Science fiction

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Кушатова, Н., & Меликов, Ф. (2022). Science fiction. Анализ актуальных проблем, инноваций, традиций, решений и художественной литературы в преподавании иностранных языков, 1(01), 130–132. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/analysis-problem/article/view/12872
Наргиза Кушатова, Самаркандский государственный институт иностранных языков

ссистент преподавателя

Фаррух Меликов, ТППИ

Заведующая кафедрой иностранных языков

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Аннотация

This article is devoted to investigation of the aspects of science fiction. The investigation is done on science fiction sources and analogy of unrealistic portraying

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SCIENCE FICTION

Kushatova Nargiza Rustamovna

SamDChTI, assistant teacher

Melikov Farrukh

Head of the chair Foreign languages TPPI Tadjikistan

Annotation:

This article

is devoted to investigation of

the aspects of science fiction. The

investigation is done

on

science

fiction sources and analogy of unrealistic

portraying.

Key

words:

science fiction, portraying, realistic case, political agitation,

th

e evolution of

science fiction, fantastic revolution,

ro

und the mind,

psychology.

Science fiction consists of stories in books, magazines, and films about events that take place in the

future or in other parts of the universe. Fiction based on imagined future scientific or technological advances
and major social or environmental changes, frequently portraying space or time travel and life on other
planets.

Antecedents of science fiction can be found in the remote past. Among the earliest examples is the

2nd-century-CE Syrian-born Greek satirist Lucian, who in

Trips to the Moon

describes sailing to the Moon.

Such flights of fancy, or fantastic tales, provided a popular format in which to satirize government, society,
and religion while evading libel suits, censorship, and persecution. The clearest forerunner of the genre,
however, was the 17th-century swashbuckler Cyrano de Bergerac, who wrote of a voyager to the Moon
finding a utopian society of men free from war, disease, and hunger. (

See below

Utopias and dystopias.) The

voyager eats fruit from the biblical tree of knowledge and joins lunar society as a philosopher—that is, until
he is expelled from the Moon for blasphemy. Following a short return to Earth, he travels to the Sun, where
a society of birds puts him on trial for humanity’s crimes.

In creating his diversion, Cyrano took it as his mission to make impossible things seem plausible.

Although this and his other SF-like writings were published only posthumously and in various censored
versions, Cyrano had a great influence on later satirists and social critics. Two works in particular—Jonathan


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131

Swift’s

Gulliver’s Travels

(1726) and Voltaire’s Micromégas (1752)—show Cyrano’s mark with their

weird monsters, gross inversions of normalcy, and similar harsh satire.

Science in science fiction is the study or analysis of how science is portrayed in works of science

fiction, including novels, stories, and films. It covers a large range of topics, since science takes on many
roles in science fiction. Hard science fiction is based on engineering or the "hard" sciences (for example,
physics, astronomy, or chemistry), whereas soft science fiction is based on the "soft" sciences, and
especially the social sciences (anthropology, sociology, psychology, political science, and so on).

Likewise, the accuracy of the science portrayed spans a wide range - sometimes it is an extrapolation

of existing technology, sometimes it is a realistic or plausible portrayal of a technology that does not exist,
but which is plausible from a scientific perspective; and sometimes it is simply a plot device that looks
scientific, but has no basis in science. Examples are:

Realistic case: In 1944, the science fiction story

Deadline

by Cleve Cartmill depicted the atomic

bomb. This technology was real, unknown to the author.

Extrapolation: Arthur C. Clarke wrote about space elevators, basically a long cable extending from

the Earth's surface to geosynchronous orbit. While we cannot build one today, it violates no physical
principles.

Plot device: The classic example of an unsupported plot device is faster-than-light drive, often called

a "warp drive". It is unsupported by physics as we know it, but needed for galaxy-wide plots with human
lifespans.

Criticism and commentary on how science is portrayed in science fiction is done by academics from

science, literature, film studies, and other disciplines; by literary critics and film critics; and by science
fiction writers and scientific fiction fans and bloggers.

Science fiction, abbreviation SF or sci-fi, a form of fiction that deals principally with the impact of

actual or imagined science upon society or individuals. The term

science fiction

was popularized, if not

invented, in the 1920s by one of the genre’s principal advocates, the American publisher Hugo Gernsback.
The Hugo Awards, given annually since 1953 by the World Science Fiction Society, are named after him.
These achievement awards are given to the top SF writers, editors, illustrators, films, and fanzines.

