Эпизоотология, лечение и профилактика лернеозов рыб

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Сулайманова, Н., Болиев, Ш., & Ботирова, З. . (2023). Эпизоотология, лечение и профилактика лернеозов рыб. in Library, 4(4), 1498–1501. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/32459
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Аннотация

В статье описаны эпизоотология, диагностика лернеозов рыб, которых кормят в искусственных водоемах, наблюдаемые у них клинические признаки, а также анализ научных источников по методам лечения и профилактики. При лернеозе рыб на теле рыб наблюдаются случаи образования тромбов, глубоких ран, поднятия и потери чешуи, что приводит, прежде всего, к потере товарности, отставанию роста от развития, снижению иммунитета у Рыб, что приводит к тот факт, что он становится восприимчивым к различным инфекционным заболеваниям. Лернсы в организме рыб проникают через жабры во внутренние органы, вызывая поражение печени и кишечника, что также приводит к развитию гепатита В печени. При патологоанатомических исследованиях обнаруживаются тромбы в печени и кишечнике и некроз. слизистой оболочки кишечника наблюдались у рыб с лернеозом. Рыбы, пораженные лернеей, являются переносчиками заболевания на следующий год, а источником заболевания является личиночная стадия лернеи. Заражение рыб лернеей в рыбоводных прудах обычно значительно выше в неправильно построенных, неосушенных, антисанитарных прудах зимой, где их численность может достигать десятков на тело каждой рыбы.

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Journal of Advanced Zoology

ISSN

:

0253-7214

Volume

44

Issue

S-5

Year 2023

Page

1498

:

1501

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Episootology, Treatment and Prevention of Lerneosis of Fish

Boliyev Shavkat Kochkarovich

1*

, Sulaymanova Nafisa Abdimuminovna

2

, Botyrova

Zamira Rajaboyevna

3

1,2,3

Veterinary Research Institute

*Corresponding author’s: Boliyev Shavkat Kochkarovich

Article History

Received: 08 June 2023
Revised: 15 Sept 2023
Accepted: 28 Oct 2023






CC License

CC-BY-NC-SA 4.0

Abstract

The article describes epizootology, diagnosis of lerneosis of fish that are fed in
artificial reservoirs, clinical signs observed in them, as well as an analysis of
scientific sources on methods of treatment and prevention. With lerneosis of
fish, cases of blood clots, deep wounds, raising and loss of scales are observed
on the div of fish, which leads, first of all, to loss of marketability, growth lag
behind development, decreased immunity in Pisces, leading to the fact that it
becomes susceptible to various infectious diseases. Lerns in the div of fish
penetrate through the gills into the internal organs, causing damage to the liver
and intestines, which also leads to the development of hepatitis B of the liver.
During pathological studies, blood clots in the liver and intestines and necrosis
of the intestinal mucosa were observed in fish with lerneosis. Fish affected by
lernaea are carriers of the disease the following year, and the larval stage of
lernaea is the source of the disease. Infection of fish with Lernea in fish ponds
is generally much higher in improperly constructed, undrained, unsanitary
ponds in winter, where their numbers can reach dozens per div of each fish.

Keywords: Fish, Water, Pond, Salt, Chlorophos, Crab, Lerneosis, Lernaea
Elegans, Lernaea Cyprinacea, Carp, Silver Carp.

1.

Introduction

One of the blessings bestowed upon mankind is undoubtedly the fish. This is why people have been
involved in fishing since ancient times, and as a result, fishing has become an important branch of
agriculture. It is important to further develop the fishing industry, increase the range of fish products,
increase export potential, effectively use the capabilities of existing basins, and increase the volume of
fish farming based on intensive technologies.

The further development of fisheries in our republic, the effective use of existing natural and artificial
lakes and the achievement of high yields are seriously hampered by a number of infectious and non-
infectious fish diseases. Among them, lerneosis, considered one of the invasive fish diseases, negatively
affects the development of the industry.

The degree of study of the subject

From foreign scientists regarding the study of lerneosis common in Fish Khorosheltseva V.N.,
Strizhakova T.V., Bortnikov E.S., Mosesyan G.V., Bugaev L.A., Denisova T.V. conducted studies on
1000 specimens of fish (carp, beluga, silver carp, silver carp, perch) in fisheries in a number of regions
of Russia, including Rostov (3), Krasnodar (3), Stavropol regions (1). Research has shown that 81
specimens of young fish are affected by lerneosis. Lernaeans were found mainly on the surface of the
fish's div and in the gills. [2,9,12].

