Комплексный анализ уровня доходов населения

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Урунбаева , Ю., & Рахимбердиев, Т. (2024). Комплексный анализ уровня доходов населения. in Library, 4(4), 8–14. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/35093
Юлдуз Урунбаева , Самаркандский институт экономики и сервиса

Самаркандский институт экономики и сервиса, доцент кафедры экономической теории, доктор философских наук по экономике

Толибжон Рахимбердиев, Самаркандский институт экономики и сервиса
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Аннотация

Благодаря этой статье вы сможете получить подробную информацию об уровне жизни населения Узбекистана и Самарканда с 2010 по 2020 год. Это также позволит вам узнать о социально-экономических изменениях среди них.


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Journal of Economy, Tourism and Service

Vol. 2, No. 11, 2023 ISSN:

2181-435X

8

COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF

POPULATION INCOME LEVELS

Abstract:

Through this article, you can obtain detailed information about the living
standards of the population of Uzbekistan and Samarkand from 2010 to
2020. This will also allow you to learn about the social and economic
changes among them.

Keywords:

Revived, Construction, Needs, Economics, Material Classification,
Classification, Market Economy, Development, Public, Factor, Analysis,
Stage, Agricultural Cooperation, Supply, Economic Network, Material
Production.

Information about

the authors

Yulduz Pirnazarova Urumbaeva

An associate professor

Tolibjon Raximberdiyev

Samarqand Institute of Economics and Service student

Access.

The improvement and development of the socially oriented market economy, with a primary

focus on increasing the standard of living of the population, represent a significant direction and the
main goal of socio-economic reforms.

The current stage of human society's development is closely related to the field of services, providing a
high standard of living and quality of life under favorable conditions. In today's world, the field of
services has secured such a strong position in the economic and social development of society that it
includes efficient utilization of labor resources, ensuring the welfare of the population, increasing its
income, enhancing economic growth, forming an information society, accumulating human capital,
ensuring sustainable development, preparing future generations for life, and considering other
important aspects of the country.

In the current phase of social development, society's well-being is closely related to an individual's
daily economic activity, living in comfortable conditions, leading a meaningful life, being industrious,
knowledgeable, possessing high morality, and spirituality through the provision of services.

In particular, assessing the overall quality of the provision of services, the distribution of these services
to the population, and determining the standard of living of the country's population, it is possible to
identify the country's ethnicity, its economic development level (developed, developing, stable), and
the stage of progress (industrial, post-industrial)

To bring clarity to this issue, it is important to recognize the expansion of the part of the overall
internal product that is intended for the purpose of solving this problem. The following 1-table
contains information that shows an increase in the part of the overall internal product that directly
corresponds to the population from 2018 to 2020.


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Table 1. Total Internal Product Created in the Republic of Uzbekistan and Samarkand Region

in 2018-2020 and Its Distribution among the Population

Indicators

Republic of Uzbekistan

Samarkand Region

Years

2018

2019

2020

2018

2019

2020

1

Continuous population

number (in thousands)

32 656,7

33 255,5 33 905,2

3 720,1

3 798,9

3 877,4

2

Compared to the

Previous Year (%)

101,7

101,8

102,0

101,9

102,1

102,1

3

Total Internal Product

(billion Uzbek soum)

406 648,5

510

117,2

580

203,2

31 233,5 37 305,9 42 378,1

4

Compared to the

Previous Year (%)

134,4

125,4

113,7

122,1

119,4

113,6

5

Per Capita Total

Internal Product (in

thousand soum

12 452,2

15 339,3 17 112,5

8 395,8

9 820,1

10 929,5

6

Compared to the

Previous Year (%)

133,3

123,2

111,6

121,0

117,0

111,3

1

One of the most important trends in the Republic and region is the sustained growth rate of the total
internal product during 2018-2020. Compared to the previous year, the population growth rate is
significantly higher. Compared to the previous year, the population in 2018 increased by 1.7 percent in
the Republic and by 1.9 percent in the region. The increase in per capita total internal product is an
indicator of improving the real income of the population, which, in turn, increases the standard of
living and its quality. The growth in total internal product per capita, coupled with the increasing needs
of all strata of the population, contributes to the development of service sectors.

One of the important factors ensuring the prosperity of the standard of living is population welfare.
"Welfare" is the product of an economy based on market relations, in its unaltered part, and it is
always the focus of state leaders, economists, and public opinion. Failure to address this serious issue
is not only misleading in terms of the social economy, people's material well-being, and high living
standards but also politically incorrect.

