Training of personnel in the field of countering cybercrime: the need and the requirement of time

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Расулев A., & Садуллаев G. (2021). Training of personnel in the field of countering cybercrime: the need and the requirement of time . in Library, 21(1), 123–130. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/9137
Абдулазиз Расулев, Академия МВД Республики Узбекистан

д.т.н., профессор

Гайрат Садуллаев, Академия МВД Республики Узбекистан

Преподаватель кафедры профилактики правонарушений 

Аннотация

This article analyzes the issues of countering cybercrime, taking into account the dynamic development of modern information and communication and digital technologies, the impact of the Internet on the consciousness of the population, including young people, and the use of the possibilities of virtual space. The article deals with the practice of combating cybercrime and the trend of constant development of the «professionalism» of young hacker groups. The purpose of the study is to develop proposals and recommendations, taking into account foreign experience, for further improvement of the education system, training and retraining of specialists in the field of ensuring information security of the country, countering information challenges and threats, as well as improving comprehensive measures to combat cybercrime, including in the detection, disclosure, investigation, and examination of computer crimes. In conclusion, proposals and recommendations were developed to improve measures to counter cybercrime in universities of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

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ABSTRACT

This article analyzes the issues of countering cybercrime, taking into account the dynamic
development of modern information and communication and digital technologies, the impact of the
Internet on the consciousness of the population, including young people, and the use of the
possibilities of virtual space. The article deals with the practice of combating cybercrime and the trend
of constant development of the «professionalism» of young hacker groups.

The purpose of the study is to develop proposals and recommendations, taking into account foreign
experience, for further improvement of the education system, training and retraining of specialists in
the field of ensuring information security of the country, countering information challenges and
threats, as well as improving comprehensive measures to combat cybercrime, including in the
detection, disclosure, investigation, and examination of computer crimes.

In conclusion, proposals and recommendations were developed to improve measures to counter
cybercrime in universities of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

KEYWORDS

State youth policy; information and communication technologies; information security; Internet;
cybercrime; youth; prevention and counteraction to computer crimes; hacker.

Training Of Personnel In The Field Of Countering
Cybercrime: The Need And The Requirement Of Time


Abdulaziz Rasulev

DSc., Professor Academy Of The Ministry Of Internal Affairs Of The Republic Of Uzbekistan,

Gayrat Sadullayev

Teacher Of The Department, Prevention Of Offenses, Academy Of The Ministry Of Internal
Affairs Of The Republic Of Uzbekistan

Journal

Website:

http://usajournalshub.c
om/index,php/t
ajpslc

Copyright:

Original

content from this work
may be used under the
terms of the creative
commons

attributes

4.0 licence.


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INTRODUCTION

Today, in the international arena, the problem
of combating crime in the field of information
technology

and

security

is

becoming

increasingly global. In particular, the UN
General Assembly, the Council of Europe, the
SCO, the CIS, the League of Arab States and
other organizations adopted special acts
related to information and communication
technologies, countering and preventing the
criminal use of information technologies, and
preventing cybercrime in this area at the
regional and international levels.

To date, the Republic of Uzbekistan has
adopted 30 laws, 48 presidential acts and 84
decisions of the Government of the Republic of
Uzbekistan in this area. Large-scale work is
being carried out to improve the socio-political,
socio-economic and judicial-legal spheres. In
addition, it should be noted that efforts are
being directed towards further modernizing
state programs, including those aimed at
countering

information

security

and

cybercrime, which include the entire range of
legal, organizational, technical, and socio-
political issues.

As the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan
Sh.Mirziyoyev to the Oliy Majlis on December
22, 2017 «In the conditions of the current
globalization,

economic

competition

is

becoming increasingly acute, information and
terrorist threats are increasing. To prevent
information threats and attacks through
various

information

resources,

special

departments should be organized as an
indispensable part of law enforcement
agencies.»

First of all, I would like to draw your attention
to the statistics on the development of

information technologies. In the world in
recent years, there has been an increase in the
number of Internet users. So, in 2007, the
number of Internet users in the world was 1.319
billion people, in 2015-3.263 billion people, and
in 2020-4.54, and by February 1, 2021 - 4.66
billion people [4].

According to the index of development of
information and communication technologies,
in the world in Iceland takes the first place, the
second place is occupied by Austria, third place
belongs to Switzerland [12].