Science fiction is a modern genre. Though writers in antiquity sometimes dealt with themes

common to modern science fiction, their stories made no attempt at scientific and technological
plausibility, the feature that distinguishes science fiction from earlier speculative writings and other
contemporary speculative genres such as fantasy and horror. The genre formally emerged in the West,
where the social transformations wrought by the Industrial Revolution first led writers and intellectuals to
extrapolate the future impact of technology. By the beginning of the 20th century, an array of standard
science fiction “sets” had developed around certain themes, among them space travel, robots, alien beings,
and time travel (

see below

Major science fiction themes). The customary “theatrics” of science fiction

include prophetic warnings, utopian aspirations, elaborate scenarios for entirely imaginary worlds, titanic
disasters, strange voyages, and political agitation of many extremist flavours, presented in the form of
sermons, meditations, satires, allegories, and parodies—exhibiting every conceivable attitude toward the
process of techno-social change, from cynical despair to cosmic bliss.

Science fiction writers often seek out new scientific and technical developments in order to

prognosticate freely the techno-social changes that will shock the readers’ sense of cultural propriety and

expand their consciousness. This approach was central to the work of H.G. Wells, a founder of the genre and

likely its greatest writer. Wells was an ardent student of the 19th-century British scientist T.H. Huxley,

whose vociferous championing of Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution earned him the epithet “Darwin’s

Bulldog. ” Wells’s literary career gives ample evidence of science fiction’s latent radicalism, its affinity for

aggressive satire and utopian political agendas, as well as its dire predictions of technological destruction.

By the 21st century, science fiction had become much more than a literary genre. Its avid followers

and practitioners constituted a thriving worldwide subculture. Fans relished the seemingly endless variety
of SF-related products and pastimes, including books, movies, television shows, computer games,
magazines, paintings, comics, and, increasingly, collectible figurines, Web sites, DVDs, and toy weaponry.
They frequently held well-attended, well-organized conventions, at which costumes were worn, handicrafts
sold, and folk songs sung.

References:

1.

^ Marg Gilks; Paula Fleming & Moira Allen (2003). "Science Fiction: The Literature of Ideas".

WritingWorld.com. Archived from the original on 15 May 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2006.

2.

^ von Thorn, Alexander (August 2002). "Aurora Award acceptance speech". Calgary, Alberta. ^


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132

Luckhurst, Professor in Modern and Contemporary Literature Roger; Luckhurst, Roger (6 May 2005).
Science Fiction. Polity. ISBN 978-0-7456-2893-6

3.

^ Mark A. Mandel, Conomastics: The Naming of Science Fiction Conventions ( 7–9 Jan. 2010),
https://www.ldc.upenn.edu/sites/www.ldc.upenn.edu/files/ads2010-conomastics.pdf Archived 13 April
2018 at the Wayback Machine

4.

^ Jump up to:a b Wertham, Fredric (1973). The World of Fanzines. Carbondale & Evanston: Southern
Illinois University Press.

5.

^ Jump up to:a b Westfahl, Gary (2005). "Aliens in Space". In Gary Westfahl (ed.). The Greenwood
Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy: Themes, Works, and Wonders. Vol. 1. Westport, Conn.:
Greenwood Press. pp. 14–16. ISBN 978-0-313-32951-7.

6.

^ Parker, Helen N. (1977). Biological Themes in Modern Science Fiction. UMI Research Press.

7.

^ Card, Orson Scott (1990). How to Write Science Fiction and Fantasy. Writer's Digest Books. p. 17.
ISBN 978-0-89879-416-8.

8.

^ Peter Fitting (2010), "Utopia, dystopia, and science fiction", in Gregory Claeys (ed.), The Cambridge
Companion to Utopian Literature, Cambridge University Press, pp. 138–139

9.

^ Hartwell, David G. (1996). Age of Wonders: Exploring the World of Science Fiction. Tor Books. pp.
109–131. ISBN 978-0-312-86235-0.

10.

KUSHBAKOVA, M., Zarina, R. U. Z. I. M. U. R. O. D. O. V. A., & Shahram, A. S. L. O. N. O. V.
(2020). Innovative Methods and Ways to Teach and Learn Foreign Language. ECLSS Online 2020a,
146.

11.

Yangiboyevna, N. S., & Ravshanovna, M. U. (2022). BIOLOGIK FAOL QO'SHIMCHALARNING
TIBBIYOTDAGI AHAMIYATI. BARQARORLIK VA YETAKCHI TADQIQOTLAR ONLAYN
ILMIY JURNALI, 542-545.

12.

Rajabboevna, A. R., Yangiboyevna, N. S., Farmanovna, I. E., & Baxodirovna, S. D. (2022). THE
IMPORTANCE OF COMPLEX TREATMENT IN HAIR LOSS. Web of Scientist: International
Scientific Research Journal, 3(5), 1814-1818.

