About metaphor or its usage in “Thetitan” by T.Dreiser

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Самиева I. (2022). About metaphor or its usage in “Thetitan” by T.Dreiser. Анализ актуальных проблем, инноваций, традиций, решений и художественной литературы в преподавании иностранных языков, 1(01), 134–136. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/analysis-problem/article/view/12874
Имона Самиева, Самаркандский государственный институт иностранных языков

английский факультет I

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Аннотация

This article presents metaphors, types of metaphors found in English speech, and the diversity of metaphorical speech

Похожие статьи


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narrative is the description of the Alhambra and the false stories heard here. In the description of the palace
Irving brings a touch of magic, a combination of myth and reality (Irving, 1991: 3). Irving’s novels are very
similar to fairy tales and correspond in many respects to their criteria: «a long time ago ...», «lived-was ...».
In the narrative there is a feeling of enthusiasm, sentimentality, a romantic mood, and all this is mixed with
irony. A similar example is the episode when the author, observing from the window the scene of the
dedication of a girl in a nun, imagines her grief, unwillingness to tonsure, sympathizes with her lover. Later
it turns out that «the heroine of a touching story was not at all young and beautiful; she had no beloved; in
the monastery she went of her own free will ...» [10, 89].

Summarizing, we can conclude that Irving «presented» America novel, distinguished by the

liveliness of the story, the entertaining story, combined with irony, the charm of the landscape. The writer
proceeded from an optimistic view of the world and human nature, did not set out to save the world. None of
his compatriots had such a total lack of rebellious spirit, like Irving. He broke with the bourgeoisie as a
young man, because he could not reconcile himself to how much revolutionary mood is engendering much
harm and harm.

Turning to the image of the past, the folklore of other nations, Irving, for all his «Europeanization»

developed a national theme and was a harbinger of a critical realistic trend in American literature. This is
what brings Washington Irving to the list of the most outstanding romantics of the USA and confirms his
deserved fame as the first original American writer.

References

1.

Aderman R. (1990). Critical Essays on Washington Irving. Critical Essays on American Literature.
Boston, 152 p. (in English) Bowers C. (1980). The Spanish Adventures of Washington Irving.
Boston, p. 42-210. (in English)

2.

Cracroft R. (1994). Washington Irving, the Western Works. // Boise State University Western
Writers .Series 14. Boise, p.54 -103. (in English)

3.

Fenster V. (1983). Guide to American literature. Colorado: Libraries Unlimited, 22 p. (in English)

4.

Irving W. (1991). Dolpheyliger // Bracebridge all, Tales of a Traveler, The Alhambra. N.Y., p.3-26.
(in English)

5.

Irving W. (1995). Legend of the Tree Beautiful Princesses / The Complete Tales of Washington
Irving / edited by Charles Neider. N.Y., 13 p. (in English)

6.

Irving W. (1995). Legend of Prince Ahmed Al Kamel or, the Pilgrim of Love, The Complete Tales
of Washington Irving, edited by Charles Neider. N.Y., 75 p. (in English)

7.

Kasson J. (1982). Artistic Voyagers. Europe and the American Imagination in the Works of Irving,
Allston, Cole, Cooper, and

8.

Jawthorne. London, 92 p. (in English)

9.

McGann J. (1983). The Romantic Ideology: Critical Investigation. Chicago, 5 p. (in English) Myers
A. (1984). The Worlds of Washington Irving. Tarrytown, 19 p. (in English)

10.

Paul C. (1984) American literature of the XIX century. Moscow: «higher School», 141 p. (in
English)

11.

62 Хабаршы. Филология сериясы. №2 (170). 2018

12.

KUSHBAKOVA, M., Zarina, R. U. Z. I. M. U. R. O. D. O. V. A., & Shahram, A. S. L. O. N. O. V.
(2020). Innovative Methods and Ways to Teach and Learn Foreign Language. ECLSS Online 2020a, 146.

ABOUT METAPHOR OR ITS USAGE IN “THETITAN” BY T.DREISER

Samieva Iymona Mehriddin Qizi

Samarkand state institute of foreign languages English faculty I

Annotation:

This article presents metaphors, types of metaphors found in English speech, and the

diversity of metaphorical speech.

Key words:

metaphor, speech figure, English literature, task, rhetoric, comparison, similarity.