The number of users of social networks is
growing. So, in 2010, the number of users of
social networks was less than a billion people,
in 2015-2.14 billion people, and in 2020 – 3.81
billion people, and by February 1, 2021 it is 4.2
billion people, which is 53.6% of the world
population [9].

Statistics on the number of active actions on
the Internet in one minute are of interest. So,
in 2017, 3.8 million requests were made in the
Google search engine, and in 2018 – 4.1, in 2019-
5.2, and in 2020 - 6.3 million requests. In 2017,
3.3 million posts were posted on Facebook, and
in 2018 – 3.5, in 2019 - 3.8, and in 2020 – 3.9
million posts [1].

A record growth rate in the number of Internet
users in Uzbekistan was observed in 2010-2020.
Their number increased from 16% to 66.7 % of
the population and amounted to more than
22,102,000 people. According to statistics, 35%
of Internet users use the network to use social
networks, 30% of users-mail services, 25% of
users-information consumption. In accordance
with the data on the distribution of resources,
16%

are

related

to

education

and

entertainment, 9% - e-commerce and high


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technologies, etc. Socio-demographic profile
of Internet users: 35,1% of users are women and
64.9% are male. When it comes to their age,
36.3% are from 18 to 24, 35.1 percent of persons
belong to 25 to 34 age group, 12.7% of the face
from 34 to 44 years [7].

Information and communication technologies
are used at all levels-individual management,
economic links, and are implemented in order
to ensure the internal and external security of
the state. No wonder some experts believe
that « a computer bomb is more dangerous
than a nuclear one.» The public danger of
cybercrime is characterized by a high level of
economic damage caused by these types of
crimes. Statistics provide information on the
number of victims from cybercrime: victims per
year-559 million; victims per day-more than 1.6
million; victims per second – 19 [5].

When preventing offenses on the Internet, it is
necessary to pay attention to the repeated
commission of offenses. So in 2020, there were
980 million offenses committed by 58 million
offenders. This is more than the combined
population of Switzerland, Sweden, Belgium,
and Portugal [10].

Cybercrime causes damage in completely
different areas of the economy: trade,
competition, innovation, and generally slows
down the economic growth of countries. And
the more large-scale and developed country
has the greater the percentage of damage
from cybercrime and the greater the amount
of damage caused to GDP. According to
statistics for 2020, the economic damage from
cybercrime was 1.23 % compared to GDP, while
in this indicator, cybercrime surpassed drug
trafficking (1.03 % of GDP), forgery/piracy
(0.93% of GDP), (maritime piracy – 0.03% of
GDP), second only to international crime and

terrorism – 1.35% of GDP. It is projected that by
the end of 2021, the global damage from
cybercrime will reach about 2.1 trillion US
dollars [6].

Experts of one of the largest foreign media
companies working on IT and IT security
«HACKER» claim that most hackers are just
bored children who have too much free time.
Only 10% of hackers are aware of their actions.
90% of acts of vandalism on the Internet are
carried out by 13-year-olds who just need to
«have a good time» [3]. Determining the age
characteristics of Internet users also allows you
to identify potential subjects who may commit
crimes in the field of information technology
and security. The Security Service of Ukraine
has detained a hacker known by the nickname
«Sanix»in Ivano-Frankivsk. At the beginning of
last year, he attracted the attention of global
cybersecurity

experts

by

posting

an

announcement on one of the forums about the
sale of a database with 773 million email
addresses and 21 million unique passwords [8].
According to some reports, in 2015 in the
United States, a group of young hackers
(schoolchildren), which calls itself CWA,
hacked the personal email of CIA Director John
Brennan and Secretary of National Security Jay
Johnson [15].

It should be noted that in the world practice,
there is a tendency to reduce the age of the
subject of crimes in the field of information
technology and security. In our opinion, two
reasons contribute to this:

1)

The Internet has become an important and
significant resource in the life of young
people, an almost irreplaceable medium of
communication;


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2)

Recently, attacks from young hackers –
schoolchildren and teenagers-have begun
to spread.