THE DEPICTION OF ORIENTALISM CULTURE IN THE WORKS OF WASHINGTON IRVING

Rasulova Sokhiba Ulugbekovna, Independent researcher,

Teacher of the Department English language and Literature,

Samarkand State Institute of Foreign Languages

Samarkand, Uzbekistan

Abstract:

The subject of this article is the identification of the romantic originality of W. Irving’s

short stories from the book «The Alhambra» In connection with this, the following characteristic features of
the aesthetics of romanticism are clarified: the problem of the romantic hero, his opposition to society, the
break of the ideal with reality, the role of folklore, the reception of contrast, etc. In the context of revealing
the peculiarity of romanticism W. Irving, the creative evolution of the writer and the artistic structure of his
short stories, reminiscent of a fairy tale. The problems and the subject-composition structure of Irving’s
works, based on the motive of adventure, are considered in detail; the uniqueness of the artistic chronotope
with elements of magic, the combination of myth and reality in the depiction of heroes; the plot-forming role
of the reception of contrast, the specificity of cultural, historical and spiritual realities borrowed by the writer
from Arabic and Spanish legends and fairy tales; the importance of fiction and irony as a means of
understanding the contemporary writer of reality. All this gives grounds to draw a conclusion about the
romantic context of the works of the writer – the founder of American romanticism.

Key words:

fiction and irony, romantic, orientalism, characteristic feature, work, poem, translations,

scholarly collecation, American romanticism.

In the history of culture, the era of the turn of the century (1790-1860) was named as an era of

romanticism, which is based on a sharp protest against bourgeois reality. American romanticism was
recognized to reflect the new laws of social life, the emerging norms of new social institutions [1,42]. A
characteristic feature of the aesthetics of romanticism is the gap between ideals and reality, romantics seek
their ideal in the field of dreams, oppose the unattractive bourgeois world to a fictional world, their dream.
Romanticism in literature and art is a way of realizing romance as one of the properties of a person’s
thinking. The essence of romance is a dream, an ideal idea of the relationship between the inner reality of the

Библиографические ссылки

A Marg Gilks; Paula Fleming & Moira Allen (2003). "Science Fiction: The Literature of Ideas". WritingWorld.com. Archived from the original on 15 May 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2006.

A von Thom, Alexander (August 2002). "Aurora Award acceptance speech". Calgary, Alberta.Luckhurst, Professor in Modern and Contemporary Literature Roger; Luckhurst, Roger (6 May 2005). Science Fiction. Polity. ISBN 978-0-7456-2893-6

A Mark A. Mandel, Conomastics: The Naming of Science Fiction Conventions ( 7-9 Jan. 2010), https://www.ldc.upenn.edu/sites/www.ldc.upenn.edu/files/ads2010-conomastics.pdf Archived 13 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine

л Jump up to:a b Wertham, Fredric (1973). The World of Fanzines. Carbondale & Evanston: Southern Illinois University Press.

л Jump up to:a b Westfahl, Gary (2005). "Aliens in Space". In Gary Westfahl (ed.). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy: Themes, Works, and Wonders. Vol. 1. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, pp. 14-16. ISBN 978-0-313-32951-7.

л Parker, Helen N. (1977). Biological Themes in Modem Science Fiction. UMI Research Press.

л Card, Orson Scott (1990). How to Write Science Fiction and Fantasy. Writer’s Digest Books, p. 17. ISBN 978-0-89879-416-8.

л Peter Fitting (2010), "Utopia, dystopia, and science fiction", in Gregory Claeys (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Utopian Literature, Cambridge University Press, pp. 138-139

л Hartwell, David G. (1996). Age of Wonders: Exploring the World of Science Fiction. Tor Books, pp. 109-131. ISBN 978-0-312-86235-0.

KUSHBAKOVA, M., Zarina, R. U. Z. I. M. U. R. O. D. О. V. A., & Shahram, A. S. L. O. N. О. V. (2020). Innovative Methods and Ways to Teach and Learn Foreign Language. ECLSS Online 2020a, 146.

Yangiboyevna, N. S., & Ravshanovna, M. U. (2022). B1OLOGIK FAOL QO'SHIMCHALARNING TIBBIYOTDAGI AHAMIYATI. BARQARORLIK VA YETAKCHI TADQIQOTLAR ONLAYN ILMIY JURNALI, 542-545.

Rajabboevna, A. R., Yangiboyevna, N. S., Farmanovna, I. E., & Baxodirovna, S. D. (2022). THE IMPORTANCE OF COMPLEX TREATMENT IN HAIR LOSS. Web of Scientist: International Scientific Research Journal, 3(5), 1814-1818.

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