Преступления в сфере информационных технологий и безопасности: детерминанты и предостережения

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Абдулазиз, А., & Рахмонова, С. (2020). Преступления в сфере информационных технологий и безопасности: детерминанты и предостережения. in Library, 20(1), 200–209. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/9131
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Аннотация

Настоящая статья посвящена анализу детерминантов преступлений в сфере информационных технологий и безопасности. На основе изучения зарубежного опыта и научно-теоретических взглядов были исследованы причины и условия киберпреступлений, личность преступника. По итогам анализа были сделаны соответствующие выводы и разработаны предложения.

Похожие статьи


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Crimes in the field of information technology and security:
determinants and warnings

Abdulaziz RASULEV

1

Surayyo Rakhmonova

2

Academy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Uzbekistan
High School Judges With the supreme judicial council of the Republic of Uzbekistan

ARTICLE INFO

ABSTRACT

Article history:

Received 10 august 2020
Received in revised form 20
august 2020
Accepted 25 august 2020
Available online
August 2020

This article analyzes the determinants of crimes in the field of

information technology and security. Based on the study of
foreign experience and scientific and theoretical views, the
causes and conditions of cybercrime, the identity of the criminal
were investigated. Based on the results of the analysis, relevant
conclusions were drawn and proposals were developed.

2181-1415

/© 20

20 in Science LLC.

This is an open access article under the Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY
4.0) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/deed.ru)

Keywords:

Information security
Information technology
Criminal law
Hackers
Cybercrime
Causes and conditions.

Ахборот технологиялари ва хавфсизлиги соҳасидаги
жиноятлар: детерминантлар ва олдини олиш

АННОТАЦИЯ

Ключевые слова:

Ахборот хавфсизлиги

Ахборот технологиялари

Жиноят қонунчилиги

Хакерлар

Кибержиноят

Сабаб ва шарт

-

шароитлар.

Мазкур мақола ахборот технологиялари ва хавфсизлиги

соҳасидаги жиноятлар детерминантларининг таҳлилига
бағишланган.

Хорижий

тажриба

ва

илмий

-

назарий

қарашларни ўрганиш асосида киберэжиноятларнинг сабаб
ва шарт

-

шароитлари, жиноятчи шахси таҳлил қилинган.

Таҳлил асосида тегишли хулосалар қилинган ва таклифлар
ишлаб чиқилган.


1

DSc, Professor, Academy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Email: rasuleff@mail.ru

2

DSc, Professor

High School Judges With the supreme judicial council of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent,

Uzbekistan
Email: raxmonovasurayyo@gmail.com


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Преступления в сфере информационных технологий и
безопасности: детерминанты и предупреждение

АННОТАЦИЯ

Ключевые слова:

Информационная
безопасность

Информационные
технологии

Уголовное

законодательство

Хакеры

Киберпреступность,
причины и условия.

Настоящая статья посвящена анализу детерминантов

преступлений в сфере информационных технологий и
безопасности. На основе изучения зарубежного опыта и
научно

-

теоретических

взглядов

были

исследованы

причины

и

условия

киберпреступлений,

личность

преступника.

По

итогам

анализа

были

сделаны

соответствующие выводы и разработаны предложения.

INTRODUCTION
Information technologies and virtualization of various spheres of society's life have

become a paradigm of modern public relations. The new model of relations began to
dictate its own rules in all sectors, including the criminal sphere.

Despite the increasing and changing, modernizing crime in the real world, the

virtual world is also not far behind. Modern criminals are trying to conquer virtual spaces,
which is why a new era of crime has emerged

the era of cybercrime. The fight against

cybercrime, i.e. crimes in the field of information technology and security, is becoming
more and more global. In particular, all states and the international community are taking
measures to ensure information security and prevent criminal attacks using information
and communication technologies. Statistics indicate that as of the first half of 2020, about
seven billion people (94% of the world's population) were covered by mobile and / or
telecommunications networks [1]. The amount of damage caused by cybercrime is 1.3%
of the world's GDP per year [2].

