Общие лексические проблемы перевода

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Расулова, З., Мирзакулов, У., & Расулова, Ш. (2023). Общие лексические проблемы перевода. in Library, 21(2), 68–71. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/24257
Зулфия Расулова, Денауский институт предпринимательства и педагогики

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Уктамжон Мирзакулов, Денауский институт предпринимательства и педагогики

преподаватель

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Аннотация

Language is the main way of communication between people, and it is great if they speak the same language, but what if communication becomes impossible when the interlocutors speak different languages? Translation skills come to our aid here. The importance of translation and its special place in people's lives is becoming increasingly clear. Thanks to translation, people who speak different languages can communicate in multi-ethnic countries, translation provides cross-language and cross-cultural communication, and various teachings and religions are spread through translation. During the translation process, the specialist must pay attention to many factors that affect the adequacy and correctness of the translation.

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IJEFSD

General Lexical Problems of Translation

Rasulova Zulfiya Kholmurotovna

lecturer at the Denau Institute of Entrepreneurship and Pedagogy

shakhnoza.rasulova.02@mail.ru

Mirzakulov Uktamzhon Almardanovich

lecturer at the Denau Institute of Entrepreneurship and Pedagogy

Rasulova Shakhnoza Iskandarovna

student of Termez State University

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Language is the main way of communication between people, and it is

great if they speak the same language, but what if communication becomes
impossible when the interlocutors speak different languages? Translation
skills come to our aid here. The importance of translation and its special
place in people's lives is becoming increasingly clear. Thanks to translation,
people who speak different languages can communicate in multi-ethnic
countries,

translation

provides

cross-language

and

cross-cultural

communication, and various teachings and religions are spread through
translation. During the translation process, the specialist must pay attention
to many factors that affect the adequacy and correctness of the translation.

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2021 Hosting by Research Parks. All rights reserved.



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Article history:

Received 28 March 2021

Received in revised form 20

April

2021

Accepted 30 April 2021


Key words:

education, training,

vocabulary, foreign language.

INTRODUCTION

Every day in the modern world, the need for communication between people of different
nationalities is growing more and more, and the realization of this need is a difficult task.


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It should be noted that in connection with the rapid development of the media, new technologies, the
educational and moral level of the population is increasing, the need for mutual understanding and
cooperation between countries and peoples of different cultures and nationalities is increasing, as well
as the search for means and ways of solving the pressing problems facing in front of society. All this
serves as a huge stimulus for the formation and development of translation activity, allows one to
realize the significant role of translation in the scientific, political and cultural life of the whole world
and each country separately.
Scientists still cannot give an unambiguous answer to the question: "What is translation?" But they
come to the conclusion that translating a text from one language into another is a complex and
ambiguous process. So, Ya. I. Retsker argued that: “The task of the translator is to convey with the help
of another language the integral and accurate content of the original, while retaining its stylistic and
expressive features” [5; of. 7].
The modern school of translation distinguishes three types of translation: literal, literal and literary, or
literary translation. It is the last of them that is the subject of our research.
Literary translation, or rather the translation of poetic and artistic works, differs sharply from other
types of translation, it presupposes the translator's speech creativity.
It should be noted that the artistic style is the most mobile and creatively developing of the styles, so its
detailed study is a difficult task.
In addition, the range of problems considered in the text is limitless, which is "aggravated" by the use of
a large number of artistic means and the writer's desire to stand out from the background of other
writers.
In this case, the translator will have to preserve the content of the work and convey the style, aesthetics
of the author, his genre features and many other nuances.
Many scholars - linguists in their scientific research touch upon the issues of translation, comparing
different languages. Today there are two points of view:
1 "Theory of untranslatable", the essence of which is that no translation can be complete, but only
become a distant semblance of the original. This theory was studied in detail by A.A. Potebnya.
2 Any developed language can fully convey all the concepts and thoughts expressed in the original.
This theory is considered correct and supported by many outstanding scientists, including: E. Sapir, B.
Wharf, L. S. Barkhudarov, Wilhelm von Humboldt and V. N. Komissarov.
In the process of work, the translator encounters many, not only linguistic, problems that can hinder the
formation of fully equivalent texts. Therefore, we can observe the distinction not only between the
original text and its translation, but also between translations of the same text made by different
specialists.
Sometimes a translator has to resort to transformational translation when transmitting linguistic-specific
vocabulary, namely, to use a restructuring of the syntactic structure of a sentence, lexical substitutions
with a complete change in the meaning of the original word, or both at the same time, i.e. what is called
lexical-grammatical transformations.
The main methods of transformation include: substitutions, permutations, omissions and additions.
They distort formal similarity, but provide a higher level of equivalence. Let's consider each of them in


