Formation and development of phraseology in english and karakalpak linguistics

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Узакбергенова, Д., & Кеулимжаева, Г. (2023). Formation and development of phraseology in english and karakalpak linguistics . Ренессанс в парадигме новаций образования и технологий в XXI веке, 1(1), 261–263. https://doi.org/10.47689/XXIA-TTIPR-vol1-iss1-pp261-263
Д Узакбергенова, Каракалпакский государственный университет имени Бердаха

Студент 1 курса

Г Кеулимжаева, Каракалпакский государственный университет им. Бердаха

Научный руководитель, Преподаватель

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Аннотация

The article deals with the history of formation and development of phraseological units of English, Russian, Karakalpak languages, reveals the importance of phraseological units, the similarity and difference in the phraseology of English and Karakalpak languages.

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FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF PHRASEOLOGY IN ENGLISH

AND KARAKALPAK LINGUISTICS

Uzakbergenova D.

Nukus, Uzbekistan

The 1

st

year Student, Berdakh KSU

Keulimjaeva G.K.

Nukus, Uzbekistan

Scientific adviser, Teacher, Berdakh Karakalpak State University

Annotation:

The article deals with the history of formation and development of

phraseological units of English, Russian, Karakalpak languages, reveals the importance
of phraseological units, the similarity and difference in the phraseology of English and
Karakalpak languages.

Key words:

stable expressions, phraseological units, similarity, phraseology, idioms,

English expressions of slang speech.


Phraseology is an organic part of linguistics, arousing constant interest throughout

its centuries-old development. Its study began at the end of the 18th century. In special
collections and explanatory dictionaries, different aspects of it have been expressed under
various names, such as catchphrases, aphorisms, idioms, proverbs and sayings. The ideas
of the Swiss linguist of French origin, S. Bally, who is the founder of the theory of
phraseology, had a significant influence on the development of phraseology. S. Bally first
formulated the characteristics of stable combinations of words and the basis for their
classification in his books “Essay on Stylistics” and “French Stylistics”. And he actually
introduced the term “phraseology,” which meant “a branch of stylistics that studies
related phrases”.

A significant contribution to the study of phraseology was made by Academician

V.V. Vinogradov, who first introduced the term “phraseological unit”, since earlier
scientists called phraseological units the terms “stable phrase” or “phraseme”. It should
be noted that the question of phraseology as a linguistic discipline was first raised by the
outstanding Russian linguist E.D. Polivanov.

For the first time, the concept of PU was formulated by the linguist S. Balli, a

representative of the French school of linguistics. He called the PU “combinations that
have firmly entered to the language” [4]. English and American researchers such as L.P.
Smith, A. Mackay, J. Seidlou, and W. McMordi use the term “idiom” in their writings on
the study of PU. By an idiom they mean an expression whose value is not inferred from
the value of its individual elements [1].

The attempts of scientists to reveal the essence of the concept of “phraseology”

deserve special attention. The most valuable, in our opinion, is the definition of
phraseological units given by F.I. Buslaev, who regarded phraseological units as
“peculiar microcosms that contain both the moral law and common sense, expressed in a
short saying, which were bequeathed by ancestors for guidance to their descendants.” Of
no less interest is the definition of phraseological units given by academician N.M.
Shansky. “Phraseological unit, phraseological unit,” he writes, is a general name for


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semantically non-free combinations of words that are not produced in speech, but are
reproduced in it in a socially assigned stable relationship between semantic content and a
certain lexical and grammatical composition.” The significance of phraseological units
was noted by E.D. Polivanov, who expressed the idea that “phraseology will take a
separate and stable position in the linguistic literature of the future.”

Meanwhile, in world linguistics there is still little work on revealing the structural,

semantic, and grammatical features of phraseological units. An attempt to consider the
features of phraseology was made only by individual scientists, evidence of which is the
work of Uriel Veinreich “Languages in Contact: Findings and Problems” (1964)
(Language contacts. State and problems of research), Adam Makkai (Adam Makkai)
“Idiom Structure in English” (1972) (Structure of idioms in the English language), Logan
Pearsall Smith (Logan P. Smith) “English Idioms” (1959) (Phraseology of the English
language).

As a separate branch of knowledge, phraseology was formed by Russian linguists

in the 40s of the XX century and is inextricably linked with the name of V.V.
Vinogradov, as well as other scientists: V.N. Telia, A.N. Bulyko, N.M. Shansky and I.V.
Arnold.

It is gratifying to note that the problem of phraseological units was the subject of

research by domestic scientists, who in their research relied on the work of Russian
philologists, such as F.N. Buslaev, E.D. Polivanov, V.V. Vinogradov, N.M. Shansky and
many others. Thus, in Karakalpak linguistics, the beginning of the study of
phraseological units was laid by N.A. Baskakov. A significant contribution to the
development of phraseological units of the Karakalpak literary language was made by the
domestic scientist E. Berdimuratov, who was the first of his compatriots to study the
phraseological units of the Karakalpak language in his work “Ha’zirgi zaman qaraqalpaq
tilinin’ leksikologiyasi.” - (Lexicology of modern Karakalpak language). It is important
to note that such famous scientists as E. Berdimuratov, S.T. Nauryzbaeva, G. Ainazarova,
Zh. Eshbaev, T. Zhumamuratov and many others had a significant influence on the study
of the problem of phraseological units of the Karakalpak language. The above-mentioned
scientists, in the process of substantiating the phraseological units of the Karakalpak
language, are mainly scientists, such as E. Berdimuratov “Ha’zirgi zaman qaraqalpaq
tilinin’ leksikologiyasi” (Lexicology of the modern Karakalpak language), S.T.
Nauryzbaeva “Types of nominal phraseological units of the Karakalpak language and
their reflections in Karakalpak-Russian dictionaries», M. Kalendarov «Qaraqalpaq
tilindegi idiomliq ha’m frazeologizmlik sinonimler» (Phraseological synonyms in the
Karakalpak language) explored various aspects related to phraseology.