It is commonly confirmed that a metaphor is a figure of speech that describes an object or action in a

way that isn’t literally true, but helps explain an idea or make a comparison. A metaphor may provide (or
obscure) clarity or identify hidden similarities between two different ideas. Metaphors are often compared


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with other types of figurative language, such as antithesis, hyperbole, metonymy and simile. One of the most
commonly cited examples of a metaphor in English literature comes from the "All the world’s a stage"
monologue from “As you like it” by W.Shakespeare:

All the world’s a stage,

And all the men and women merely players;

They have their exits and their entrances….

This quotation expresses a metaphor because the world is not literally a stage, and most humans are

not literally actors and actresses playing roles. By asserting that the world is a stage, Shakespeare uses points
of comparison between the world and a stage to convey an understanding about the mechanics of the world
and the behavior of the people within it.

According to the linguist Anatoly Liberman, "the use of metaphors is relatively late in the modern

European languages; it is, in principle, a post-Renaissance phenomenon". In contrast, in the ancient Hebrew
(around 1000 B.C.), one finds already vivid and poetic examples of metaphor such as, "

The Lord is my rock,

my fortress and my deliverer; my God is my rock, in whom I take refuge, my shield and the horn of my
salvation, my stronghold

” and “

The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not want

.” At the other extreme, some

recent linguistic theories view all language in essence as metaphorical.

The word

metaphor

itself is a metaphor, coming from a Greek term meaning "transference". The

user of a metaphor alters the reference of the word, "carrying" it from one semantic "realm" to another. The
new meaning of the word might be derived from an analogy between the two semantic realms, but also from
other reasons such as the distortion of the semantic realm, for instance, in sarcasm.

Metaphors are most frequently compared with similes. It is said, for instance, that a metaphor is 'a

condensed analogy' or 'analogical fusion' or that they 'operate in a similar fashion' or are 'based on the same
mental process' or yet that 'the basic processes of analogy are at work in metaphor'. It is also pointed out that
'a border between metaphor and analogy is fuzzy' and 'the difference between them might be described
(metaphorically) as the distance between things being compared'. A metaphor asserts the objects in the
comparison are identical on the point of comparison, while a simile merely asserts a similarity through use of
words such as "like" or "as". For thisreason a common-type metaphor is generally considered more forceful
than a simile. There are many examples of metaphor in the novel “The Titan” which was written by
Theodore Dreiser, completed in 1914.With the introduction of Berenice Fleming, the pinnacle on the scale of
women representing stages in Cowperwood's evolution, the financier begins to see the futility of his financial
ventures: "It suddenly came to Cowperwood, with great force, how comparatively unimportant in

the great

drift of life

were his own affairs when about him was operative all this splendid will to existence, as sensed

by her" [5, 65]. Also, Cowperwood's belief in money's power to solve almost any problem is unaltered, "I
haven't seen many troubles in this world that

money

wouldn't

cure

" [5, 358]. The logical consequence of

such an insight would have been to solve social troubles with his tremendous financial resources, but
Cowperwood neither voices nor attempts such an idea. The only exception is during his final days shortly
before his death, though his will remains unfulfilled in reality.

The metaphor category contains these specialized types:

d)

Allegory: An extended metaphor wherein a story illustrates an important attribute of the subject.

e)

Antithesis: A rhetorical contrast of ideas by means of parallel arrangements of words, clauses, or

sentences.

f)

Catachresis: A mixed metaphor, sometimes used by design and sometimes by accident (a

rhetorical fault).

g)

Hyperbole: Excessive exaggeration to illustrate a point.

h)

Parable: An extended metaphor told as an anecdote to illustrate or teach a moral or spiritual

lesson, such as in Aesop’s fables or Jesus’ teaching methods told in the Bible.

i)

Pun: A verbal device by which multiple definitions of a word or its homophones are used to give

a sentence multiple valid readings, typically to humorous effect.

j)

Similitude: An extended simile or metaphor that has a picture part (

Bildhälfte

), a reality part

(

Sachhälfte

), and a point of comparison. Similitudes are found in the parables of Jesus.

BIBLIOGRPAHY

1.

Cohen L. J. (1979). The Semantics of Metaphor, in A. Ortony (ed.), Metaphor & Thought.

2.

“Definition of Metaphor

www.merriam-webster.com

. 29 March 2016.

3.

Dreiser T. “The Titan”. M.: “FLPH”. 1914.-p.604.

4.

Lakoff, G. & Johnson, M.

