The interaction of rootstocks, water and soil humectants and young apple tree growth

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Ботиров, А., & Аракава, О. (2023). The interaction of rootstocks, water and soil humectants and young apple tree growth . in Library, 22(2), 43–56. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/23451
Алишер Ботиров, Самаркандский филиал Ташкентского государственного аграрного университета

Faculty of Agrobiology, Samarkand Branch of Tashkent State Agrarian University, Akdarya, Samarkand 141001, Uzbekistan. The United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Iwate University, Morioka,
Iwate 020-8550, Japan

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Аннотация

Молодые яблони, посаженные в районах с ограниченными водными ресурсами, сталкиваются с проблемами на ранних стадиях роста. Недостаточное потребление влаги часто замедляет рост молодого дерева и влияет на его последующий рост. В этом исследовании мы наблюдали взаимодействие полусильных Марубакайдо (Ма) (Malus prunifolia «Ринго») и карликовые подвои Jm7 («Марубакайдо» × M.9), водные обработки (50% и 70% содержание влаги в почве) и обработки почвы (водоудерживающие вещества) на молодых яблонях «Мияби Фудзи» и как это взаимодействие влияет на их рост в засушливых климатических условиях. Анализировали развитие побегов, стеблей и корней. Результаты показали, что взаимодействие подвоя, обработки водой и почвой оказало значительное влияние на общую длину побегов (p < 0,01), равно как и взаимодействие подвоя и обработки почвы на длину трех верхних побегов (p < 0,05) и сырая масса ствола (р < 0,05). Кроме того, установлено, что взаимодействие водных и почвенных обработок влияет на сырую массу побегов (р < 0,05). Это исследование показало, что росту молодых яблонь в районах с ограниченными водными ресурсами можно способствовать, обеспечивая насыщение воды на 70% и 50% и обработки почвы, удерживающие молодые деревья, которые были привиты на полусильные подвои Ma и карликовые подвои Jm7. . Производители в этих регионах должны подумать о том, какой подвой использовать, какие средства для удержания влаги в почве можно внести в почву, а также о количестве воды, которое следует вносить.

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Academic Research in Educational Sciences

Volume 3 | Special Issue 1 | 2022

ISSN: 2181-1385

Cite-Factor: 0,89 | SIS: 1,12

DOI: 10.24412/2181-1385-2022-01-43-56

SJIF: 5,7 | UIF: 6,1

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THE INTERACTION OF ROOTSTOCKS, WATER AND SOIL

HUMECTANTS AND YOUNG APPLE TREE GROWTH

Alisher Botirov

Faculty of Agrobiology, Samarkand Branch of Tashkent State Agrarian University,

Akdarya, Samarkand 141001, Uzbekistan

The United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Iwate University, Morioka,

Iwate 020-8550, Japan

Osamu Arakawa

Faculty of Agriculture and Life Science, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-

8560, Japan

ABSTRACT

Young apple trees that are planted in areas with limited water resources face

challenges in their early growth stages. Insufficient intake of moisture often stunts the
growth of the young tree and impacts its subsequent growth. In this study, we
observed the interaction of semi-vigorous Marubakaido (Ma) (

Malus prunifolia

„Ringo‟) and dwarfing Jm7 („Marubakaido‟ × M.9) rootstocks, water treatments
(50% and 70% soil water content) and soil treatments (water retention substances) on
young „Miyabi Fuji‟ apple trees and how this interaction impacts their growth under
dry climactic conditions. The development of shoots, stems and roots was analyzed.
The results showed that the interaction of rootstock and water and soil treatments had
a significant impact on total shoot length (p < 0.01), as did the interaction of
rootstock and soil treatment on the length of the top three shoots (p< 0.05) and trunk
fresh weight (p < 0.05). In addition, it was found that the interaction of water and soil
treatments impacted shoot fresh weight (p < 0.05).

This study revealed that the growth of young apple trees in areas with limited

water resources can be aided by providing a 70% and 50% saturation of water and
soil retention treatments for young trees that have been grafted onto semi-vigorous
Ma and dwarfing Jm7 rootstocks. Growers in these areas should think about which
rootstock to use, what soil water retention treatments that can be introduced into the
soil as well the amount of water that should be applied.

Keywords:

„Miyabi Fuji‟,

rootstock, shoot growth, water

treatment, water retention.


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INTRODUCTION

In arid and semi-arid regions of the world, access to a stable supply of water is

necessary for the successful propagation of apple trees, particularly for young trees
shortly after planting. This is because obtaining a sufficient number of shoots on the
young tree in the first growing season greatly influences future fruit-bearing capacity.
Research (Tromp, 1996 and Bobomirzayev et al., 2022) found that soil temperature
affects shoot growth, especially when it rises to where it enables sylleptic shoot
growth. It has also been noted that notching techniques increase branching at the top
of young apple trees (Greene and Autio, 1994). Arakawa et al (2014) showed that
planting season and root mass have an impact on the length of the top two shoots on
one-year-old „Fujis‟ that where grafted onto „Marubakaido‟ (Ma) rootstocks.