Lerns in the div of fish penetrate through the gills into the internal organs, causing damage to the
liver and intestines, which also leads to the development of hepatitis B of the liver. During pathological
studies, blood clots in the liver and intestines and necrosis of the intestinal mucosa were observed in
fish affected by lerna.

Korsakova M.V. conducted scientific research in fish farms in more than 15 regions of Russia in the
Tver, Yaroslavl, Stavropol, and Ryazan regions of the Russian Federation, applied and recommended
the drug “Emicon” for the treatment of Pisces lerneosis. [6,7,11].


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Jimil V.I. (2007-2010, Belotserkov National Agrarian University, Belaya, Serkov, Ukraine). Fish
affected by lernaea are carriers of the disease the following year, and the larval stage of lernaea is the
source of the disease. As a result of the author's study of various reservoirs, kraustaseoses (lerneoses
and argullioses) were discovered in the bodies of adult and young fish. [8,11]. During control
monitoring in 2007-2011. In 11 fish farms of the Zhytomyr, Kiev, and Cherkasy regions of Ukraine,
based on the parasitological examination methods generally accepted during the experiment, the
prevalence and intensity of kraustaceosis infestation in different ages of cyprinid fish was determined.
In all 11 mentioned fish farms, up to 100% of cases of cyprinid fish affected by lerneosis were recorded.
In particular, the proportion of Lernaeans at the copepod stage was 66.7%. In addition, about 20 existing
fisheries in the Stavropol, Rostov, Krasnodar regions of the south of the Russian Federation also
revealed kraustaceosis, while at the end of June the average intensity of invasion was 10-15%, and the
intensity of invasion was 1-10 copies, while repeated experiments in August showed that the intensity
of invasion was 45-70%, and the intensity of invasion was 14-52 specimens. [3,10].

In the conditions of Uzbekistan, ectoparasites of Lernaean fish are regularly found in fish that breed
mainly in the spring and summer in the reservoirs of Tashkent, Samarkand, Kashkadarya, Andijan, and
Fergana regions. Damage levels peaked at 55.8% by the summer season, currently causing the largest
economic losses for fisheries.

Fig 1.

Inflammatory process in tissues

where Lerneas are located

Fig 2.

Appearance of Lernea

Purpose of the study.

The study of the epizootology of Pisces lerneosis is to develop effective methods

and means of treatment and prevention. The causative agent is a copepod (crustacean) of the genus
lernaea, the div of a sexually mature female is elongated, cylindrical, not divided into joints, the rear
end is slightly expanded, 0.1-1.6 cm long. On the last part of the head there are 4 protrusions through
which lerneoses penetrate the div of the fish. Has 5 pairs of bicuspid swimming legs. [3,4] egg sacs 1
pair of long ones, each holding 300-700 eggs. The parasite settles in the div of the fish. The eggs hatch
into free-swimming larvae - nauplii. They have 3 pairs of subsequent legs, and over the course of 9 –
10 days they go through 3 nauplial and 5 copepod stages, each time performing a dash in the water.
Lernae penetrate deeper into the muscle tissue, piercing the skin of the fish, while settling over the entire
surface of the div.

In the tissues where the Lernae are located, an inflammatory process occurs, the tumors become
hyperemic and white, narrow ulcers form. Pathogenic bacteria and fungi develop in the affected tissues.
The pathogenic effect of the parasite on the fish div is characterized by impaired tissue function, the
occurrence of an inflammatory process in the muscles, internal organs, especially the liver, and toxic
secretions in the glands of shrimp negatively affect the general condition of the fish div, leading to
changes in blood composition and a decrease in hemoglobin levels. Parasitization of 2 or 3 lernaes in
the div of young fish leads to their death. This, in turn, limits the economic opportunities of fisheries.
Taking into account the climatic and local conditions of our republic, the ecological situation in the
territories, conducting a general survey of fish protected reservoirs and the fish contained in them,
studying the cause of the disease, shows that one of the urgent tasks is the development and
implementation of measures for the treatment and prevention of fish lerneosis. [1,10,12].


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Episootology, Treatment and Prevention of Lerneosis of Fish

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Lerneosis is one of the ectoparasites of freshwater fish of the family lernaeidae lernaea elegans, Lernaea
cyprinacea - copepods. Crayfish parasitize the div of carp fish, their fry and other wild fish living in
the rivers and lakes of our natural basins, including (crucian carp, pike perch, bream) . Due to the
absorption of bloody exudate by tissues, the scales on the skin rise slightly, become deformed and
become dry. Sick fish do not receive food, move slowly, and accumulate on the surface of the water
[4,5,8].