In the Republic of Uzbekistan, the development of information technologies is

proceeding at a rapid pace. The results of the measures taken to develop the information
and communication sphere should be particularly noted. According to statistical data from
the Ministry for the development of information technologies and communications, the
number of Internet users in Uzbekistan has exceeded 22 million (19 million of them are
mobile Internet users), and 2,017 base stations were installed for the development of
mobile communication networks in 2019, which makes the number of them more than
26,000 in the Republic. At the same time, 96 percent of Uzbekistan's residents are covered
by mobile communications, and 70 percent have access to a broadband mobile Internet
network [3].

The Strategy of actions for five priority areas of development of the Republic of

Uzbekistan in 2017-

2021 provides for the issues of «improving criminal legislation,

improving the system of information security and information protection, timely and

adequate counteraction to threats in the information sphere» [4]. In this regard, the fight

against crime that threatens the rights and freedoms of the individual, the interests of
society and the state, the protection of information security as an object of criminal law
protection, and the development of a set of measures to counter cybercrime are urgent
tasks. The concept of improving the criminal and criminal procedure legislation of the
Republic of Uzbekistan, approved by the decree of the President of the Republic of
Uzbekistan from 14 May 2018 the year number PP

3723, also provides for the revision of


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the norms providing for liability in the field of information technologies, taking into
account technological progress, including the expansion of the categories of crimes related
to cybercrime [5].

If we look at these figures on a global scale, accord

ing to the website «Internet world

stats», there are 4,833,521,806 Internet users in the world as of the first half of 2020, which

is 62% of the World's population (the World's population is 7,796,949,710 people), more
than half of them live in developing countries. The world's largest Internet audience has
been held by China for five years. As of July 2020, the number of Internet users in China
was 854 million. The top 10 countries by the number of Internet users, except China,
included India

560 million, the United States

313 million, Indonesia

171 million, Brazil

149 million, Nigeria

126 million, Japan

118 million, Russia

116 million, Bangladesh

94 million, Mexico

88 million [6].

This massive use of the information space and the virtualization of human relations

not only in the Republic of Uzbekistan, but also around the world leads to a parallel
increase in cybercrime.

This article will generalize the determinants (causes and conditions, the identity of

the offender) and measures to prevent crimes in the field of information technology and
security.


METHODOLOGY
In solving the tasks set in this article, general scientific and special methods of

scientific knowledge were used: system, specific-sociological, comparative-legal,
analytical, quantitative analysis (content analysis), logical-legal, etc.

The analysis of the norms of the legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan and a

number of foreign countries, some international acts, doctrinal works, scientific articles in
the field of criminal law and criminology was used as an empirical basis.

In particular, the study used statistical data from the Ministry for the development

of information technologies and communications of the Republic of Uzbekistan,

authoritative Internet portals «Internet world stats», Statista, etc.

Together, all these methods made it possible to ensure the reliability and validity of

the research results in a scientific article to a certain extent.


RESULTS OF THE STUDY OF DETERMINANTS
The problem of the causes of crime is one of the central problems in the science of

criminology and crime prevention. The causal complex of crime includes its causes and
conditions, which together constitute the factors of crime. Causes are socio-psychological
determinants that directly generate and reproduce criminality and crimes as their natural
consequence; conditions are social phenomena that do not themselves generate
criminality and crimes, but contribute to, facilitate, and intensify the formation and action
of the cause [7, p.167-168].

The analysis of criminological science in Uzbekistan, in particular, the scientific

works of such domestic scientists as K.Abdurasulova [8, p. 179-181], M.Rustambayev [9, p.
98-100], R.Kabulov [10, p. 23-27] indicates the following reasons that contribute to the
Commission of these types of crimes, namely:

* insufficient email protection;
* negligence in the work of ICT users;


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* ill-conceived personnel policy in matters of hiring and dismissal;
* violation of the technological cycle of design, development, testing and

commissioning of computer systems;

* combining the functions of software development and operation within a single

structural unit;

* violation of deadlines for changing user passwords;
* violation of the established terms of storage of copies of programs and computer

information, and sometimes their complete absence;

* unjustified use of ICT in specific technological processes and operations;
* lack of proper control by the administration over the activities of its employees

involved in sensitive stages of processing computer information;

* psychologically incorrect interpersonal relationships between officials and

subordinates and other employees.