Another factor that promotes shoot growth and other physical changes in

young trees is the uptake of nutrients from moisture in the soil. The hot and dry
conditions during the growing season in some parts of the world, where water
resources are scarce, can hinder the growth of young apple trees. To alleviate these
problems, the introduction of efficient irrigation practices and water retention
substances that could help maintain sufficient water moisture levels in the soil should
be adopted.

It has been established that sufficiently high temperatures along with adequate

irrigation contribute to the improved growth of young apple trees after they are
planted. Ro (2001) found that when water was applied to young apple trees in soil
with a water content level of 50%, they showed better average shoot length than those
in soil with a water content level of 80%. Zhou et al. (2019) noted that if the soil
moisture content was adjusted to 65-75% and an N-P

2

O

5

-K

2

O fertilizer mixture

controlled at 20-20-10 g

tree

-1

was added, this combination proved to be the most

effective for young apple trees planted in semiarid areas. In another study,
Hydretain® ES Plus (Hydretain, Inc.), a water retention substance which is a blend of
organic hygroscopic and humectants component (sugar alcohols, polysaccharides and
neutral salts of alpha-hydroxy propionic acid), was shown to effectively hydrate the
soil. On the other hand a further study reported that Hydretain ES Plus and other
humectants had no observable effect on soil water retention in drought-tolerant
Coleus „Wasabi‟ during the plant growth stages (Greenwell et al., 2017).

Rootstocks play an important role in sustaining stable tree growth and

controlling tree shape in the early fruit-bearing process of young
apple trees. Soejima et al. (1998) reported on the benefits of
Marubakaido (

Malus prunifolia

Borkh. v

ar. Ringo

Asami), a


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semi-vigorous rootstock for apple trees that is widely used in Japan. Soejima et al.
(2010) also studied the dwarfing rootstock Jm7 („Marubakaido‟ × M.9), a rootstock
included in the JM series of rootstocks. They found that growth intensity is similar to
M.9 and that it is easy to graft by hardwood cutting.

The studies cited above focused on particular elements that promote young

apple tree growth. However, the interaction between rootstock, irrigation, and soil
treatments (water retention substances) has not yet been tested. The purpose of the
present study is to examine the interaction between rootstock (Ma and Jm7) and
water and soil treatments and the impact of this interaction on young apple tree
growth and the implications it has for farm management practices in areas with
limited water resources. The results led to the conclusion that the upper part of young
apple trees show more growth when grafted onto Ma than on Jm7 and that the root
system is significantly affected by water content levels and soil treatments.


MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1. Plant materials and soil treatments.

Young „Miyabi Fuji‟ (Botirov A., and Arakawa O., 2021) (a bud sport of „Fuji‟

having good fruit coloration) apple trees were grafted onto semi-vigorous
„Marubakaido‟ (

Malus prunifolia

„Ringo‟) rootstock and also onto dwarfing Jm7

(„Marubakaido‟ × M.9) rootstocks and planted on April 24, 2020. The young apple
trees were placed in 11 L black plastic nursery pots that contained a mixture of one-
part potting soil used for trees and two parts volcanic black soil.

Before planting, all apple saplings were scaled to the same size by cutting

them to a length of 70 cm; roots were cut back to 10 cm. Two soil humectants (water

retention substances) were used. One was a mixture of Glutan (amino acid “

-PGA”

produced→manufactured by

Bacillus

natto) and Kalpak 66 “ROYAL INDUSTRIES”

Co, Ltd (Made in Japan). The other was Hydretain ES Plus 11 mL. Irrigation was
done by hand-watering.

Sixty young apple trees were used in the experiment. Half of them were

grafted onto Ma rootstocks, the other half onto Jm7. Half of the Ma rootstocks were
irrigated to a 70% water content level, the other half to a 50% water content level.
The same was done for trees grafted onto Jm7. Of the fifteen trees in each of these
lots, five were treated with Glutan (11 mL/p) x Kalpak 66 (11 mL/p

z

), five were

treated with Hydretain ES Plus (11 mL/p) and the remaining five
were left untreated as controls. (Table 1). All trees were
purchased from “HARADA NURSERY” Co, Ltd. The


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experiments were conducted on the campus of the Hirosaki University Faculty of
Agriculture and Life Science. The experiment design is shown below in Table 1.

2.2. Preparing the experiment site

A half-covered greenhouse (5 m wide and 10 m in length) was prepared for the

experiment, with a clear plastic film polyethylene cover installed at the top as a shield
against unexpected rain. The ground surface inside the greenhouse was layered with a
black weed prevention sheet. Concrete bricks were placed on top of these sheets and
four boards (1.21 m × 2.44 m) were placed on top of the bricks with a spacing of 0.50
cm between each board. The potted plants were then placed on the boards. Changes
in soil water content were measured with a Decagon (pF meter). Insecticide and
fungicide sprays were applied during the shoot growth period after planting at the
same intervals as they are in area orchards.