1-

In Uzbekistan, where the market economy is being shaped with precision to ensure the prosperity of

the broad strata of the population and to meet the serious issues of population welfare, the issue of
population density is taken very seriously. Ensuring population density is considered an important
direction of the social and economic policy implemented in the country.

President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Sh. M. Mirziyoyev, has expressed the following opinion
regarding ensuring population density: 'Providing employment for the population is not only an
economic necessity for us but also of great social importance. It is essential for government bodies,
ministries, agencies, and employers to work actively in this area. It is also necessary for banks to
contribute more to this cause. In addressing the task of ensuring population density, we must also make
use of significant opportunities in developing tourism.

2-

In fulfilling these important tasks, the role of service provision plays a key role. We believe in

playing a leading role in identifying and effectively utilizing the opportunities in addressing the

1

Based on the information from the State Statistics Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Statistics Office of

the Samarkand Region for the years 2019-2021, this work has been authored.


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Journal of Economy, Tourism and Service

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challenges of the service sector. We have conducted an in-depth analysis in collaboration with the
Samarkand region regarding the key performance indicators of the Republic of Uzbekistan."

The analysis of the state of the population in the Samarkand region in the field of regional economy
during 2018-2020 provided the following results. Research shows that the population has been
consistently growing year by year during 2018-2020, which is indicative of a trend. In particular, the
urban population has increased rapidly. As a result, the population in this category constituted
approximately 40.6% in 2018, while it was only 37.6% in 2010. These significant changes in the
Samarkand region's economy can be summarized as follows: The region has experienced substantial
growth in the labor force engaged in economic activities. If in 2010, the economically active
population of the region amounted to 1,324.6 thousand people, by 2018, this figure had increased to
1,575.7 thousand people, representing an increase of approximately 18.9% (or 251.1 thousand people).
During the years 2010-2018, there have been significant changes in the population distribution by
sectors in the region. Generally, there has been a shift towards creating new job opportunities,
particularly in the sectors of production (industry, agriculture, construction) compared to service
provision. The sector with the highest workforce participation in the region is the service sector. In
2010, 654.4 thousand people were employed in this sector, while by 2018, this number had increased
to 770.8 thousand people. Indeed, these positive changes in the composition of the population can be
seen as a significant and positive development. This is because these shifts align with the broader
macroeconomic policy aimed at enhancing the role of the service sector in the social and economic
development of the country. The growth in the service sector and the corresponding increase in the
labor force participating in it are essential for the overall economic and social progress of the nation.

Assessing the opportunities and prospects for increasing the population's composition in terms of
sectors and regions in Qashqadaryo Province is of significant importance. This is achieved through a
comparison with national indicators and plays a crucial role in addressing social issues (Table 2).

Table 2. Population Growth Rates in Uzbekistan Republic and Samarkand Region in the

Economic Sectors from 2017 to 2020

Indicators

Republic of Uzbekistan

Samarkand Region

YEARS

2017

2020

2017 to

2020

(percent;

+:-)

2017

2020

2017 to

2020

(percent;

+:-)

1

Continuous population

number (thousands)

32120,5

33905,2

5,6

3651,7

3877,4

6,1

2

Labor resources

(thousands)"

18666,3

19142,33

2,6

2079,6

2130,4

2,4

3

In relation to the constant

population (in percentage)

58,1

56,5

-2,8

56,9

54,9

-3,5

4

Economic Activity

Population (thousands of

people).

14357,3

14797,9

3,1

1629,8

1585,4

-2,7

5

As a percentage of labor

resources.

76,92

77,30

+ 0,5

78,4

74,4

-5,0

6

Population in the Economy

(thousands of people)."

13520,3

13239,6

-2,1

1523,1

1410,9

-7,3

7

Workers in industry

(thousands)

1826,8

1789,7

-2,0

204,1

191,5

-6,2


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11

8

In the economy, as a

percentage of the working-

age population.

13,5

13,5

0

12,9

13,6

5,4

9

In rural areas (thousands).

3671,3

3560,0

-3,0

406,8

392,2

-3,6

10

As a percentage of the

working-age population in

the economy.

27,2

26,9

- 0,9

26,0

27,8

6,8

11

In the construction sector

(thousands of people).