In our opinion, the most typical reasons and conditions for committing crimes in the

field of information technology and security at the present stage are:

* an increase in the number of ICTs and, as a result, an increase in the amount of

information processed and stored in ICTs;

* insufficient measures to protect ICTs, ICT systems and their networks;
* insufficient software protection;
* growth of information exchange through global information networks, primarily

through social networks;

* absence, imperfection or deviation from the rules of operation of ICT programs,

databases and network technology hardware;

* lack or non-compliance of information security tools with modern information

challenges and threats;

* violation of the rules for working with legally protected computer information;
* low level of specialized training of law enforcement officers who must prevent,

solve and investigate crimes in the field of information technology and security;

* lack of a coordinated and comprehensive state policy in the field of information

security.

In this paper, we will focus on two main causes of cybercrime. One of them, as

mentioned above, is the growth in the number of Internet users. In sociology, there is a

«15% Rule», according to which if the World's population grows by 15%, the

number of

crimes committed will grow by 15%. This rule also applies to cybercrime. Thus, according
to Kaspersky Lab, the number of hacker DDoS attacks in the world in 2019 increased by
25% compared to 2017 and by 18% compared to 2018 [11].

According to the world's expert and analytical centers, 24 users over the age of 18

become victims of cybercrime every second, so more than 2.4 million people suffer from
the actions of cybercriminals every day. The number of victims for 2019 is more than 700
million people, each of whom on average loses more than 376 dollars [12].

The issues of countering crimes in the field of information technology and security

are particularly relevant in the context of the coronavirus pandemic. As a result of the
spread of the coronavirus pandemic, the Internet has become the resource through which
people began to receive information quickly. During the coronavirus pandemic, the flow of
information increased in virtual space, resulting in an increased flow of raw and false
information on the Internet. Users believe a source with a large number of subscribers, so


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the bulk, or rather every fifth fake news falls under existing websites that can easily be
found in Google, which already indicates that potential criminals are not even masked, but

have openly moved to the» virtual front «of influencing people's minds [13].

Of particular concern are the facts of activation of virtual fraudsters during the

coronavirus pandemic, when fraudsters use the topic of coronavirus as a «bait» and ask to
click on the link in emails allegedly sent from the Bank. These emails may contain a «trap
site». So, in the Russian Federation during the pandemic, the number of domains with the
word «coronavirus» increased by 4 thousand at once. In addition, the number

of phishing

mailings increased by 30%. The purpose of such mailings is to extract passwords,
usernames, and card data by faking messages from a trusted source. Phishing pages are
very similar to the original pages of the banks' website, as a result of which people become
victims of criminals [14]. The pandemic has also become an occasion for the
implementation of political actions by malefactors. So, in the Russian Federation

in

Vladikavkaz on April 20 of this year, there was a popular gathering of several thousand
citizens against the self-isolation regime, demanding the resignation of the head of the
region and the dissolution of the Republican Parliament [15].

As noted in the report of the United Nations Office on drugs and crime (UNODC) on

cybercrime and the COVID-

19 coronavirus, «the COVID

-19 pandemic is an unprecedented

challenge for the entire world community. Many have switched from traditional methods
of performing operations to online mode, and criminals have also arrived. While the scale
and sophistication of cybercrime is growing and the number of victims is increasing, in
some countries law enforcement officials are forced to perform other duties. Compounding
the situation for the public and governments is the economic impact of COVID-19. Thus,

there are ideal conditions for potential cybercrime» [16, p. 4]. As we can see, a significant

problem is the freedom and irresponsibility of Internet users, primarily the malicious
blogger. The free use of information and communication technologies and the Internet can
have certain negative consequences. For example, this has a particularly negative impact
on everyday users. Like any state, the Republic of Uzbekistan also intends to resolve the
issue of preventing the spread of negative content. The problem of this issue is the lack of
specific measures of responsibility for the misuse of the Internet. At the same time, the

legislation provides for prohibitions on «using» the Internet in a negative sense in

accordance with the Law of the Republic of Uzbekist

an «On Informatization». In particular,

the owner of the website and (or) the website page, including the blogger, is obliged to
prevent the use of his website and (or) the website page on the world information
network, which contains publicly available information, for the purpose of spreading
negative content and committing other actions that entail criminal and other liability in
accordance with the law [17]. In this regard, an important task is to establish responsibility
for the misuse of the Internet by hackers.