2.3. Preparation samples for measuring

On November 24, each tree was carefully dug up and any soil or other matter

was washed away with tap water. After that, the shoots, the main trunk (including the
rootstock above the roots) and the roots were separated and measured. Root volume
was measured in accordance with the Archimedes principle (10) by which a 5-liter
plastic cylinder was placed in a large plastic bowl and filled with water, after which
each root was carefully immersed in the cylinder. The overflow was poured into a
graduated cylinder to measure the root volume.

2.4. Statistical analysis

All of the young apple trees were headed to the same height at the beginning

of the experiment, cutting them at a point 70 cm above the graft union. During the
growing season, shoot growth was observed from the headed area to the point below
the four or more lateral shoots from the top. The same shoot growth was observed on
both Ma and Jm7. Before proceeding with a statistical analysis, all
shoots were designated as follows: The topmost shoot was called
the “top shoot,” the second, third and fourth shoots were named

Table 1.

Experiment materials and used solutions for soil treatment

Rootstocks

Water treatment

Soil treatment

Ma

70%

Control
Glutan (11 mL/p) x Kalpak 66 (11 mL/p

z

)

Hydretain ES Plus (11 mL/p)

Jm7

50%

z:

mL/p – soil treatments mixed with soil and 11 mL per pot


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the “top-three shoots” and the remaining shoots were designated as “below shoots;”
the combined lengths of all shoots are referred to as “total shoot length”. The results
of the observations of soil treatments were analyzed using a three-way ANOVA for
the interaction of rootstocks, water treatments, and soil treatments, plus a Tukey test
using the R studio version 1.3.1073 (© 2009-2020 RStudio, PBC) software.


RESULTS

3.1. Impact of rootstock, soil and water treatments on shoot growth

A three-way ANOVA revealed that trees grafted onto the two rootstocks

showed significant differences in the number of shoots (Table 2), total shoot length
and top first and top three shoot length. The number of shoots, total shoot length and
the length of the top first and top three shoots were significantly greater for those on
Ma than those on Jm7.

Water saturation levels also had a notable impact on the number of shoots and

total shoot length, but exerted no significant influence on the length of the top first
and top three shoots. The greatest number of shoots were observed on Ma in soil with
70% water content levels, decreasing significantly on Jm7 in soil with 50% water
content.

Soil treatments greatly influenced total shoot length, although they had no

significant impact on the number of shoots or the length of the top first and top three
shoots. The greatest total shoot length was observed on Jm7 in the trees that were
taken from the pots with 70% soil water levels and non-treated soil. Total shoot
length was significantly diminished on Jm7 trees that were taken from the pots
having water content levels of 70% and soils treated with Hydretain ES Plus. As for
total shoot length variation, the Hydretain ES Plus soil treatment had the greatest
impact on Ma that were grown in pots with 70% soil water levels, followed by Ma in
which Glutan and Kalpak 66 soil treatments were combined with 70% soil water
levels.

There were significant differences in rootstock and soil treatment interactions

on the lengths of the total and the top three shoots, although there were no significant
differences in the number of shoots or the top shoot length. A three-way interaction
(rootstock, water and soil treatment) was observed on total shoot length. Among the
different sections of the trees, the greatest impact of the treatments was observed on
the number of shoots on Ma in 70% water-saturated, untreated
soil, whereas the longest total shoot lengths were seen on Jm7 in
70% soil water level, untreated soil. The greatest top shoot lengths


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were observed on Ma in 50% soil water content, untreated soil, whereas the greatest
top three shoot lengths were observed on Ma 70% water-saturated, that had also been
treated with Glutan and Kalpak 66.

Table 2.

Effects of treatments on the number of shoots and total shoot, top

first shoot and top three shoot length (Means ± SE) for „Fuji‟ on Ma and Jm7.

Rootstoc
k

Water
treatmen
t

Soil treatment

Number
of
shoots

b

Total
shoot
length
(cm)

a

Top first
shoot
length
(cm)

Top
three
shoot
length
(cm)