1290,0

1267,8

-1,7

151,8

138,3

-8,9

12

As a percentage of the

economically active

population.

9,5

9,6

+ 0,3

9,7

9,8

+1

13

In the service sector

(thousands of people).

6732,2

6622,0

-1,6

760,4

688,9

-9,4

14

As a percentage of the

labor force in the economy.

49,8

50,0

+ 0,4

47,5

48,8

+ 2,9

2

In conclusion, the analysis reveals that in Samarkand region, the size of the labor force in the service
sector compared to the total labor force in the economy was 47.5% in 2017, slightly below the national
level of 49.8%. In 2020, the ratio ranged from 48.8% to 50.0%, indicating a relatively stable
difference. As mentioned earlier, the strengthening of the material and technical base in the
manufacturing sectors and the increase in labor productivity have led to a decrease in the number of
the labor force in these sectors, including the service sector. These findings suggest that the service
sector is rapidly developing and creating new job opportunities.

Uzbekistan's progress in the innovative direction has led to widespread utilization of knowledge and
technology resources across all sectors of the national economy. Providing education services to the
population contributes to the growth of the knowledge level of the population and, in turn, the
formation of an innovative economy in the country, ensuring the well-being of all levels of the
population. Therefore, delivering education services to the population can address the challenges of
expanding their knowledge and provide a direct solution to the issues they are awaiting.

Expertise in the services sector is highly specialized, meaning that individuals with advanced
knowledge are in demand in this field. Many service occupations require specific knowledge. This
includes teachers for educating the younger generation, doctors for healthcare, cultural workers in the
field of arts, and others. In the services sector, the presence of highly educated and moderately
educated workers is relatively high (Table 3).

2

Based on the information from the State Statistics Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Statistics Department

of Samarkand Region, a publication for the years 2017-2020 has been compiled.


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Table 3. Composition of the labor force in the sectors of the economy by education level in the

Republic of Uzbekistan and Samarkand region in 2010-2020 (in percentage)

Ratings

Years

2010

2020

Total

Low-

income

High

Intermed

iate

Intermedi

ate and

unskilled

intermedia

te

High

Interme

diate

Intermedi

ate and

unskilled

intermedia

te

Republic of Uzbekistan

1.

In the overall

economy

100

31,5

37,5

31,0

35,3

43,7

22,8

2.

In the industry

100

16,9

44,7

38,4

17,1

43,8

39,1

3.

In agriculture

100

16,8

46,2

37,0

17,1

47,3

35,6

4.

Construction

100

17,1

35,4

47,5

18,5

36,0

45,5

5.

Service provision

100

33,6

39,3

27,1

35,9

41,9

22,2

Samarkand region

1.

In the overall

economy

100

30,9

38,2

30,9

36,7

42,4

20,9

2.

In the industry

100

17,1

43,3

39,6

17,4

44,1

38,5

3.

In agriculture

100

15,9

48,2

35,9

16,3

46,4

37,3

4.

Construction

100

18,1

36,1

45,8

19,2

37,1

43,7

5.

Service provision

100

34,2

32,1

33,7

37,3

36,1

26,6

3

Reaching these strategic goals is crucial in the context of enhancing the quality of labor and aligning it
with modern perspectives on the labor market. This is because, in the present era, the primary subject
of the labor market is not just physical labor, but rather intellectual (intelligence - mind, knowledge,
creativity; the capacity for intellectual thinking, human cognitive abilities) and innovative (innovation
- logical and creative thinking, the highest level of human intellectual activity) workers who, through
scientific and technical progress, perform the function of generating economic benefits in the
economy[3].

According to experts, to ensure sustainable socio-economic development, a country's population of
working age, aged 40.0-60.0 percent, with 2.0-5.0 percent of them being knowledgeable, is required.
This necessitates a shift in educational services towards a new quality stage. This can be observed
through the experience of developed states. For example, in European Union countries, for every 1000
workers, there are 5.36 scholars. The corresponding figures are high in the USA (8.66) and Japan
(9.72). In these countries, innovative educational services are also highly developed[4].

In Uzbekistan, the literacy rate of the population is one of the highest in the world, with 99.3 percent.
The country has 60 higher education institutions, 11 branches of foreign universities, and 7 branches of
international higher education institutions, collectively providing education to over 260,000 students.
These institutions offer more than 850 programs in various fields and specialties[5].