When analyzing the determinants of cybercrime, it is essential to analyze the

identity of the criminal in the field of information technology and security. The
characteristics of criminals in the field of information technology and security allow us to
distinguish the following types:

1.

«Novice»

. This category of person commits offenses for the first time and is

characterized by the use of various information technologies (personal computer, laptop)
for personal consumer purposes

to download music, games or applications. Most of them


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are teenagers or young people aged 15-25 years. Gender-in the vast majority of cases male.
Education

secondary, specialized or higher education.

2.

«Amateur»

. This category of personality represents individuals who periodically

commit offenses in the computer network, mainly technical personnel (system
administrators, technical consultants). This group includes men (less often women) aged
20-

30 years. The formation of «Amateurs» comes from the skills of the past as a «novice»

or in connection with life circumstances (running errands and «orders»).

3.

«Professional»

. This category of professional persons who are professionally

engaged in illegal activities and are referred to as hackers. This is a class of educated people
who know all the basics of computer programming and technical work. Age-25-40 years.
Gender

in most cases male. D.Bukin rightly notes that high technical readiness is their

main feature, high latency of crimes is the basis of their motivation, internal predisposition
is the main condition for entering the criminal path, and the socio

economic situation in

the country is the main reason for the final choice [18, p.28].

Based on the above groups, it can be argued that a cybercriminal is characterized by

technical training, has a set of methods that allow him to carry out various frauds
(obtaining unauthorized access, hacking security keys, etc.). In most cases, this is a
graduate (or senior student) of a technical university, who has his own personal computer
or laptop. In the vast majority of cases, these are men aged 15-40 years. As a rule, the
studied persons have a closed character, are often depressed, prone to personal
experiences, and are touchy. Their progress in school was not brilliant, but they learn the
basics of computer science and mathematics well. For the most part, they may have an
incomplete family, where there is a complex psychological atmosphere. According to
statistics, 72.2% of hackers lived with one of their parents at the time of the crime, in 51.3%
of cases, the main success of hackers in training was in the exact sciences, and in 33.1%
they started their activities with a desire to try computer hacking techniques [19].
Cybercriminals are characterized by legal nihilism and high self-esteem. In most cases,
they feel their impunity and invulnerability, ignore the requirements of the law and
consider it quite normal to independently determine the morality and correctness of
certain legal norms based on their own criteria. They often show infantilism,
irresponsibility, uncompromising, lack of understanding of the possible consequences of

their actions, and often ignore public opinion and interests. In such cases, «the assessment

of the situation is carried out not from the standpoint of social requirements, but based on

personal experiences, resentments, problems and desires» [20, p. 104]. The motives of the

crime

various motivating factors that contribute to the commission of cybercrime can be

attributed (most cybercrimes are committed for selfish reasons) political and religious
views, hooliganism.

Today, the Internet has become an important and significant resource in the lives of

young people, an almost irreplaceable medium of communication, and in connection with
this, attacks by young hackers

schoolchildren and teenagers-have recently begun to

spread. On the Internet, each user can find relevant information to form the skills and
abilities of a hacker. In the beginning, this becomes fun for the user, which in the future can
cause offenses, as well as crimes on the Internet. This is why the number of young
cybercriminals is growing. A prime example is Jonathan Joseph James, who started hacking
information systems from an early age. He hacked into major organizations, including the
military threat reduction Agency, which is a division of the US Department of Defense. After


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that, they got access to user names and passwords, as well as the ability to view
confidential information. On June 29 and 30, 1999, James attacked NASA when he was 15
years old. He managed to gain access by hacking the password of a server belonging to a
government Agency located in the state of Alabama. James was able to roam the web freely
and steal several files, including the source code of the international space station.
According to NASA, the value of the software stolen by James is estimated at $ 1.7 million.
After the hack was discovered, NASA had to shut down the system to check and restore it
to working order, which cost $ 41,000. NASA caught James quickly, as agency did
everything to stop him. Jonathan became widely known for being the first minor sent to

prison for «hacking» in the United States at the age of 16. [21]