Given that the majority of Internet users are
young people, the Internet is a very
comfortable environment for the formation of
a hacker's personality. In the global network,
there are a number of resources designed to
teach hacking skills, in particular, sites
http://dfiles.ru,

https://ru.wikihow.com,

https://kak-bog.ru, as well as media files in the
You Tube channel. In the twenty-first century,
the process of institutionalization of hackers is
growing rapidly, although they still strictly
observe the principle of anonymity (instead of
their

own

name,

pseudonyms

like

«Ludichrist»are used. «Sicko», «Racket Rat»,
etc.). Regularly operating hacker communities
are created, they have their own websites,
magazines – «Access All Areas» («All
Accessibility»), «Cryrt Newsletter's Home
Rada» («Popular cryptographic news»), «Old
and New Hackers» («Old and New hackers»),
«Chaos Comuter Club» («Club of computer
chaos») [13; 29-p.].

However, it should be noted that in addition to
the negative links of hackers with criminal
groups, recently there has been a clear trend of
interaction between the hacker movement and
state and commercial structures. They are
attended by representatives of state security
agencies, administrators of the largest
companies. Moreover, some of the well-known
hackers are actively involved in state and
international

information

security

organizations. For example, Andy Mueller-
Megan, president and founder of the Chaos
Computer Club, is a member of the world
organization «ICANN» (Internet Correlation for
Assigned Names and Numbers). Hacker

schools of all levels are organized for children
(Civil

School

of

Hackers),

students

(Foundstone-shocking school) and security
personnel (Black Hat Briefings, Ethical
Hacking) [14].

In our opinion, this experience would be useful
for the Republic of Uzbekistan. The interaction
and close cooperation of hackers with state
and law enforcement agencies, organizations
and institutions will not only ensure the
effective disclosure and prevention of
cybercrimes, but also contributes to the
correction of violators, their transition from
the category of «offenders» to the category of
«corrected» persons. In turn, practice shows
that many professional hackers are excellent
specialists and masters of their craft, often
commit crimes out of self-interest, rarely
pursuing political or other goals, and some of
them commit offenses out of a sense of fun or
interest. According to the 2014-2017 cybercrime
research conducted by Group IB, almost all
cybercrimes are aimed at obtaining financial
benefits in the simplest possible way, namely,
98% of information crimes are committed out
of selfish motives (theft, blackmail, extortion,
fraud), 1% each – for the purpose of obtaining
information and cyberterrorism, respectively
[2].

This practice will be humane and innovative in
the state youth policy in the country. As noted
in his speech, the President of the Republic of
Uzbekistan sh.Mirziyoyev at the session of the
Samarkand Regional Kengash of People's
Deputies of November 10, 2017 «At the same
time, all of us as parents, mentors and teachers
are well aware that in the current difficult and
difficult time, the issue of educating young
people remains the most important and urgent
task for us. Therefore, we have no right to


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make mistakes in ensuring the legitimate rights
and interests of our young people, their
education and upbringing. Mistakes in this
matter mean treason to our children, to the
Motherland.»

Therefore,

the

active

involvement of young hackers in the activities
of state and, especially, law enforcement
agencies will have a positive impact on the
criminogenic state in the republic.

In these conditions, social measures are
becoming important, which are aimed at
forming people, in particular, young people,
awareness of the danger and negative
consequences of crimes in the field of
information technology and security.

In our opinion, the time has come to create a
patriotic «Club of initiative programmers-
bloggers», which will be a gathering place for
talented and creative young people with the
necessary knowledge and skills in the field of
information and communication technologies
and cybersecurity, a discussion environment
and a visual platform for recruitment. In our
opinion, this club is advisable to create the
Union of youth of Uzbekistan and with the
support of relevant Universities, Meningocele,
the Ministry of innovative development with
specialists, experts and analysts. In addition,
the Club can be a platform for promoting and
attracting young scientists to research
activities in the field of cybersecurity, to
promote the development of public-private
partnerships through the implementation of
start-up projects for the development and
production of competitive products and
services in the field of information and
communication technologies and the digital
economy, their promotion in the domestic and
foreign markets. The creation of this club can
serve as a vivid example of an open dialogue

with young people, a kind of preventive center
for the prevention and identification of
persons with a tendency to commit
information offenses, as well as their education
in the spirit of patriotism, respect for the law
and participation in the construction of a
developed state and information society [11;
p.198].

The main task of the state is to prepare young
personnel for the conditions of life and
professional activity in the information society,
to teach them to act in this environment, to use
its opportunities and to protect themselves
from negative influences.

