История текста и некоторые комментарии к его генезису.

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Жабборов, Н. (2021). История текста и некоторые комментарии к его генезису. in Library, 21(2), 632–636. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/17713
Нурбой Жабборов, Ташкентский государственный университет узбекского языка и литературы имени Алишера Навои

Профессор, доктор филологических наук

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Аннотация

В статье анализируются и обобщаются теоретические взгляды на термин «история текста», являющийся основой текстологии, кроме того, обсуждается альтернативный метод исследования. Автор обосновывает необходимость разработки целостной системы исследования истории текста. На основе взглядов великого поэта и мыслителя Алишера Навои были определены научные критерии, на которых базируется эта система. Научно доказано, что изучение истории текста использовалось при изучении истории текстов хадисов, а высокоэффективный метод взаимодействия применялся к процессу библиографического и научного исследования литературных памятников. Сделан вывод, что одним из основных условий достижения научной точности, текстового совершенства при изучении истории текста художественных произведений является использование метода контраста.

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A n I n t e r n a t i o n a l

M u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y

R e s e a r c h J o u r n a l

(Doubl e Bl i nd Ref ere ed & Peer Revi ew ed Journal )

DOI:

10.5958/2249-7137.2021.01670.0

THE HISTORY OF THE TEXT AND SOME COMMENTS ON ITS

GENESIS

Nurboy Jabborov*

*Professor,

Doctor of philological sciences,

Tashkent State University of Uzbek Language and Literature,

UZBEKISTAN

Email id: jabborov-nurboy@rambler.ru

ABSTRACT

The article analyzes and summarizes the theoretical views on the term text history, which is the
basis of textual studies except that, the alternative method of study is discussed. The author
justifies the need to develop an integrated system of text history research. Based on the views of
the great poet and thinker Alisher Navoi, was defined the scientific criteria on which this system
is based. It has been scientifically proven that the study of the history of the text has been used in
the study of the history of hadith texts and that the highly effective method of interaction has
been applied to the process of bibliography and scientific research of literary monuments. It was
concluded that one of the main conditions for achieving scientific accuracy, textual perfection in
the study of the history of the text of works of art is the use of the method of contrast.

KEYWORDS: Text, Manuscript Source, Devon, Text History, Counter Style, Art Text, Text
Error, Analysis.

INTRODUCTION

It is impossible development of textual science of without an in-depth study of the history of the
text of classical works of art. Because the concept of text history is one of the basic theoretical
foundations of textology. "The history of the text includes everything from examining the
genealogy of manuscript sources to studying the worldview and ideas of the author and the
copyist, from the realization of the author's creative intent in the creation of the work to the study
of its interrelationships with other literary monuments" [6.9 ] makes it even clearer how
important it is to study this scientific problem. Such an approach to the history of the text is


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described by the Russian textologist D.S Likhachev: “The concept of the history of the text
covers all aspects of the text of a particular work. Only a complete (or, if possible, complete)
study of all issues related to the work will allow us to fully explore the history of the text of the
work ”[7.33] clarifies and complements it.

Today, as in the study of Uzbek classical literature, the methodology of scientific research in the
field of textology has not been developed. The scientifically based criteria and principles of
studying the text of classical works of art that can be applied to research in this area have not yet
been determined. This, in turn, requires the development of an integrated system of text history
research, which is the basis of both textual studies and literary-scientific analysis. The question
arises: what scientific criteria should this system be based on? In our opinion, it would be more
correct to look for the answer to this question in the views of Alisher Navoi, who raised the
national literary and aesthetic thinking on a global scale.

What requirements did Hazrat Navoi set for poetry and literary text in general? In the preface of
the devoni "Badoyi'-ul-bidoya": "How many kinds of work do I have here, it is mar'i, it is not
seen in any other davawi" [1.20]. Although the great thinker spoke here about the requirements
for the order of the devon, for artistic creation, these requirements can also be applied to the
process of studying the textual history of the work. These requirements are:

1. Begin each of the thirty-two-letter ghazals on the devon with praise or naat. Hazrat Navoi
writes about this: “... there is no difference in style between the ghazal of each letter and the
previous ghazal. It is inevitable that in every commandment, the Haqq subhanahu wa ta'ala
praises the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) for a moment, or a
commandment that does not seem to be ignorant of these two things. If this bliss is not achieved
for a moment, then in the opening ceremony of every particular commandment, there will be a
kind of taqwa and takosul ”[1.21]. This feature should be taken into account when analyzing
lyrical devons in terms of text history. Especially, the basics of the author's worldview, the
concept of creativity are expressed in the poems of Alisher Navoi in the lyrical divans with the
content of praise and praise. Given that the history of the text is related to the plan or purpose of
the poet or writer in the creation of the literary text, the importance of studying the essence of
praise and ghazals, which reflect the concept of creativity of the great thinker, becomes even
clearer.

2. That there should be ghazals on the devon that share the rays of enlightenment in the mind and
heart of the reader, and that each ghazal should contain verses in the spirit of the sermon.
According to the great poet: “I will not find Devon, I will not find a ghazal and our ghazal will
be a ghazal, I will not find a byte of your sermon. If the world is finished, all the hard work and
effort will be wasted ”[1.21]. Here, too, one of the foundations of Alisher Navoi's creative
attitude is expressed. It turns out that the devon, which is a collection of lyrical poems, should
pay attention to the enlightenment content and the essence of the sermon, which is embedded in
the text, as each work is analyzed. Since it is related to the author’s conceptual views, it should
be noted that this feature is of particular importance in the study of text history.

3. Matla '- the meaning of the beginning byte(poem) should be proportional to the content, form
and style of the ghazal to the praise. In other words, the poem begins with one content and does
not end with another, in the words of Hazrat Navoi: "... if there is a matla'e waqi in each content,
I will be mostly andag, the praise will be in accordance with the nature of the picture" [1.22].


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That is, the author must maintain this balance in form and content to the end, no matter what
image (genre) and meaning the text begins with. The formation and perfection of the text - this
criterion related to the history of the text is important in terms of expressing the process of
realization of the author's plan and purpose. According to the textologist Nafas Shodmonov: “...
the author of the text, while reflecting the reality of the action, undergoes a certain creative
mental process. In the process, it can change its attitude to certain parts of the text under the
influence of objective and subjective reasons and make corrections of different sizes. Such
corrections and changes form the basis for the study of the historical, artistic, ideological and
methodological aspects of the material, creation, formation, construction, etc. of the text.
Therefore, in the coverage of the history of the text, the process of its formation as a work of art
can be realized only by analyzing the factual material contained in it "[8.22].

The requirements and criteria of Hazrat Navoi analyzed above are valuable in terms of reflecting
the text of the work of art and the process of its creation. Consequently, relying on these criteria
in the study and evaluation of text history will yield the expected results. The fact that the great
poet himself fully complied with these requirements, in particular, increases their literary-
aesthetic and scientific value. But, unfortunately, the publication and study of Alisher Navoi's
works do not pay enough attention to these features.

It is known that Alisher Navoi, who set these requirements in Badoyi ul-Bidoya, in his first
official office, perfected this criterion in Khazayn ul-Maoniy College. Proof of this is the perfect
harmony, from the number of poems written to each letter to the way they reflect the content of
praise and praise. It is especially important that these requirements are followed in his prose and
scientific works. However, the publications of their text, unfortunately, have too many
shortcomings in terms of research. The reason for this can be explained by the fact that the
textual history of the works of the great thinker was thoroughly studied, and then the publication
was not signed. Here is an example: Nasoyim ul-muhabbat was first published in the 17-volume
17-volume Collection of Perfect Works of the great poet. In the naat part of the work, the
following words are written: “And for the sake of Hazrat was the wife of the prophet, and then
the door of prophecy was closed. Every month, the imperfect have named the perfect scholars of
the Ummah to perfection, so that they may take the place of the ancient prophets and show the
way to those who have gone astray, as the scholars of my Ummah are like the scholars of the
Children of Israel ”[2.14].

There is a serious error in the translation of the hadith text in this quote. This is because the
meaning of this hadith should be, "The scholars of my ummah are like the prophets of the
Children of Israel." In the same edition, the text of the hadiths is in fact in Arabic.