a

Ma

70%

Control

13 ± 0.6b 497 ±

25.4ac

105.9 ±
5.9ac

206
±15.4a
b

Glutan +
Kalpak 66

9 ± 1.5ab

394.2 ±
23.8a

117.7 ±
3.0 c

225.6 ±
10.8b

Hydretain ES
Plus

7.8 ±
0.6ab

630.7 ±
33.6cd

102.7 ±
4.2ac

189.7 ±
9.4ab

50%

Control

7.2 ±
1.3ab

499.7 ±
17.5ac

124.7 ±
5.56c

189 ±
8.4ab

Glutan +
Kalpak 66

10.6 ±
2.7ab

397.7 ±
18.3a

113.6 ±
3.17bc

198.8 ±
7.1ab

Hydretain ES
Plus

7.8 ±
1.7ab

449.9 ±
10.0ab

118.4 ±
3.5bc

208 ±
17.8ab

Jm7

70%

Control

6.6 ±
0.5ab

715.8 ±
48.0d

93.3 ±
4.8ab

202.9 ±
16.9ab

Glutan +
Kalpak 66

6.2 ±
1.5ab

603.9 ±
44.4cd

111 ±
5.9ac

167.14
± 5.3a

Hydretain ES
Plus

6.2 ±
1.6ab

540.8 ±
29.0bc

94.1 ±
8.3ab

162.3 ±
8.0a

50%

Control

5.2 ±
1.4a

558.8 ±
28.2bc

102 ±
6.8ac

192.5 ±
11.1ab

Glutan +
Kalpak 66

5.6 ±
0.7a

541.3 ±
21.4bc

103.3 ±
7.5ac

153.3 ±
10.0a


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Hydretain ES
Plus

6.4 ±
0.9ab

464.2 ±
20.0ab

86.7 ±
3.5a

179.5 ±
15.0ab

Significanc

e

Rootstock (R)

***

***

***

***

Water treatment (W)

*

***

ns

ns

Soil treatment (S)

ns

***

ns

ns

R × W

ns

ns

ns

ns

R × S

ns

***

ns

*

W × S

ns

ns

ns

ns

R × W × S

ns

**

ns

ns

Different letters by column indicate statistically significant differences

according to a Tukey test and significant levels: (ns) no significance, (*) p < 0.05,
(**) p < 0.01, (***) p < 0.001 (n=5).

a

From top to below second, third and fourth shoots.

b

Only those shoots that were longer than 10 cm and shorter than 35 cm were

counted.

3.2. Effects of treatments on trunk and shoot diameter

A three-way ANOVA showed that top shoot and trunk diameters and shoot and

trunk weight were affected by the rootstock (Ma or Jm7) onto which they had been
grafted (Table 3). The weights of the top shoot, trunk diameter and then shoot and
trunk were significantly greater on Ma compared with Jm7.

Water treatment significantly affected trunk diameter as well as shoot and

trunk weight, although no impact was observed on top shoot diameter. Trunk
diameter was greater on Ma with 70% water content, but decreased significantly on
Ma with 50% water content and on Jm7 in 50% and 70% water-treated soil. Shoot
weight was significantly greater for trees grafted onto Ma in 50% and 70% water-
treated soil, whereas no significant differences were observed for Jm7 in 50% and
70% water-treated soil. There were significant differences on Ma in 50% and 70%
water when compared with Jm7 in 50% water-treated soil.

Soil treatments had a significant impact on top shoot diameter and trunk fresh

weight, although no significant difference was observed on trunk diameter and shoot
fresh weight. Rootstock and water treatment interaction affected
top shoot diameter, whereas the rootstock and soil treatments
impacted trunk fresh weight and water and soil treatments


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affected shoot fresh weight. There were no observable changes in tree diameters due
to the interaction between rootstock, water and soil treatments. Top shoot diameter
and shoot fresh weight was significantly altered on Ma in 70% water levels in
untreated soil. Trunk diameter and trunk fresh weight were significantly different on
Ma in 70% water-treated soil that was followed by a Hydretain ES Plus soil
treatment.

Table 3

. Effects of different treatments on top shoot diameter, trunk

diameter, shoot weight and trunk weight (Means ± SE) of young „Fuji‟ apples.

Rootsto
ck

Water
treatme
nt

Soil treatment

Top shoot
diameter
(mm)

Trunk
diameter
(mm)

a

Shoot
weight (g)

a

Trunk
weight (g)

Ma

70%

Control

11.6 ± 0.3
d

17.7 ± 0.6
de

132.6 ±
11.9c

140.8 ±
6.8bc

Glutan + Kalpak
66

10.6 ± 0.5
cd

16.1 ± 0.3
be

110.8 ±
5.2ac

117.0 ±
7.7ab

Hydretain ES
Plus

10.6 ± 0.3
cd

18.14 ± 0.8
de

122.0 ±
6.5bc

154.2 ± 6.0c

50%

Control

11.2 ± 0.3
d

18.2 ± 0.3 e

117.6 ±
3.7bc

141.4 ±
4.3bc

Glutan + Kalpak
66

11.0 ± 0.3
cd

16.8 ± 0.4
cde

109.0 ±
7.3ac

119.0 ±
5.2ab

Hydretain ES
Plus

11.2 ± 0.3
d

17.2 ± 0.3
de

117.3 ±
6.3bc

130.3 ±
3.7ac

Jm7

70%

Control

8.5 ± 0.6
ab

15.8 ± 0.6
bd

96.7 ± 7.5ac

136.0 ±
9.3ac

Glutan + Kalpak
66

9.1 ± 0.5
bc

14.7 ± 0.3
abc

92.7 ±
16.5ac

119.4 ±
8.7ab

Hydretain ES
Plus

8.1 ± 0.3
ab

14.8 ± 0.6
abc

96.2 ±
11.3ac

116.9 ±
10.7ab

50%

Control

8.2 ± 0.6
ab

14.3 ± 0.3
ab

86.7 ± 5.1ab

112.5 ±
3.8ab

Glutan + Kalpak
66

7.9 ± 0.2
ab

14.4 ± 0.6
ab

81.9 ± 6.9ab

113.5 ±
7.8ab

Hydretain ES
Plus

6.7 ± 0.4 a

13.4 ± 0.4 a

71.8 ± 6.7a

104.3 ± 6.3a

Significance

Rootstock (R)