Young hackers often commit cybercrimes to demonstrate their skills and

capabilities in front of their peers. So in Germany, a boy named Linus Henze discovered a
breach in the macOS system, which allows you to steal all the passwords stored on the
device. He announced this on Twitter and posted a video of the hack on YouTube [22].
Using this maneuver, it was possible to gain access to more than two million usernames
and passwords of users.

But in addition to users, the reasons can be attributed to the lack of regulation of

international and national criminal law. To date, some international legal bases for
cooperation in the fight against computer crime have been established. These include the
Council of Europe Convention on cybercrime of 2001, Measures to combat computer-
related crime adopted at the Eleventh United Nations Congress on the prevention of crime
and the treatment of offenders in Bangkok on 25 April 2005, the global cybersecurity
programme approved by the International telecommunication Union in 2007, the Okinawa
Charter for the global information society adopted on 23 July 2000 in Okinawa, Japan, and
others. In the CIS countries, on February 17, 1996, at the VII plenary session of the
Interparliamentary Assembly, a Model criminal code was adopted, which regulates
responsibility for computer crimes; on June 1, 2001, an Agreement on cooperation
between the CIS member States in combating computer information crimes was signed in
Minsk. The 2000 United Nations Convention against transnational organized crime,
adopted by General Assembly Resolution 55/25 of 15 November 2000, indirectly
addresses the problems of cybercrime if committed by organized criminal groups. From
all this, we can conclude that today there is no single international act that could unify the
norms for combating cybercrime.

In addition, many countries around the world have laws authorizing illegal activities

in the virtual space. These include the laws of the States of Florida and Arizona of the

United States «Computer crime act of 1978», which establishes criminal liability for crimes

in the field of comp

uter information, «

The Law on fraud and misuse of computers

», the

main legal act that establishes criminal liability for crimes in the field of computer
information. Subsequently, it became the main normative legal act establishing criminal
liability for c

rimes in the field of computer information, included in the form of § 1030 in

Title 18 of the us Code of laws, the «

National information infrastructure protection Act

»,

as well as «

The Patriot Act

»

of 2001, which, among other things, contains a special Chapter

«

Computer crime and intellectual property

». In the UK, «

The Computer abuse Act

» has

been in force since August 1990. The first paragraph of this Act concerns «

unauthorized

access to computer data

».


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Responsibility for these crimes is provided for in Chapter XX

1

of the Criminal Code

of the Republic of Uzbekistan, referred to as «

Crimes in the field of information

technology

». Criminal sanctions at the national level do not provide reliable protection

from cybercrime because the existing law there are not enough articles on crimes in the
field of information technology and security, a clear classification of cybercrime, and the
complexity of interpreting and applying existing articles limit the actions of law
enforcement. The legislative div should carry out systematic work not only to develop
new legal norms, but also appropriate sanctions, while creating the necessary mechanism
for ensuring the activities of law enforcement agencies, Prosecutor's offices, judicial and
punitive bodies that can effectively prosecute and punish those responsible for crimes in
the field of information technology and security.

Criminal laws should be supplemented by appropriate civil sanctions. The absence

of special rules in the current civil code of the Republic of Uzbekistan regulating all existing
aspects of virtual civil relations, including the electronic form of transactions, creates

additional difficulties in recognizing their evidentiary value. The adoption of the Laws «

On

e-Commerce

», «

On electronic digital signature

», «

On electronic document management

»,

«

On appeals of individuals and legal entities

», «

On e-government

» has not yet completely

corrected the situation, because the Civil code of the Republic of Uzbekistan still requires
written registration of transactions. Moreover, the position of some of the articles, a
legitimate part of the fault could technically be charged and the victim as a legal entity that
has not adopted the reasonable precautions and due to the fact that ICT and other
equipment recognized as a source of danger to users, focusing on the imperfection of the
law, aspire for its part, not only to help the officials, how to hold a neutral stance. In
addition, all the above-mentioned laws state that persons guilty of violating the law are
liable in accordance with the established procedure. Unfortunately, there are currently no
such provisions in the Criminal Code or the Code of administrative responsibility of the
Republic of Uzbekistan.