In particular, the text of this hadith was given correctly at the end of the publication as

ﺍﺀﺎﻴﺒﻨﺎﻜﻰﻨﺒﻞﻳﺋﺍﺮﺴﺍ

تم

ۍ

ءﺎملع

. But if we take into account the fact that not only the average reader, but

even most experts do not have the ability to read and understand the original, it becomes clear
how serious a mistake was made in the table. Unfortunately, this mistake was repeated in Alisher
Navoi's ten-volume Collection of Complete Works. The difference is that in this edition, the
original text of the hadith is given side by side, and the translation is given in a strange way:
"The scholar of my ummah is like the scholars of the Children of Israel" [2.92]. This mistake
was corrected in the scientific-critical text of “Nasayim ul-muhabbat” prepared by Hamidkhan
Islami and published in 2011 [3] and in the published editions [4] in 2017.


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Research on the problems of textual studies, speeches in the press are dominated by the textual
errors in the publications of the works of Alisher Navoi and other classical poets and writers, the
views on the need to eliminate them. This also needs to be addressed. But without a deeper
elaboration of the theoretical foundations of textual criticism, and without a transition to the
evaluation, analysis, and study of the literary source on that basis, it is likely that it will remain
as it is. The main problem of textual studies is the history of the text.

The commentators of the Qur'an have provided valuable information about the reasons for the
revelation of the verses and the book history of this divine source. In the same way, the hadith
scholars have determined the reasons for the inclusion of the hadiths of the Prophet (peace and
blessings of Allaah be upon him), the date, that is, who narrated them, and determined the degree
of authenticity of the hadeeths accordingly. In particular, it should be noted that these views on
the order in which hadith books are narrated are related to the history of the text: “In Muslims,
written information, especially hadith books, is narrated under a number of conditions. The
muhaddith recites the hadith to the people while reciting the hadith based on his collection.
Those who wish will record the narrated hadiths. If the church is large, certain people will be
appointed to deliver the word of the muhaddith everywhere. They deliver every word out loud to
those far away. The student who has written the hadiths in full then examines what he has
written: the teacher takes what the student has written, the student takes the teacher’s book, and
examines each hadith verbatim and compares it to the original to the last letter. This method of
copying a book is called “muqabala” [5.29].

The method of "cover" is valuable in the study of the history of the text of works of art, as well
as in terms of achieving scientific accuracy, perfection of the text. This method of dealing with
the history of hadith texts should also be applied to the process of bibliography and scientific
research of the text of literary monuments. True, today is the age of computer technology. There
is no need to read and compare literary sources aloud in public. But in the sense of literal, literal
comparison, this method should also be applied to the process of studying literary texts, and if
approached in such a style, it would be possible to achieve significant scientific results in the
study of literary texts.

Of course, in any text by the secretary, if it is copied by hand, some mistakes may be made even
when the author is copying. The information on how the error in the text was corrected in the
style of Muqabala shows how serious the attitude of Muslim scholars towards the hadiths of the
Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was and how careful they were to make
sure that the text was correct. is written. The work will be so precise that if a word or line is
incorrectly copied or repeated, it will not be possible to delete it. If Bordiu seems to have been
deleted, this copy has lost credibility and no one has accepted it. Because if you draw on it, you
can see what's underneath. And the reader passes by without reading it. But if it is turned off,
there is a suspicion that perhaps what is needed has been turned off, and therefore it will not be
accepted. If the copy is reviewed by the sheikh and the teacher is satisfied with its accuracy, he
allows the student to teach from this book and copy it to others with his signature in writing
”[5.29].

In applying the method of dialogue to the process of studying textology, in particular, the history
of the text, it is necessary to pay special attention to the following important features: 1)
scientists work as a team with the sole purpose - to restore perfect text without errors; 2) letter-


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by-letter, word-for-word comparison of the text; 3) in order to eliminate errors, experts check the
texts they have prepared by exchanging them with each other; 4) work on the text without
deleting errors; 5) to establish the issuance of a special permit by the Society of Textologists
today, if previously a written permission was given by a teacher-scholar to teach a lesson on the
restored credible text. Due to the inability to form a scientific community united in the pursuit of
a great goal, the lack of a systematic scientific approach to the publication of the works of
Alisher Navoi and other classical poets and writers, the twentieth century has passed, but errors
in the text have not yet been corrected.