***

***

***

***


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Water treatment (W)

ns

*

*

*

Soil treatment (S)

*

ns

ns

*

R × W

*

ns

ns

ns

R × S

ns

ns

ns

*

W × S

ns

ns

*

ns

R × W × S

ns

ns

ns

ns

Different letters by column indicate statistically significant differences according to a Tukey
test and significant levels: (ns) no significance, (*) p < 0.05, (**) p < 0.01, (***) p < 0.001
(n=5).

a

all shoots (top, top three, below and secondary shoots).

3.3. Effects of treatments on root gowth

A three-way ANOVA was utilized to determine the effects of rootstock, water

treatments and soil treatments on root fresh weight, root volume and root-to-shoot
ratio (Table 4). The two rootstocks had a significant impact on root weight, root
volume and root-to-shoot ratio when grafted onto Ma and Jm7. Root weight, root
volume and the root-to-shoot ratio increased significantly on Jm7 when compared
with Ma.

Water treatments exerted a significant influence on root weight and root

volume, but showed no significant difference for the root-to-shoot ratio. Root fresh
weight was higher on Jm7 with 70% water content and significantly higher on Ma
with 50% water content. Root volume in trees grafted onto Ma in soil with 70% water
content was significantly higher than Jm7 in both 50% and 70% water-treated soil.

Soil treatments showed a marked impact on root weight, but no significant

difference was observed on root volume and root-to-shoot ratio. Root weight was
significantly greater on Ma with 70% water content when the soil was treated with
Hydretain ES Plus. Root weight for Jm7 with 70% water content treated with
Hydretain ES Plus was substantially lower than the root weight in trees in untreated
soil.

The interaction of rootstock, water content treatments and soil treatments

showed no significant impact on root weight, root volume or root-to-shoot ratio.
Rootstock, water treatment and soil treatment interaction were observed for root
weight, root volume and the root-to-shoot ratio. Significant increases in root weight
growth and root volume were observed on Ma with 70% water treatment levels in
soil treated with Hydreatain ES Plus, as well as on Jm7 with 70% water levels in
untreated soil. Root-to-shoot ratio increases were higher on Jm7 in 70% water
content in untreated soil.


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Academic Research in Educational Sciences

Volume 3 | Special Issue 1 | 2022

ISSN: 2181-1385

Cite-Factor: 0,89 | SIS: 1,12

DOI: 10.24412/2181-1385-2022-01-43-56

SJIF: 5,7 | UIF: 6,1

52

April 27-28, 2022

https://t.me/ares_uz Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal

Table 4.

Effects of treatments on root weight, root volume and root to shoot ratio (Means ±

SE) for „Fuji‟ on Ma and Jm7.

Rootstoc
k

Water
treatmen
t

Soil treatment

Root weight
(g)

Root volume
(ml)

Root: shoot
ratio

Ma

70%

Control

115.2 ±
11.6ab

153.5 ± 17.3 ac

0.9 ± 0.1ab

Glutan + Kalpak
66

74.7 ± 9.6a

97.5 ± 11.5 a

0.7 ± 0.1a

Hydretain ES Plus

240.4 ±
19.3cd

253.5 ± 21.5 c

2 ± 0.1ac

50%

Control

121.9 ±
10.1ab

106.5 ± 17.3 a

1.0 ± 0.1ab

Glutan + Kalpak
66

74.0 ± 7.8a

69.1 ± 7.3 a

0.7 ± 0.1a

Hydretain ES Plus

104.0 ± 7.1ab 109.5 ± 12.5 a

0.9 ± 0.1ac

Jm7

70%

Control

266.5 ± 34.5d 237.5 ± 28.6 bc

2.8 ± 0.3c

Glutan + Kalpak
66

181.0 ±
18.9bd

158.1 ± 21.3 ac

2.1 ± 0.3bc

Hydretain ES Plus

147.9 ±
11.1abc

136.5 ± 22.0 ab

1.7 ± 0.4ac

50%

Control

165.4 ±
26.2abc

141.5 ± 25.8 ab

2 ± 0.1ac

Glutan + Kalpak
66

161.3 ±
33.9abc

134.5 ± 38.4 ab

2. 1± 0.6bc

Hydretain ES Plus

127.6 ±
10.2ab

112.5 ± 13.3 a

1.8 ± 0.2ac

Significance

Rootstock (R)

***

***

***

Water treatment (W)

***

**

ns

Soil treatment (S)

**

ns

ns

R × W

ns

ns

ns

R × S

***

***

**

W × S

ns

ns

ns

R × W × S

***

*

*

Different letter by column indicates statistically significant differences according to a Tukey
test and significant levels: (ns) no significance, (*) p < 0.05, (**) p < 0.01, (***) p < 0.001
(n=5).




