. APPLYING CURRENT APPROACHES TO
THE TEACHING READING //InterConf. – 2020.


Библиографические ссылки

Hans Marchand. The Categories and Types of Present-Day English Word-Formation. Munchen: Verlag C.H.Beck, 1969. – P. 2.

David Crystal. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990, 1987. – P. 433.

See, Randolph Quirk and Sidney Greenbaum. University Grammar of English. London: Longman, 1973. – P. 430-431.

Ingo Plag ,Word-Formation in English. Cambridge University Press. – P. 10-17.

Dr. Rami Hamdallah, English Word Formation and its Pedagogical Implications for EFL. An-Najah J.Res. Vol. 2 Number 6. 1992. – P. 58 61.

Садуллаева А. Concept―muhabbat in Karakalpak proverbs //Современные инновационные исследования актуальные проблемы и развитие тенденции: решения и перспективы. – 2022. – Т. 1. – №. 1. – С. 616-617.

Садуллаева А. The problem of the interdependence between language and culture //Ренессанс в парадигме новаций образования и технологий в XXI веке. – 2022. – №. 1. – С. 54-56.

Atashova F. D., Seytniyazova G. M. DEVELOPING COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE OF ESP LEARNERS ESP ЎҚУВЧИЛАРИНИНГ КОММУНИКАТИВ КОМПЕТЕНЦИЯСИНИ РИВОЖЛАНТИРИШ //Mental Enlightenment Scientific-Methodological Journal. – 2022. – Т. 2022. – №. 2. – С. 38-50.

Atashova F. D., Konisov G. U. THE CONCEPT OF COMPETENCE APPROACH IN TEACHING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE ЧЕТ ТИЛИНИ ЎҚИТИШДА КОМПЕТЕНЦИЯ ЁНДАШУВИ ТУШУНЧАСИ //Mental Enlightenment Scientific-Methodological Journal. – 2022. – Т. 2022. №. 2. – С. 24-37.

Atashova F., Konratbaeva E. CULTURE SHOCK AS THE BARRIER OF PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT IMPACTS PSYCHOLOGY OF PEOPLE //WORLD SCIENCE: PROBLEMS AND INNOVATIONS. – 2019. – С. 172-174.

Seytniyazova, G., & Atashova, F. (2022). THE CATEGORY OF PLURALITY IN RUSSIAN AND ENGLISH LANGUAGES. Educational Research in Universal Sciences, 1(1), 74–78. Retrieved from http://erus.uz/index.php/er/article/view/477

Feruza A., Dilbar P., Firuza D. CENTRAL ASIAN JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES. – 2021.

Atashova F., Djumabaeva V. APPLYING CURRENT APPROACHES TO THE TEACHING READING //InterConf. – 2020.

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