Metaphors We Live By

(IL: University of Chicago Press, 1980), Chapters 1–3.

(pp. 3–13).


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136

5.

Stefano Arduini (2007). (ed.) Metaphors, Roma, Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura.

6.

KUSHBAKOVA, M., Zarina, R. U. Z. I. M. U. R. O. D. O. V. A., & Shahram, A. S. L. O. N. O. V.

(2020). Innovative Methods and Ways to Teach and Learn Foreign Language. ECLSS Online 2020a, 146.

7.

Yangiboyevna, N. S., & Ravshanovna, M. U. (2022). BIOLOGIK FAOL QO'SHIMCHALARNING

TIBBIYOTDAGI AHAMIYATI. BARQARORLIK VA YETAKCHI TADQIQOTLAR ONLAYN ILMIY
JURNALI, 542-545.

8.

Rajabboevna, A. R., Yangiboyevna, N. S., Farmanovna, I. E., & Baxodirovna, S. D. (2022). THE

IMPORTANCE OF COMPLEX TREATMENT IN HAIR LOSS. Web of Scientist: International Scientific
Research Journal, 3(5), 1814-1818.

9.

Aslonov, S., & Ruzimurodova, Z. (2020). INGLIZ TILINI O ‘QITISHNING INNOVATSION

USULLARI. Студенческий вестник, (12-5), 72-74.

10.

Aslonov, S. S. (2020). O’ZBEK VA INGLIZ TILIDA JINS MAZMUNINI BILDIRUVCHI SO’ZLAR

TAHLILI. Студенческий вестник, (16-10), 55-58.

11.

Aslonov, S. S. (2020). Ingliz tili stilistikasi fanini o’qitishda fonostilististikaning o’rni. Интернаука,

(16-4), 57-59.

12.

Ахмеджанова, Н., & Аслонов, Ш. (2020). Семантические типы предикатов и фазовая членимость

глагольного действия. Интернаука,(12-1), 27-29.

TAYANCH KONSEPTNING LINGVOMADANIY ASPEKTI

Elbabayeva Zuxra Olmos qizi

SamDChTI magistranti

Annotatsiya:

Ushbu maqolada inson botiniy olamidagi “taqdir” konseptining turli jihatlari,

jumladan lingvomadaniy aspektlari muhokama etiladi. Maqolada mazkur konseptning etimologiyasi,
sinonimlari, morfologik jihatlari hamda xalq maqollarida ifodalanishi masalalari tadqiq etiladi.

Kalitso‘zlar:

taqdir, qismat, frazeologiya, maqol-matal, konsept, morfologiya.

Taqdirga ishonish barcha lingvomadaniy jamoalarda mavjud. Quyida “taqdir” konseptining lisonda

qo`llanilish holatlari, morfologik jihatlari tahlil etiladi:
1)

«

taqdir

-

nasiba

» freymi

: taqdirning taqozosi; falakning gardishi; zamonaning zayli;

2)

«

taqdir - qismat, yozmish, peshana, tole

» freymi:

ogʻir qismat; taqdirga ishonmoq; taqdirga tan bermoq;

taqdir (shunday) ekan!; peshanada bor ekan!;taqdirdan qochib qutulib boʻlmaydi

; 3) «taqdir - kelajak,

istiqbol» freymi:

meni uning taqdiri (kelajagi) tashvishlantiradi, uning taqdiridan xavotirdaman; biror

kimsaning taqdirini hal qilmoq; oʻz taqdirini biror kimsa yoki narsa bilan bogʻlamoq; insoniyat taqdiri,
insoniyatning kelajagi

; 4) «

taqdir - tarix

» freymi:

bu kitobning taqdiri (tarixi) juda ajoyib; qanday qilib,

qaysi shamol uchirib, nechuk (bu yerga kelib qoldingiz)? (kutilmagan uchrashuvda beriladigan savol); nasib
qilmagan ekan, peshanaga sigʻmadi; taqdir taqozosi bilan; yozuv (shum) taqdir

va hak.