DISCUSSION OF CONCLUSIONS AND PROPOSALS
Given the above, and taking into account the special urgency of the issues in the field

of information technology, security rapidly growing information society and developing in
this context, new forms and methods of cybercrime make scientific and academic
community to think seriously, to join forces in international cooperation, and collaboration
with the relevant specialized agencies fighting in this area.

One of the conditions for creating an effective system of international information

security is the development and adoption of a modern, universal international legal act
that provides adequate protection against new threats, while taking into account the
national sovereignty of states in contrast to the outdated European Convention on
cybercrime. The conclusion of a universal international treaty on combating information
crimes, which would take into account the accumulated experience of international
agreements in this area and the peculiarities of the national legislation of the participating
countries, is quite a complex and time-consuming task. Such a universal regulator could be
a separate UN Convention on combating cybercrime and ensuring global information
security, which at the international level would help to comprehensively and
systematically counter cybercrime and cyberterrorism, as well as to combat them.


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In order to analyze cybercrime, exchange information about it between the CIS

member States, analyze preventive measures and operational measures taken at the
national level, as well as conduct special training for law enforcement, judicial and
prosecutorial personnel, it is necessary to establish a Regional coordination center for
countering cybercrime within the SCO.

The creation of this center will allow systematic data collection and processing,

providing information, technical and forensic support to the relevant law enforcement
agencies of the CIS countries, coordinating joint investigations, as well as specialized
training and training of specialists. The center can facilitate the necessary research and
software development, assess and analyze existing and potential threats, make forecasts,
and issue advance warnings. Within the scope of the Centre's activities will also include
assistance to judges, prosecutors and law enforcement officers.

In turn, the analysis of legislation in the field of information technologies and threats

of cybercrime to national security indicates the need to systematize and specify the basics
of state policy in the field of information security. To this end, the Concept of information
security of the Republic of Uzbekistan should be adopted. In the concept of information
security, based on the analysis of the current state of information security, the goals,
objectives and key problems of ensuring information security should be defined.

As part of the implementation of this Concept, as well as the Concept of improving

criminal and criminal procedure legislation, it is necessary to improve the norms of the
Criminal code of the Republic of Uzbekistan in terms of establishing responsibility for
cybercrime by introducing a special section on crimes in the field of information
technology and security.


References:
1.

http://www.itu.int/

2.

http://www.itweapons.com/

3.

https://podrobno.uz/cat/tehnp/kolichestvo-internet-polzovateley-v-

uzbekistane-sostavlyaet-22-milliona-chelovek/

4.

Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan «On the Strategy of actions

for further development of the Republic of Uzbekistan» from 7

February 2017 the year

number DP

4947 (

in Russian

).

5.

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radically improve the system of criminal and criminal procedure legislation» from 14 May

2018 the year number PP

3723 (

in Russian

).

6.

https://www.internetworldstats.com/top20.htm

7.

Gladkikh V.I. Criminology: textbook (bachelor's and master's degrees). Moscow:

Justitia, 2019, 422 p (

in Russian

).

8.

Abdurasulova K. R. Criminology. Textbook. Executive editor: M.Kh.Rustambayev.

-

T.: «Adolat», 2007.

- 216 b (

in Uzbek

).

9.

Criminology.

Textbook.

Collective

of

authors.

Executive

editor:

M.Kh.Rustambayev. - T.: TSIL 2008

586 p (

in Russian

).

10.

Kabulov R., Abdurakhmanov E.S. Crimes in the sphere of information

technologies: Textbook. - T.: Academy of the Ministry of internal affairs of the Republic of
Uzbekistan, 2009. - 80 p (

in Russian

).