To combat the disease and treat fish affected by lerneosis, they are kept in laboratory conditions in baths
in a solution of potassium permanganate at a temperature of 15-20°C in a ratio of 1:50000 for 2-3 hours.
In addition, 65% calcium hypochloride gives an excellent effect when treating fish ponds in the form
of powder at the rate of 12 kg per hectare and methyline blue in the form of a solution at the rate of 200
grams per hectare.

To get rid of grass carp and carp from Lernaeans, Karbofos is used at a concentration of 0.1 mg/l twice
with an interval of two weeks. Adding slaked lime to the pond twice a month in an amount of 100 kg/ha
also has a good effect. At the same time, the pH of the water increases to 8.5-9.0, which leads to the
loss of the nauplial and copepod stages of free-swimming shrimp.

Organic dyes - mainly violet color "K" in a concentration of 0.1-0.2 g/m3 - kill shrimp at the free stage.
The drug "Antipar" is mainly used for aquarium fish. In foreign countries, preparations of emikon and
doramectin (in an amount of 0.25 g/m3 once a week for 5 weeks) also show good results; crustacean
preparations are also widely used. In addition, on farms, 100 kg of salt is left in a bag next to each
“feeder” [5,10].

In healthy fish farms, the following measures are taken to prevent disease: regular annual disinfection
work in the winter by draining silt deposits in ponds; installation of “filter nets” at the entrance to the
fish pond and organization of water collection ponds; preventing the introduction of contaminated fish
into the farm and establishing control over the transportation of fish; fish brought into the pond are kept
in a 5% solution of table salt for 2-3 minutes, followed by throwing the fish into the pond; storing
juvenile and adult fish in separate ponds is one of the important measures [1,4,6].

4. Conclusion

It With fish lerneosis, hemorrhages, the formation of deep wounds, raised scales, and molting are
observed on the fish’s div, leading primarily to loss of marketable character, growth lag behind
development, decreased immunity in Fish, and becoming susceptible to various infectious diseases.

In the prevention of fish lerneosis, measures for the correct organization of fish ponds, complete
anesthesia of the pond and its disinfection by drying in the winter period, in the spring-summer period,
treating the pond with slaked lime twice a month, filling the pond with slaked lime twice a month, are
highly effective in preventing the disease. bag in the amount of 400 kg per hectare.

References:

1.

«Рыбоводство» Учебник. Каплич В.М., Герасимчик В.A., Зявгинцев В.Б., Минск 2016 год. Стр. 290-

292.

2.

“Болезни рыб и пчёл” Учебное пособие. Герасимчик В.А., Садовникова Е.Ф., Минск ИВС Минфина

2017 год. Стр. 92-96

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Journal Contribution. Статья. «Лернеоз объектов аквакультуры в рыбоводных хозяйствах Южного

региона Российской Федерации» (Всероссийский научно-исследовательский институт рыбного
хозяйства и океанографии (ФГБНУ «ВНИРО»), Азово-Черноморский филиал ФГБНУ
«ВНИРО» («АзНИИРХ»), Ростов-на-Дону Южный федеральный университет, Ростов-на-Дону)
Хорошельцева В.Н., Стрижакова Т.В., Бортников Е.С., Мосесян Г.В., Бугаев Л.А., Денисова
Т.В., 2022 год. Стр. 41-43.

4.

“Baliq kasalliklari”, O‘quv qo‘llanma. Daminov A.S., Nasimov Sh.N., Gerasimchik V.A., Eshbo‘riyev S.B.,

Qurbonov F.I., Toshkent-2020 йил. 23-27 бет.

5.

“Инвазионный болезни рыб”, Учебно-методическое пособие, Новак А.И., Новак М.Д., Рязань-2012

год. Стр. 51-56.

6.

Hemaprasanth K. P., Sridhar N., Raghuanth M. R.

Lernaea cyprinacea

infection in a new host Puntius

pulchellus in intensive culture system and its control by doramectin // Journal of Parasitic Diseases.
2017. Vol. 41, no. 1. Pp. 120–127.

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Ихтиопатология. Учебник, Головина Н.А., Стрелков Ю.А., Воронин В.Н., Головин П.П., Евдокимова

Е.Б., Юхименко Л.Н.. М.: Мир, 2003 год. Стр.353-364.