Yurtimiz folklori juda qadimiy tarixga ega bo`lib, taqdir konsepti ham turli frazeologizm va

maqollarda qo`llanib kelinadi. Quyida bunga misollar keltiriladi:

Ayol degan palaxmon toshi, // Qayerga

otsa, shu yerga tushar

;

Ajal yetdi, // Devona qabul qildi

;

Ana go'r, mana go'r,// Ishonmasang, borib ko'r;

Asov otni taqa to'xtatar; Asragan ko'zga cho'p tushar; Asragan qo'l sinar; Asrayman desa balo yo'q, //
O'laman desa — davo; Bandaning boshi — olloning toshi. Betda yurgan bo'riman, // Nasibamdan ko'raman;
Beshikdagi bolaning bek bo'lishini kim bilar; Bir mix bir nag'alni,// Bir nag'al bir otni tutar; Bir ko'r —
qiyiq,// Bir kar — qiyiq; Bir to'lgan bir sochilar; Boy bo'lmasim bilibman,// Och o'ldirma, xudoyim; Bugun
bo'lsa ham shu o'lim, // Erta bo'lsa ham shu o'lim; Bo'ladigan ishning boshi to'g'ri; Bo'rkni tashlab bo'ridan
qutulib bo'lmas; Daryoga ot solmasdan avval kechuvini top; Yelli kun yo'rt, Yog'inli kun yot.

Keltirilgan

maqollarda TAQDIR qudratli obzor sifatida gavdalanadi.

Nasroniylik va islom dinida taqdir xudoning azaliy ilmi va qudrati tarzida izohlanadi. Lekin ularning

har birida oʻziga xos xususiyatlar bilan talqin etiladi. Islomda taqdir — Alloh irodasiga bogʻliq deb
hisoblovchi diniy tasavvur, rasman eʼtirof etilgan aqidalardan biri. «Qazo – Аlloh taoloning hamma
narsalarning kelajakda qandoq boʼlishini azaldan bilishidir». «Qadar – oʼsha narsalarning Аllohning azaliy
ilmiga muvofiq ravishda vujudga kelishidir». Taqdir masalasida jabariylar qilgan ishlarimizga taqdir aybdor,
insonda tanlash imkoni yo'q deyishgan. Qadariylar taqdirni inkor qilishgan, inson barchasini o'zi yaratadi
deyishgan. Ikki oqim ham ahli sunna aqidasiga zid hisoblanadi. Аhli sunna va jamoa mazhabiga binoan
balogʼatga yetgan musulmonga Аlloh taolo bandalarning hamma ishini maxluqotlarga bogʼliq narsalarning

Библиографические ссылки

Cohen L. J. (1979). The Semantics of Metaphor, in A. Ortony (ed.), Metaphor & Thought.

“Definition of Metaphor” www.merriam-webster.com. 29 March 2016.

Dreiser T. “The Titan”. M.: “FLPH”. 1914.-p.604.

Lakoff, G. & Johnson, M. Metaphors We Live By (IL: University of Chicago Press, 1980), Chapters 1-3. (pp. 3-13).5. Stefano Arduini (2007). (ed.) Metaphors, Roma, Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura.

KUSHBAKOVA, M., Zarina, R. U. Z. I. M. U. R. O. D. О. V. A., & Shahram, A. S. L. O. N. О. V. (2020). Innovative Methods and Ways to Teach and Learn Foreign Language. ECLSS Online 2020a, 146.

Yangiboyevna, N. S., & Ravshanovna, M. U. (2022). BIOLOGIK FAOL QO'SHIMCHALARNING TIBBIYOTDAGI AHAMIYATI. BARQARORLIK VA YETAKCHI TADQIQOTLAR ONLAYN ILMIY JURNALI, 542-545.

Rajabboevna, A. R., Yangiboyevna, N. S., Farmanovna, I. E., & Baxodirovna, S. D. (2022). THE IMPORTANCE OF COMPLEX TREATMENT IN HAIR LOSS. Web of Scientist: International Scientific Research Journal, 3(5), 1814-1818.

Aslonov, S., & Ruzimurodova, Z. (2020). INGLIZ TILINI О ‘QITISHNING INNOVATSION USULLARI. Студенческий вестник, (12-5), 72-74.

Aslonov, S. S. (2020). O’ZBEK VA INGLIZ TILIDA JINS MAZMUNINI BILDIRUVCHI SO’ZLAR TAHLILI. Студенческий вестник, (16-10), 55-58.

Aslonov, S. S. (2020). Ingliz tili stilistikasi fanini o’qitishda fonostilististikaning o’rni. Интернаука, (16-4), 57-59.

Ахмеджанова, H., & Аслонов, Ш. (2020). Семантические типы предикатов и фазовая членимость глагольного действия. Интернаука,(12-1), 27-29.

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