The cover style is based on the experience of working on text on paper. In today's age of
computer technology, the question naturally arises as to whether there is a need to apply such a
method, whether it will give the expected effect. In fact, it should be noted that even when
working with computer technology, there is a great chance of successful application of this
method. For example, by drawing on an error in the text on a computer or by painting the error
word in a certain color, you can achieve the same result as if you were working on paper.

The alternative method of studying the history of the text is also valuable in that it requires
teamwork - the collaboration of a number of scholars. Naturally, scientific cooperation is highly
effective, especially in textual work. If it is done in this way, there will be no need for such an
unscrupulous practice as striving for self-respect and self-promotion. The issue of preparing a
great scientific goal - the works of Alisher Navoi and other classical poets and writers for
publication at a high level, without textual errors, comes to the fore. In this regard, one of the
priorities of textual studies is the study of the history of the text, the application of the method of
correspondence in the process of making perfect and reliable editions of classical literature.

REFERENCES:

1.

Alisher Navoi. Debocha. Badoyi' ul-bidoya. / A collection of perfect works. Twenty
volumes. The first roof. - Tashkent: Fan, 1987. - B. 20 (The text of subsequent quotations
from this source is given in square brackets with the letter B).

2.

Alisher Navoi. Nasayim ul-muhabbat./ Perfect collection of works. Twenty volumes. Volume
Seventeen. - Tashkent: Fan, 2001. - B. 14

3.

Alisher Navoi. Nasayim ul-muhabbat (Scientific-critical text). Prepared for publication,
foreword and author of indicators H. Islami. - Tashkent: Movarounnahr, 2011.

4.

Alisher Navoi. Nasayimul muhabbat min shamayimil futuvvat (Prepared by, Hamidkhan
Islami, foreword and author of indicators). - Tashkent: Movarounnahr, 2017.

5.

Bukhari. Sahih-Bukhari. / Gold chain. I skin. - Tashkent: HILOL-NASHR, 2012 –P.29.

6.

Jabborov N. Uzbek textology and text criticism in it, the role of scientific and critical text
terminology / Theoretical and source bases of studying Uzbek classical literature. Materials
of the Republican scientific-practical conference. –Tashkent: Mumtoz so`z, 2019. Page 9.

7.

Likhachev D.S. With the participation of A.A. Alekseev and A.G. Bobrov. Textual criticism
based on the material of Russian literature of the 10th - 17th centuries. –Saint-Petersburg,
Publishing house “Aleteya”, 2001. - P. 33

8.

Shodmonov N. "Shohidu-l-iqbol"literary source. –Tashkent: Muharrir, 2009, p.22.

Библиографические ссылки

Alisher Navoi. Debocha. Badoyi' ul-bidoya. / A collection of perfect works. Twenty volumes. The first roof. - Tashkent: Fan, 1987. - B. 20 (The text of subsequent quotations from this source is given in square brackets with the letter B).

Alisher Navoi. Nasayim ul-muhabbat./ Perfect collection of works. Twenty volumes. Volume Seventeen. - Tashkent: Fan, 2001. - B. 14

Alisher Navoi. Nasayim ul-muhabbat (Scientific-critical text). Prepared for publication, foreword and author of indicators H. Islami. - Tashkent: Movarounnahr, 2011.

Alisher Navoi. Nasayimul muhabbat min shamayimil futuvvat (Prepared by, Hamidkhan Islami, foreword and author of indicators). - Tashkent: Movarounnahr, 2017.

Bukhari. Sahih-Bukhari. / Gold chain. I skin. - Tashkent: HILOL-NASHR, 2012 –P.29.

Jabborov N. Uzbek textology and text criticism in it, the role of scientific and critical text terminology / Theoretical and source bases of studying Uzbek classical literature. Materials of the Republican scientific-practical conference. –Tashkent: Mumtoz so`z, 2019. Page 9.

Likhachev D.S. With the participation of A.A. Alekseev and A.G. Bobrov. Textual criticism based on the material of Russian literature of the 10th - 17th centuries. –Saint-Petersburg, Publishing house “Aleteya”, 2001. - P. 33

Shodmonov N. "Shohidu-l-iqbol"literary source. –Tashkent: Muharrir, 2009, p.22.

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