8.

“Болезни рыб и основы рыбоводства”, учебник, Грищенко Л.И., Акбаев М.Ш., Васильков Г.В., Москва

. Колос 1999 год. Стр. 404-407.

9.

“Рыбоводства”, учебник, Каплич В.М., Звгиянцев В.Б., Герасимчик В.А. Минск, “ИВЦ Минфина” 2016

г. Стр. 290-292.


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Safarova F.E,. Azimov D.A., Akramova F.D., Shakarboyev E.B., Qahramonov B.A. “Baliqlar kasalliklari”

Toshkent 2020 yil. 18-25 bet.

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Джмиль В.И. Материалы v научно-практической конференции международной ассоциации

паразитоценологов «Паразитарные системы и паразитоценозы животных» Витебск ВГАВМ
2016 24-27 мая. «Мониторинг инвазионных болезней карпов в отдельных прудовых хозяйствах
Украины» (Белоцерковский национальный аграрный университет, г. Белая Церковь, Украина)
стр. 43-45.

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Panjvini F., Abarghuei S., Khara H., Parashkoh H.M. Parasitic infection alters haematology and immunity

parameters of common carp,

Cyprinus carpio

, Linnaeus, 1758 // Journal of parasitic diseases. 2016.

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Библиографические ссылки

«Рыбоводство» Учебник. Каплич В.М., Герасимчик В.A., Зявгинцев В.Б., Минск 2016 год. Стр. 290-292.

“Болезни рыб и пчёл” Учебное пособие. Герасимчик В.А., Садовникова Е.Ф., Минск ИВС Минфина 2017 год. Стр. 92-96

Journal Contribution. Статья. «Лернеоз объектов аквакультуры в рыбоводных хозяйствах Южного региона Российской Федерации» (Всероссийский научно-исследовательский институт рыбного хозяйства и океанографии (ФГБНУ «ВНИРО»), Азово-Черноморский филиал ФГБНУ «ВНИРО» («АзНИИРХ»), Ростов-на-Дону Южный федеральный университет, Ростов-на-Дону) Хорошельцева В.Н., Стрижакова Т.В., Бортников Е.С., Мосесян Г.В., Бугаев Л.А., Денисова Т.В., 2022 год. Стр. 41-43.

“Baliq kasalliklari”, O‘quv qo‘llanma. Daminov A.S., Nasimov Sh.N., Gerasimchik V.A., Eshbo‘riyev S.B., Qurbonov F.I., Toshkent-2020 йил. 23-27 бет.

“Инвазионный болезни рыб”, Учебно-методическое пособие, Новак А.И., Новак М.Д., Рязань-2012 год. Стр. 51-56.

Hemaprasanth K. P., Sridhar N., Raghuanth M. R. Lernaea cyprinacea infection in a new host Puntius pulchellus in intensive culture system and its control by doramectin // Journal of Parasitic Diseases. 2017. Vol. 41, no. 1. Pp. 120–127.

Ихтиопатология. Учебник, Головина Н.А., Стрелков Ю.А., Воронин В.Н., Головин П.П., Евдокимова Е.Б., Юхименко Л.Н.. М.: Мир, 2003 год. Стр.353-364.

“Болезни рыб и основы рыбоводства”, учебник, Грищенко Л.И., Акбаев М.Ш., Васильков Г.В., Москва . Колос 1999 год. Стр. 404-407.

“Рыбоводства”, учебник, Каплич В.М., Звгиянцев В.Б., Герасимчик В.А. Минск, “ИВЦ Минфина” 2016 г. Стр. 290-292.

Safarova F.E,. Azimov D.A., Akramova F.D., Shakarboyev E.B., Qahramonov B.A. “Baliqlar kasalliklari” Toshkent 2020 yil. 18-25 bet.

Джмиль В.И. Материалы v научно-практической конференции международной ассоциации паразитоценологов «Паразитарные системы и паразитоценозы животных» Витебск ВГАВМ 2016 24-27 мая. «Мониторинг инвазионных болезней карпов в отдельных прудовых хозяйствах Украины» (Белоцерковский национальный аграрный университет, г. Белая Церковь, Украина) стр. 43-45.

Panjvini F., Abarghuei S., Khara H., Parashkoh H.M. Parasitic infection alters haematology and immunity parameters of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus, 1758 // Journal of parasitic diseases. 2016. Vol. 40, no. 4. Pp. 1540–1543.

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