Mathematics anxiety is a prevalent phenomenon among students, impeding their performance and affecting their attitudes towards mathematics. This study focuses on the development of a Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS) and utilizes factor analysis to identify subcategories within mathematics anxiety.
A sample of X participants, including students from diverse educational levels, was recruited for data collection. The initial pool of items was generated through an extensive literature review and expert consultation. The pilot version of the MAS was administered, consisting of X items rated on a Likert-type scale.
Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed on the collected data to identify the underlying dimensions of mathematics anxiety. Several factor extraction methods, such as principal component analysis and maximum likelihood estimation, were employed to determine the most appropriate factor structure. The scree plot, eigenvalues, and factor loadings were considered in the decision-making process
The results of the factor analysis yielded X distinct subcategories of mathematics anxiety, each representing a specific aspect of anxiety experienced by individuals in mathematical contexts. These subcategories include fear of mathematics tasks, anxiety related to examinations, self-doubt about mathematical abilities, and social evaluation apprehension. The final version of the MAS consisted of X items, with good internal consistency and adequate convergent validity.
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