In the last decade, English and Karakalpak linguistics have been replenished with

works related to the problems of comparison and distinction of phraseological units in
different languages. So, for example, “the manager’s confidant” in Karakalpak - “on’
qol” and in English - “right-hand man”. Each national language has a number of
synonymous possibilities for expressing one or another meaning and stylistic function.
For example, the Karakalpak language its corresponding equivalent is “bastan ayaq”, and
in English – “from toe to crown”, in the Karakalpak language it’s a person is no longer
alive is “ko’z jumiw”, and in English – “Kick the bucket”. Sometimes phraseological
units that have the same meaning and function in one language are one-part, and in


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another - two-part. For example, the one-part phraseological unit “fall through the
ground” functionally coincides with the two-part Karakalpak expression “jer jarilip, jerge
kirip ketiw” and the English one-part expression “go down the drain.” A representative of
an aristocratic society for the Karakalpaks is “aq suyek” (white bone), and for the British
it is “high blood”.

For example, the English dictionary of the English writer William

Shakespearemade a great contribution to enrichment. The phraseologisms he created are
second only to the Bible is in place. Now let’s look at some of them:

Cakes and ale - (s.s.) cake and beer; o’mirden zawiqlaniw, uwayimsiz quwanish.
A fool’s paradise - qiyaldag’i baxit, qiyaliy dunya.
Give the devil his due - dushpang’a ta’n beriw, besh ketiw
Lay it on with a trowel - bo’rtirip maqtaw
Not to care a fig - hammege birdey boliw
I am fed up with it! - janina tiyiw! Toyip ketiw
In addition to Shakespeare, many other English writers have a phraseology

dictionary enriched. They are: Geoffrey Chaucer, Edmond Spencer, Thomas Browne,
Walter Scott and etc.

However, it is interesting that in translation from language to language there is

often a change in imagery. This is such an interesting phenomenon for English,
Karakalpak languages. So, for example, the English expression “It’s raining cats and
dogs” has an analogue in Karakalpak – “Jawin sheleklep quyip atir”. Also, the English
phraseological unit “far far away” and in Karakalpak – “iyttin’ murni batpaw”.
Moreover, the English expression “button one’s lip” and n Karakalpak – “Awzin
ashpaw”.

REFERENCES:

1. Ainaz Arova G. Lexical-semantic and stylistic developments of two-component
phraseological units in the Karakalpak language. - Nukus: Izd-vo «Karakalpakstan»
2015. – P. 6-7.
2. Amosova N.N. Basics of English phraseology. - L: Izd-vo Leningrad. ten, 1963.
3. Baskakov N.A. The question of linguistics. - Moscow: Izd. 5, 1956 - No. 6. – P. 79-91.
4. Belinsky V.G. Complete collection of essays. - Moscow: 1948. – P. 260.
5. Berdimuratov E. «Lexicology of modern Karakalpak language». – Nukus:
«Karakalpakstan». 1968.
6. Buslaev F.I. Russian proverbs and sayings, collected and explained. – M.: Russian
language, 1954. – P. 37.
7. Yeshbaev J. Short phraseological dictionary of the Karakalpak language. – Nukus:
«Karakalpakstan». 1985. – C.79,89,143,152.
8. Kunin A.V. Course of phraseology of the English language: Textbook. – M., 1996. –
P. 9.
9. Telia V.N. Russian Phraseology: Semantic, Pragmatic and Linguistic Aspects. – M.,
1966. – P. 8-9.
10. Shansky N.M. Phraseology of the modern Russian language. – M., 1985.
11. Yusupova B.T. Phraseology of the Karakalpak language. – T.: «Tafakkur Kanoti»
2014.

Библиографические ссылки

Ainaz Arova G. Lexical-semantic and stylistic developments of two-component phraseological units in the Karakalpak language. Nukus: Izd-vo «Karakalpakstan» 2015.-P. 6-7.

Amosova N.N. Basics of English phraseology. - L: Izd-vo Leningrad, ten, 1963.

Baskakov N.A. The question of linguistics. - Moscow: Izd. 5, 1956 - No. 6. - P. 79-91.

Belinsky V.G. Complete collection of essays. - Moscow: 1948. - P. 260.

Berdimuratov E. «Lexicology of modern Karakalpak language». - Nukus: «Karakalpakstan». 1968.

Buslaev F.I. Russian proverbs and sayings, collected and explained. - M.: Russian language, 1954. - P. 37.

Yeshbacv J. Short phraseological dictionary of the Karakalpak language. - Nukus: «Karakalpakstan». 1985.-C.79,89,143,152.

Kunin A.V. Course of phraseology of the English language: Textbook. - M., 1996. -P. 9.

Telia V.N. Russian Phraseology: Semantic, Pragmatic and Linguistic Aspects. - M., 1966.-P. 8-9.

Shansky N.M. Phraseology of the modern Russian language. - M., 1985.

Yusupova B.T. Phraseology of the Karakalpak language. - T.: «Tafakkur Kanoti» 2014.

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