In terms of the philosophy of human life and living, one's profession, skills, and talents are the means
through which they fulfill their basic needs. The fulfillment of an individual's material and spiritual
needs, the realization of their desires and aspirations, and the elevation of their personal benefits to the

3

Based on the data of the State Statistics Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Statistics Department of

Samarqand Region for the years 2011-2021, the author's work is being prepared.


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level of national benefits contribute to their expertise. This, in turn, defines the direction of the
development of sectors, especially in vocational education institutions and higher education
institutions, by assessing the population's capacity, especially in the context of labor market demand,
and identifying the areas that need further development in the future[6].

Another influential factor affecting the standard of living is financial security. In this regard, we have
studied investments in economic sectors focused on basic capital. In the Republic, in 2017, 36.5
percent of investments in basic capital were allocated to manufacturing, while 63.5 percent were
directed towards the development of the service sector. Investments in basic capital for manufacturing
increased significantly from 2017 to 2020, with a growth of 8.1 percentage points[7].

Our analysis of the service sector yielded the following results: In 2017, the most significant
investments were directed towards construction and storage services. From 2017 to 2020, there was a
noticeable increase in investments in construction services. However, investments in transportation
and storage services significantly decreased. Notably, foreign investments played a more substantial
role in the industrial sector (22.4% in 2017 and 58.5% in 2020). In 2017, 74.2% of foreign investments
were directed towards service sectors, with the highest portion going to construction and storage
services (46.0%), followed by information and communication services (22.3%). In 2020, investments
in construction and storage services received 13.1% of foreign investments, while information and
communication services received 7.2%.

In order to solve this issue, it is crucial to identify in which areas investments in education are feasible.
Currently, the return on investment in education is expected in the next 10-15 years due to the
introduction of new innovative tools in the field of education. However, attracting investments for
educational purposes is challenging. As a result, it may take a considerable amount of time (5-10
years) for the previously invested tools in education to yield results.

Based on the above perspectives and observations, the ongoing strengthening of the banking and
financial sector in our country is contributing to the growth of financial security, the comprehensive
support of the real economic sector, and the sustainable economic development. Furthermore, the
subjects in the service sector are utilizing financial resources directly to ensure the uninterrupted
continuation of their activities, which is essential for their sustainable operation.

Among the factors that influence the standard of living of the population, the general economic
indicators block, which includes income, consumption, and expenditures, plays a significant role. The
population's own incomes (money and total incomes) are closely linked to consumption prices and
have a direct positive correlation with the standard of living. The population's incomes are shaped
under certain conditions. In other words, the overall internal product that the population can directly
consume matches the growth of the population's real income. Today, nearly half (49.5%) of the
domestically produced overall internal product is directly applicable to the service sector. The increase
in the population's incomes positively affects the volume of service consumption. By increasing the
demand for services, it contributes to the growth of the service sector, and thereby, the population's
earnings in the service sector. The advancement of technology and technology in the field of
manufacturing, as a result of which labor resources are released (in the economic sectors of Samarkand
region in 2020, there were a total of 1,485.1 thousand people in employment, including 714.3 thousand
people in manufacturing and 770.8 thousand people in the service sector), provides opportunities for
the development of the service sector.

One of the reasons for the rapid development in the service sector is considered to be the increase in
people's free time and the improvement of working conditions (reduction in the length of the working
day, reduction in the duration of meal breaks, and an increase in the number of holidays). With the
increase in people's free time, their demand for services also grows.


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The conditions outlined above manifest themselves in the form of employees' earnings in the service
sector, allowing them to receive their compensation and providing them with specific characteristics.

They determine the daily consumption possibilities of the population, and the consumption of goods
and services by the population is one of the most important integral components of the level of living.
The various social strata of the population are closely related to the final analysis of the distribution of
income, as well as the use of statistical information on wealth and consumption since the peculiar
distribution of incomes of families leads to the development of social strata. The current stage of
economic development of society is directly linked to raising the standard of living, whether it is in
industry, agriculture, or the service sector, ultimately serving to increase the standard of living directly
or indirectly.

The degree of population settlement, the specificity of the social (state) system, the strength of legal
institutions, respect for human rights, and the interrelationships with various sectors of government, as
well as its interactions with other regions (enterprises), are related to it.

List of Used Literature or References.

1.