An important factor in countering crimes in the
field of information technology and security is
the level of professional training of employees
of state and law enforcement agencies,
information security services of organizations
and institutions.

In the Republic of Uzbekistan, basic specialists
in the field of information technology and
information security are trained at the
Tashkent University of Information Technology
named after Muhammad al Khwarizmi, Inha
University, AMITI University, etc. Professionals
with basic legal training are preparing the
Tashkent state law University, the University of
world economy and diplomacy, the Islamic
University, the Academy, the Academy of GBS
and several faculties of other Universities. At
the same time, the current trend in the field of
personnel policy requires training in an
interdisciplinary direction, that is, personnel
with both legal and technical skills to ensure
information security. In addition, the time has
come to improve the system of higher
education in the field of «cybersecurity»,
including on the basis of PPP, the creation of a
program for advanced training and retraining


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of personnel engaged in crime prevention,
operational search activities, investigation and
investigation of crimes related to information
security and cybercrime in general.

One of particular interests is the experience of
specialized educational institutions of foreign
countries in the field of training specialists in
the field of counteraction. investigation and
disclosure

of

information

crimes

and

cybercrime. For example, a number of foreign
educational institutions in the EU, USA, China,
India, South Korea, Russia, Belarus, and
Kazakhstan train specialists in information
security, radio intelligence, detection and
operational and technical support for the
disclosure, investigation, and prevention of
cybercrime, and computer expertise in the
investigation of crimes.

One of the key issues of organizing the fight
against crime in information networks is the
formation and improvement of the system of
law enforcement agencies that can effectively
solve the tasks of this fight. Law enforcement
agencies have to learn «on the go» to
understand new mechanisms of crimes, to look
for methods of their investigation, to apply
new approaches to providing electronic
evidence.

Undoubtedly, the level of professional training
of law enforcement agencies requires an
effective and high-quality education system.
The activities of law enforcement agencies to
counteract crimes in the field of information
technology and cybersecurity, which have a
transnational and latent nature, do not meet
the ever-increasing modern requirements. This
state of affairs becomes possible due to the
lack of qualified personnel, modern technical
equipment of law enforcement agencies and
expert institutions, as well as improper

interdepartmental

interaction

of

law

enforcement agencies with foreign colleagues
in this area. Therefore, an important task in the
field of education is to improve the information
infrastructure, which provides for continuous
and comprehensive analysis and optimization
of educational processes through the
introduction of modern information and
communication technologies.

One of the main directions of improving the
effectiveness of the fight against cybercrime is
to improve the training of relevant specialists.
The study of the experience of combating
cybersecurity and the analysis of universities in
foreign countries in this area can contribute to
improving the system of training national
specialists. To date, the Academy of the
Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of
Uzbekistan has cooperated with 14 higher
educational institutions from 10 foreign
countries. Signed a Memorandum on mutual
cooperation with the 8 universities, including
such as: the University of public security of the
PRC, the Police Academy of Turkey, Barnaul
law Institute of the Ministry of internal Affairs
of

the Russian

Federation,

Krasnodar

University of the Ministry of internal Affairs of
the Russian Federation, Volgograd Academy of
the Ministry of internal Affairs of the Russian
Federation, the Academy of the Ministry of
internal Affairs of the Republic of Belarus, the
Almaty Academy of the Ministry of internal
Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

To achieve the objectives of the Universities in
the country, as well as in the Academy of the
Ministry of internal Affairs of the Republic of
Uzbekistan the appropriate material and
technical base, actively operates specialized
departments and centers of information
resources that are embedded in the learning


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process interactive pedagogical methods of
teaching created a healthy morale, well-
established

international

academic

communication.

At the same time, it should be noted that many
current problems of informatization of society
are not adequately covered in the process of
training and retraining of young employees,
which does not fully meet modern reality and
the requirements of life. This alarming fact
should be the object of attention of both the
teaching staff of universities, law enforcement
agencies, and government officials of our
country, since the quality of education is not
only a humanitarian problem, but also a
strategic factor in the socio-economic
development of the country, ensuring its
national security.