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Academic Research in Educational Sciences

Volume 3 | Special Issue 1 | 2022

ISSN: 2181-1385

Cite-Factor: 0,89 | SIS: 1,12

DOI: 10.24412/2181-1385-2022-01-43-56

SJIF: 5,7 | UIF: 6,1

53

April 27-28, 2022

https://t.me/ares_uz Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal

DISCUSSION

In this study we investigated the impact of rootstock and water and soil

treatments on young „Miyabi Fuji‟ apple tree growth. Young apple trees are usually
planted as unbranched one-year whips. According to Hull (2018), nursery trees are
usually headed 70 to 90 cm above the grafted union before planting in order to obtain
a sufficient number of side branches when planted in the spring, to promote the
growth of new shoots. When this is done, three or four dominant new shoots emerge
at the top. It has been observed that when this occurs only very short shoots grow
under these top shoots (Kikuchi et al., 2003). This phenomenon has been understood
as a physical characteristic of trees having a top predominance. In this experiment,
the upper three to four shoots in spring-planted trees were significantly longer than
the lower shoots. Similar results have been reported by. Kikuchi et al., (2003) found
that in „Fuji‟, top shoot weight was the same for both pruned and unpruned shoots.
While Kikuchi et al., only compared pruned and unpruned trees, in our study, we
found that the rootstock affected top shoot length on pruned trees, and that shoot
length was greater on Ma with 70% water content than on Jm7 with 70% water
content (Table 2), and that top shoot length differed in soil with a moisture content of
70% depending upon the rootstock.

Our results also suggest that the impact of the rootstock on shoot fresh weight

is greater on Ma with 70% water content than on Jm7 (for both 50% and 70% water
content). The trunk fresh weight of the young apple trees was higher on Ma with 50%
water content than on Jm7 with 70% soil water. These findings extend those of
Campbell and Bould (1970), confirming that the number of shoots was closely related
to the rootstock. In our experiment it was not only the rootstock but also the water
saturation treatments (set at 50% and 70%) that affected the top parts of the young
apple trees. Changes in trunk diameter and fresh weight were more pronounced on
Ma with 50% water content than on Jm7 (50% water content). Tworkoski and Fazio
(2016) have explored the effects of environmental stress (e.g., water and nutrient
availability) on the size-controlling capacity of different rootstocks. In our study,
trunk growth indicated that semi-vigorous Ma rootstock with 50% soil water content
was greater on Jm7 dwarfing rootstocks treated with water content levels of both 50%
and 70%.

Changes in the roots showed that some soil treatments had a positive impact on

the fresh weight of the root (Table 3). In this experiment, Ma with
70% water content combined with Hydretain ES Plus showed
good growth results. Our findings do not, however, support those


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Academic Research in Educational Sciences

Volume 3 | Special Issue 1 | 2022

ISSN: 2181-1385

Cite-Factor: 0,89 | SIS: 1,12

DOI: 10.24412/2181-1385-2022-01-43-56

SJIF: 5,7 | UIF: 6,1

54

April 27-28, 2022

https://t.me/ares_uz Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal

of Greenwell et al., (2017) on the impact of humectants on plant root parameters. We
found that root fresh weight and root volume changes occurred in trees on Ma with
70% water content in Hydretain ES Plus treated soil resulting in increased root
biomass and root volume.

According to Botirov et al., (2022) cited fruit tree observation in some

experimental orchards and their results of growing nurseries related on different
conditions. And other experiment reported that the root growth of young apple trees
in winter planted, and their occurring root growth (Botirov and Arakawa, 2021). The
healthy growth of new shoots after planting greatly influences future tree shape and
initial production. It is therefore important to promote and manage root growth, even
after planting, by managing water content and introducing humectants in order to
using soil. Even though this study was carried out under artificially constructed
conditions, the results can be applied in orchards. Therefore, in the future we plan to
implement these findings in field experiments in areas with limited access to water.
These results may provide suggestions to growers in such areas as to how as to how
they might better manage their orchards and which rootstocks, which soil moisture
levels and which soil water retention treatments would work best for their young
apple trees.


CONCLUSION

The question of how to promote the growth of young apple trees after they are

planted in areas with limited water resources was examined in this paper. We
designed an experiment to determine how the choice of rootstock, moisture levels in
the soil and water retention treatments can be combined to promote young tree
growth. Our findings led us to the conclusion that the interaction of rootstock, water
levels and soil treatments affected total shoot length, root weight, root volume and the
root-to-shoot ratio of young „Miyabi Fuji‟ apple trees.

The fresh weight of the root was greatest for Jm7 with 70% soil water content

in untreated soil and for Ma with 70% soil water content treated with Hydretain ES
Plus. Root volume on Ma with 70% soil water content in soil treated with Hydretain
ES Plus was greater than that on Jm7 with 70% soil water content in untreated soil.
The interaction between rootstock, soil water content, and soil treatments was the
highest on Jm7 with 70% soil water content in untreated soil and the lowest on Ma
with 70% soil water content in Hydretain ES Plus treated soil and
on Jm7 with 50% soil water content in untreated soil.