Mukhamedov M.M., Urunbaeva Y.P., and others. Theoretical Foundations of Service Provision
and Tourism Development: Samarkand, 2017. - This book likely explores the theoretical aspects of
providing services and the development of tourism, with a specific focus on Samarkand. It
comprises 127 pages. U.Kh. Khudaiberdiev. Occupational Qualification: Samarkand, 2021. - 150. -
This reference points to a book related to the occupational qualifications of U.Kh. Khudaiberdiev,
based in Samarkand in 2021, and it spans 150 pages.

2.

The scientific and methodological brochure on the State Program for studying and implementing
the Strategy for Action on the five priority areas of development of the Republic of Uzbekistan for
2017-2021 in the 'Year of Dialogue with the People and Human Interests'." - This is an academic
and methodological brochure that provides insights into Uzbekistan's state policy from 2017 to
2021, with a focus on the "Year of Dialogue with the People and Human Interests." It was
published in Tashkent in 2017 and consists of 166 pages.

3.

Nusratullin V.K. "Неравновесная экономика" (Unbalanced Economy) - This is the second edition
of a book on economics by Nusratullin, published in Moscow in 2016, spanning 261 pages.

4.

Gamington W.J. "How Big is the Braun Dian? INF. Working Paper 98/02, Washington, 2015" -
Unfortunately, this reference doesn't seem to correspond to a specific book or article, as "Braun
Dian" is not a recognized term and the year 2015 alone doesn't provide enough context.

5.

Zhаmolidinova O., Аminov F. "Замонавий билим ва юксак интеллектуал салоҳиятга эга ѐшлар
– буюк келажагимиз кафолати" - This publication, in the "Ma'rifat" journal in 2016, discusses the
importance of contemporary knowledge and the high intellectual capabilities of young people as a
guarantee of our bright future.

6.

To streamline the state policy aimed at furthering the development of the Republic of Uzbekistan
regarding youth aged 4.5 years and above, a complex of measures has been organized, focusing on
the upbringing of highly educated and intellectually advanced generations, as well as the
enhancement of their values and civility. This initiative encompasses campaigns under the slogans
of 'We Are Devoted to Our Homeland' and 'Our Greatest Treasure and Strength, Our Youth' (in
2017).

7.

The annual statistical data for 2018-2021 indicates 245 billion.

Библиографические ссылки

Mukhamedov M.M., Urunbaeva Y.P., and others. Theoretical Foundations of Service Provision and Tourism Development: Samarkand, 2017. - This book likely explores the theoretical aspects of providing services and the development of tourism, with a specific focus on Samarkand. It comprises 127 pages. U.Kh. Khudaiberdiev. Occupational Qualification: Samarkand, 2021. - 150. - This reference points to a book related to the occupational qualifications of U.Kh. Khudaiberdiev, based in Samarkand in 2021, and it spans 150 pages.

The scientific and methodological brochure on the State Program for studying and implementing the Strategy for Action on the five priority areas of development of the Republic of Uzbekistan for 2017-2021 in the 'Year of Dialogue with the People and Human Interests'." - This is an academic and methodological brochure that provides insights into Uzbekistan's state policy from 2017 to 2021, with a focus on the "Year of Dialogue with the People and Human Interests." It was published in Tashkent in 2017 and consists of 166 pages.

Nusratullin V.K. "Неравновесная экономика" (Unbalanced Economy) - This is the second edition of a book on economics by Nusratullin, published in Moscow in 2016, spanning 261 pages.

Gamington W.J. "How Big is the Braun Dian? INF. Working Paper 98/02, Washington, 2015" - Unfortunately, this reference doesn't seem to correspond to a specific book or article, as "Braun Dian" is not a recognized term and the year 2015 alone doesn't provide enough context.

Zhаmolidinova O., Аminov F. "Замонавий билим ва юксак интеллектуал салоҳиятга эга ѐшлар – буюк келажагимиз кафолати" - This publication, in the "Ma'rifat" journal in 2016, discusses the importance of contemporary knowledge and the high intellectual capabilities of young people as a guarantee of our bright future.

To streamline the state policy aimed at furthering the development of the Republic of Uzbekistan regarding youth aged 4.5 years and above, a complex of measures has been organized, focusing on the upbringing of highly educated and intellectually advanced generations, as well as the enhancement of their values and civility. This initiative encompasses campaigns under the slogans of 'We Are Devoted to Our Homeland' and 'Our Greatest Treasure and Strength, Our Youth' (in 2017).

The annual statistical data for 2018-2021 indicates 245 billion.

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