11.

https://ria.ru/20190805/1557194818.html


background image

Жамият

ва

инновациялар

Общество

и

инновации

Society and innovations

Issue -1,

01 (2020) / ISSN 2181-1415

209

12.

http://www.mcafee.com/us/resources/reports/rp-economic-impact-

cybercrime2.pdf

13.

https://runet.rbc.ru/materials/pravda-o-feyk-nyus/

14.

https://regnum.ru/news/economy/2915482.html

15.

https://www.vedomosti.ru/politics/articles/2020/04/20/828521-pervii-v-

rossii

16.

Report of the United Nations Office on drugs and crime «Cybercrime and

COVID19 coronavirus: risks, threats and responses» (so

urce available at:

https://www.unodc.org/documents/Advocacy-Section/Russian_-_UNODC_-
_CYBERCRIME_AND_COVID19_-_Risks_and_Responses_v1.2_-_14-04-2020_-_CMLS-
COVID19-CYBER1_-_UNCLASSIFIED_BRANDED.pdf).

17.

Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan «On Informatization» f

rom 11 December 2003

the year number 560-II (

in Russian

).

18.

Kardava N.V. Cyberspace as a new political reality: challenges and answers //

History and modernity. 2018. no. 1-2-P. 27-28 (

in Russian

).

19.

http://www.psyfactor.org/

20.

Antonyan Yu.M., Yenikeev M.I., Eminov V.E. Psychology of the criminal and

investigation of crimes, Moscow: Yurist, 2006, 190 p (

in Russian

).

21.

https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/

Джонатан

_

Джозеф

_

Джеймс

22.

https://lenta.ru/news/2019/02/07/vzlomshik/

Библиографические ссылки

http://www.itu.int/

http://www.itweapons.com/

https://podrobno.uz/cat/tehnp/kolichestvo-internet-polzovateley-v-uzbekistane-sostavlyaet-22-milliona-chelovek/

Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan «On the Strategy of actions for further development of the Republic of Uzbekistan» from 7 February 2017 the year number DP-4947 {in Russian).

Resolution of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan «On measures to radically improve the system of criminal and criminal procedure legislation» from 14 May 2018 the year number PP-3723 {in Russian).

https://www.internetworldstats.com/top20.htm

Gladkikh V.I. Criminology: textbook (bachelor's and master's degrees). Moscow: Justitia, 2019, 422 p {in Russian).

Abdurasulova K. R. Criminology. Textbook. Executive editor: M.Kh.Rustambayev. - T.: «Adolat», 2007. - 216 b {in Uzbek).

Criminology. Textbook. Collective of authors. Executive editor: M.Kh.Rustambayev. - T.: TSIL 2008 - 586 p {in Russian).

Kabulov R., Abdurakhmanov E.S. Crimes in the sphere of information technologies: Textbook. - T.: Academy of the Ministry of internal affairs of the Republic of Uzbekistan, 2009. - 80 p {in Russian).

https://ria.ru/20190805/1557194818.html

http://www.mcafee.com/us/resources/reports/rp-economic-impact-cybercrime2.pdf

https://runet.rbc.ru/materials/pravda-o-feyk-nyus/

https://regnum.ru/news/economy/2915482.html

https://www.vedomosti.ru/politics/articles/2020/04/20/828521-pervii-v-rossii

Report of the United Nations Office on drugs and crime «Cybercrime and C0VID19 coronavirus: risks, threats and responses» (source available at: https://www.unodc.org/documents/Advocacy-Section/Russian_-_UNODC_-_CYBERCRIME_AND_COVID19_-_Risks_and_Responses_vl.2_-_14-04-2020_-_CMLS-C0VlD19-CYBERl_-_UNCLASSIFIED_BRANDED.pdf).

Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan «On Informatization» from 11 December 2003 the year number 560-11 (in Russian).

Kardava N.V. Cyberspace as a new political reality: challenges and answers // History and modernity. 2018. no. 1-2-P. 27-28 (in Russian).

http://www.psyfactor.org/

Antonyan Yu.M., Yenikeev М.1., Eminov V.E. Psychology of the criminal and investigation of crimes, Moscow: Yurist, 2006,190 p (in Russian).

https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki4Zl>KOHaTaHjl>KO3e4)_4>KeftMC

https://lenta.ru/news/2019/02/07/vzlomshik/

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