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Academic Research in Educational Sciences

Volume 3 | Special Issue 1 | 2022

ISSN: 2181-1385

Cite-Factor: 0,89 | SIS: 1,12

DOI: 10.24412/2181-1385-2022-01-43-56

SJIF: 5,7 | UIF: 6,1

55

April 27-28, 2022

https://t.me/ares_uz Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal

Rootstock, soil water content and soil treatment interaction were more

pronounced on the dwarfing Jm7 rootstock, compared with Ma, in terms of total
shoot length, root weight and root to shoot ratio. Root volume and top three shoot
length (rootstock and soil treatment interaction) was more pronounced on Ma with
70% soil water content in soil treated with Hydretain ES Plus and Glutan and Kalpak
66 soil treatments when compared with Jm7.

REFERENCES

1. Tromp J. Sylleptic shoot formation in young apple trees exposed to various soil
temperature and air humidity regimes in three successive periods of the growing
season. Ann Bot. 1996;77(1):63–70.
2. Greene DW, Autio WR. Notching techniques increase branching of young apple
trees. J Am Soc Hortic Sci. 1994;119(4):678–82.
3. Arakawa O, Xu J, Asada T. Effect of Planting Season and Root Removal on Shoot
Growth on One-year-old Apple Trees. Hortic Res. 2014;13(3):261–5.
4. Ro HM. Water use of young “Fuji” apple trees at three soil moisture regimes in
drainage lysimeters. Agric Water Manag. 2001;50(3):185–96.
5. Zhou H, Niu X, Yan H, Zhao N, Zhang F, Wu L, et al. Interactive effects of water
and fertilizer on yield, soil water and nitrate dynamics of young apple tree in semiarid
region of northwest China. Agronomy. 2019;9(7).
6. Debuse C. a Comparison Study of Micro-Propagated Clonal Walnut Rootstock
Growth Following Applications of Microbial and Humectant Soil Amendments.
2011;97–101.
7. Greenwell DP, Sibley JL, Newby AF, Robinson CW, Eakes DJ. Effects of
Tween® 20 on growth and drought tolerance of coleus “Wasabi” (Plectranthus
scutellarioides)©. Acta Hortic. 2017;1174:365–9.
8. Soejima J, Bessho H, Tsuchiya S, Komori S, Abe K, Kotoda N. Breeding of Fuji
apples and performance on JM rootstocks. Compact Fruit Tree. 1998;31(1):22–4.
9. Soejima J, Yoshida Y, Haniuda T, Bessho H, Tsuchiya S, Masuda T, et al. New
dwarfing apple rootstocks “JM 1”, “JM 7” and “JM 8”. Bull Natl Inst Fruit Tree Sci.
2010;(No.11):1–16.
10. Hughes SW. Archimedes revisited: a faster, better, cheaper method of
accurately measuring the volume of small objects. Phys Educ [Internet].
2005;40(5):468–74.

Available

from:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9120/40/5/008
11. Hull J. Training and Pruning Apple and Pear Trees.


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Academic Research in Educational Sciences

Volume 3 | Special Issue 1 | 2022

ISSN: 2181-1385

Cite-Factor: 0,89 | SIS: 1,12

DOI: 10.24412/2181-1385-2022-01-43-56

SJIF: 5,7 | UIF: 6,1

56

April 27-28, 2022

https://t.me/ares_uz Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal

Horttechnology. 2018;3(4):464a – 464.
12. Kikuchi Takuro, Yunosuke Shiozaki, Toshiyuki Adachi, Setsuo Annaka
Fernando, Yasutomo Otake TN. Growth responses from one-year-old apple branches
to heading as a factor governing terminal shoot length in cultivars with different
branching habits. Chem Pharm Bull [Internet]. 2003;72 no. 6:473–81. Available
from:

http://www.mendeley.com/research/geology-volcanic-history-eruptive-style-

yakedake-volcano-group-central-japan/
13. Campbell AI, Bould C. Virus, Fertilizer and Rootstock Effects on the Growth
and Precocity of Young Apple Trees. J Hortic Sci. 1970;45(1):75–85.
14. Tworkoski T, Fazio G. Hormone and growth interactions of scions and size-
controlling rootstocks of young apple trees. Plant Growth Regul. 2016;78(1):105–19.

15. Botirov A., Arakawa O. (2021). Root Growth Changes in the Winter Planting of
Young „Miyabi Fuji‟ Apple Trees. International Journal of HorticulturalScience and
Technology, 8(3), 227–233.https://doi.org/10.22059/ijhst.2021.315746.428.
16. Alisher Botirov, Baxodir Ochilov, & Furqat Hasanov (2022). ILMIY-TAJRIBA
STANSIYASINING SO„NGI YILLARDAGI STATISTIK KUZATUVLARI.
Central Asian Academic Journal of Scientific Research, 2 (2), 202-207.
17. Alisher, B. (2021). Promoting Young Apple Tree Growth after Planting in Water

Limited Areas (Doctoral dissertation,

岩手大学

).