In this regard, it is proposed to open a new
specialized direction on the basis of the
Academy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of
the Republic of Uzbekistan for the training of
narrow-profile specialists in the field of
detection, investigation, prevention and
counteraction of computer crimes in general.
This specialization will allow cadets and
trainees to develop scientific and practical skills
in countering crimes in the field of digital
technologies, cybercrime and information
security.

Taking into account the scale of the problem,
the dynamic growth of cybercrime in the
world, as well as the emergence of real risks
and threats to the entire public, especially for
young people, there is a need for a radical
revision of programs and methods for training
and retraining specialized personnel in this
field. The moment has come when society, law
enforcement

agencies,

and

national

specialized universities must consolidate and

respond in a timely manner to the growth of
cybercrime.

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http://psyfactor.org/lib/vershinin4.htm
. Дата доступа : 25.06.2020.

15.

Юные хакеры «взломали» директора
ЦРУ [Электронный ресурс].
Режим

доступа

:

https://russian.rt.com/inotv/2015-10-
20/CNN-YUnie-hakeri-vzlomali-
direktora. – Дата доступа : 25.06.2020.

Библиографические ссылки

Google подвел итоги 2020 года на основе поисковых запросов [Электронный ресурс].

https://ko.ru/news/google-podvel-itogi-goda-na-osnove-poiskovykh-zaprosov/?utm_source=yxnews&utm_ medium=desktop/ - Дата доступа : 18.02.2021.

GrouplB [Электронный ресурс]. -Режим доступа : https://psm7.c0m/-security. - Дата доступа : 25.06.2020.

Безопасность, разработка DevOps [Электронныйресурс]. - Режим доступа :

https://xakep.ru/2016/07/19/13108/. Дата доступа: 25.06.2020.

Вся статистика интернета на 2020 год — цифры и тренды в мире [Электронный ресурс].

https://www.web-canape.ru/business/intemet-2O2O-globalnaya-statistika-i-trendy/- Дата доступа: 18.02.2021.

Вся статистика интернета на 2020 год — цифры и тренды в мире [Электронный ресурс].

https://www.web-canape.ru/business/intemet-2O2O-globalnaya-statistika-i-trendy/- Дата доступа: 18.02.2021.

Киберпреступники вредят на триллион [Электронный ресурс] https://www.comnews.ru/content/2121 81/2020-12-15/2020-w5i/kiberprestupniki-vredyat-trillion -Дата доступа: 18.02.2021.

Количество Интернет-пользователей в Узбекистане составляет 22 миллиона человек / [Электронный ресурс].

https://www.podrobno.uz/cat/tehnp/ kolichestvo-intemet-polzovateley-v-uzbekistane-sostavlyaet-22-milliona-chelovek/ - Дата доступа : 18.02.2021.

На Украине задержали укравшего рекордный объем данных хакера [Электронный ресурс]. - Режим доступа: http://www.vestifinance.ru /articles/83789. - Дата доступа : 25.06.2020.

Отчет по использованию социальных сетей, интернета в целом и е-commerce на начало 2021. [Электронный ресурс]. https://cpa.rip/stati/digital-2021/- Дата доступа: 18.02.2021.

Очередной скачок киберпреступности в 2020 году [Электронный ресурс]

https://www.securitylab.ru/blog/comp any/CABIS/348is6.php /- Дата доступа: 18.02.2021.

Расулев А.К. Совершенствование уголовно-правовых и криминологических мер борьбы с преступлениями в сфере информационных технологий и безопасности: диссертация доктора юридических наук (DSc) Т. 2018 г.

Рейтинг стран по уровню развития информационно-коммуникационных технологий (ИКТ) [Электронный ресурс]. https://basetop.ru/reyting-stran-po-urovnyu-informatsionnyih-tehnologiy-2/ - Дата доступа : 18.02.2021.

Современные молодежные субкультуры: хакеры [Электронный ресурс]. - Режим доступа : http://psyfact0r.org/lib/vershinin4.htm . - Дата доступа : 25.06.2020.

Современные молодежные субкультуры: хакеры [Электронный ресурс]. - Режим доступа : http://psyfact0r.org/lib/vershinin4.htm . Дата доступа : 25.06.2020.

Юные хакеры «взломали» директора ЦРУ [Электронный ресурс]. Режим доступа : https://russian.rt.com/inotv/2015-10-20/CNN-YUnie-hakeri-vzlomali-direktora. - Дата доступа: 25.06.2020.

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