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more detail:
1 Permutation is a change in the arrangement (order) of language elements in the translation text in
comparison with the original text. Elements that can be rearranged are usually words, phrases, parts of a
complex sentence and independent sentences in the structure of the text. The most common case in the
translation process is a change in the order of words and phrases in the structure of a sentence [1; from.
170].
2 Substitutions are the most common and diverse type of translation transformation. In the process of
translation, both grammatical units - word forms, parts of speech, sentence members, types of syntactic
connection, etc. - and lexical ones can be subject to replacement, in connection with which we can talk
about grammatical and lexical replacements. In addition, not only individual units, but also entire
structures can be replaced [1; from. 187].
3 Appendices - many elements of meaning that remain unexpressed in the original, implied, must be
expressed in translation using additional lexical units, they can also represent explanations [1; from.
201].
4 Omission is the opposite of addition. When translating, most often words that are semantically
redundant are subjected to omission, that is, expressing meanings that can be extracted from the text
without their help. As the system of any language as a whole, as well as specific speech products have,
as you know, a very large degree of redundancy, which makes it possible to make certain omissions in
the translation process [1; from. 226].
However, the main goal of translation is to achieve adequacy - the ratio of the source and destination
texts, which takes into account the purpose of translation. Translation equivalence is result-oriented and
is a special case of adequacy. The above arguments once again emphasize the main task of the
translator - to skillfully translate various translation transformations, observing all the norms of the
translating language in order for the translation text to convey as accurately as possible the information
that the writer has put into a particular context.
In order to study and be able to disassemble all the canons of translation as a specific activity formed in
the course of the historical evolution of mankind, to discover new ways of improvement, it is necessary
to study all existing types of translation.
Also explore all types of translation activities, in all its diversity of interaction with different types of
human activities. Only in this way will we be able to understand the essence of translation activities.
Output. Thus, we found out that the translation of a text is a complex process, and we also considered
different points of view regarding the possibility of accurately or approximately conveying the
original intention of a foreign language writer. We concluded that the translator is faced with lexical
problems, he has to rebuild the syntax of the sentence, the basic methods of transformation. We also
came to the conclusion that the main goal of the translator is to achieve the adequacy of the
translation, even if through the use of equivalents.

References:

1.

Barkhudarov L.S.Language and Translation (Questions of General and Particular Theory of
Translation). M., "Intern. relations ", 1975. - 240 p.


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2.

Garbovsky N.K. Translation theory. Textbook. - M .: Publishing house of Moscow. University,
2004 .-- 544 p.

3.

Kazakova T.A. Practical bases of translation - St. Petersburg: Union 2005. - 319 p.

4.

Kazakova T.A. Literary translation. Tutorial. St. Petersburg Institute of Foreign Economic
Relations, Economics and Law, 2002. - 113 p.

5.

Retsker Ya. I. Translation theory and translation practice. - M., 1974 .-- 216 p.

6.

Fedorov A.V. Foundations of the general theory of translation (linguistic problems). -
Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola, 1983 .-- 303

Библиографические ссылки

Barkhudarov L.S.Language and Translation (Questions of General and Particular Theory of Translation). M., "Intern. relations ", 1975. - 240 p.

Garbovsky N.K. Translation theory. Textbook. - M .: Publishing house of Moscow. University, 2004 .-- 544 p.

Kazakova T.A. Practical bases of translation - St. Petersburg: Union 2005. - 319 p.

Kazakova T.A. Literary translation. Tutorial. St. Petersburg Institute of Foreign Economic Relations, Economics and Law, 2002. - 113 p.

Retsker Ya. I. Translation theory and translation practice. - M., 1974 .-- 216 p.

Fedorov A.V. Foundations of the general theory of translation (linguistic problems). - Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola, 1983 .-- 303

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