18. Bobomirzayev, P., & Tursunov, S. (2022). DATES AND NORMS OF SOWING
NEW VARIETIES OF WINTER WHEAT ON IRRIGATED LANDS OF THE

ZARAFSHAN VALLEY.

湖南大学学

(

自然科学版

), 49(01).

19. Botirov, A., An, S., Arakawa, O. and Zhang, S. (2022). Application of a
Visible/Near-infrared Spectrometer in Identifying Flower and Non-flower Buds on
„Fuji‟ Apple Trees. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. 56(2): 214-219.

Библиографические ссылки

Tromp J. Sylleptic shoot formation in young apple trees exposed to various soil temperature and air humidity regimes in three successive periods of the growing season. Ann Bot. 1996;77(1):63–70.

Greene DW, Autio WR. Notching techniques increase branching of young apple trees. J Am Soc Hortic Sci. 1994;119(4):678–82.

Arakawa O, Xu J, Asada T. Effect of Planting Season and Root Removal on Shoot Growth on One-year-old Apple Trees. Hortic Res. 2014;13(3):261–5.

Ro HM. Water use of young “Fuji” apple trees at three soil moisture regimes in drainage lysimeters. Agric Water Manag. 2001;50(3):185–96.

Zhou H, Niu X, Yan H, Zhao N, Zhang F, Wu L, et al. Interactive effects of water and fertilizer on yield, soil water and nitrate dynamics of young apple tree in semiarid region of northwest China. Agronomy. 2019;9(7).

Debuse C. a Comparison Study of Micro-Propagated Clonal Walnut Rootstock Growth Following Applications of Microbial and Humectant Soil Amendments. 2011;97–101.

Greenwell DP, Sibley JL, Newby AF, Robinson CW, Eakes DJ. Effects of Tween® 20 on growth and drought tolerance of coleus “Wasabi” (Plectranthus scutellarioides)©. Acta Hortic. 2017;1174:365–9.

Soejima J, Bessho H, Tsuchiya S, Komori S, Abe K, Kotoda N. Breeding of Fuji apples and performance on JM rootstocks. Compact Fruit Tree. 1998;31(1):22–4.

Soejima J, Yoshida Y, Haniuda T, Bessho H, Tsuchiya S, Masuda T, et al. New dwarfing apple rootstocks “JM 1”, “JM 7” and “JM 8”. Bull Natl Inst Fruit Tree Sci. 2010;(No.11):1–16.

Hughes SW. Archimedes revisited: a faster, better, cheaper method of accurately measuring the volume of small objects. Phys Educ [Internet]. 2005;40(5):468–74. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9120/40/5/008

Hull J. Training and Pruning Apple and Pear Trees. Horttechnology. 2018;3(4):464a – 464.

Kikuchi Takuro, Yunosuke Shiozaki, Toshiyuki Adachi, Setsuo Annaka Fernando, Yasutomo Otake TN. Growth responses from one-year-old apple branches to heading as a factor governing terminal shoot length in cultivars with different branching habits. Chem Pharm Bull [Internet]. 2003;72 no. 6:473–81. Available from: http://www.mendeley.com/research/geology-volcanic-history-eruptive-style-yakedake-volcano-group-central-japan/

Campbell AI, Bould C. Virus, Fertilizer and Rootstock Effects on the Growth and Precocity of Young Apple Trees. J Hortic Sci. 1970;45(1):75–85.

Tworkoski T, Fazio G. Hormone and growth interactions of scions and size-controlling rootstocks of young apple trees. Plant Growth Regul. 2016;78(1):105–19.

Botirov A., Arakawa O. (2021). Root Growth Changes in the Winter Planting of Young „Miyabi Fuji‟ Apple Trees. International Journal of HorticulturalScience and Technology, 8(3), 227–233.https://doi.org/10.22059/ijhst.2021.315746.428.

Alisher Botirov, Baxodir Ochilov, & Furqat Hasanov (2022). ILMIY-TAJRIBA STANSIYASINING SO„NGI YILLARDAGI STATISTIK KUZATUVLARI. Central Asian Academic Journal of Scientific Research, 2 (2), 202-207.

Alisher, B. (2021). Promoting Young Apple Tree Growth after Planting in Water Limited Areas (Doctoral dissertation, 岩手大学).

Bobomirzayev, P., & Tursunov, S. (2022). DATES AND NORMS OF SOWING NEW VARIETIES OF WINTER WHEAT ON IRRIGATED LANDS OF THE ZARAFSHAN VALLEY. 湖南大学学报 (自然科学版), 49(01).

Botirov, A., An, S., Arakawa, O. and Zhang, S. (2022). Application of a Visible/Near-infrared Spectrometer in Identifying Flower and Non-flower Buds on „Fuji‟ Apple Trees. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. 56(2): 214-219.

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