Root Growth Changes in the Winter Planting of Young ‘Miyabi Fuji’ Apple Trees

inLibrary
Google Scholar
Журнал:
Выпуск:
CC BY f
227-233
8

Скачивания

Данные скачивания пока недоступны.
Поделиться
Ботиров, А., & Аракава, О. (2023). Root Growth Changes in the Winter Planting of Young ‘Miyabi Fuji’ Apple Trees . in Library, 21(3), 227–233. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/23466
Алишер Ботиров, Самаркандский филиал Ташкентского государственного аграрного университета

The United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Iwate University, Morioka, Iwate 020-8550, Japan

Crossref
Сrossref
Scopus
Scopus

Аннотация

Время посева является нормальной частью любой сельскохозяйственной операции. Это имеет особое значение в районах с проблемами с водой, где влажность почвы является проблемой. В зимние месяцы в этих районах обычно выпадает достаточно осадков для поддержания достаточного уровня содержания воды в свежепосаженных деревьях. Однако летом и ранней осенью осадков выпадает очень мало. Это может отрицательно сказаться на молодых деревьях. В этом исследовании были проведены измерения для определения роста корней и изменений в верхних частях яблонь, посаженных зимой, по сравнению с посаженными весной, когда обычно происходит посадка. Для этого с января по май исследовали однолетний сорт Miyabi Fuji, привитый на подвои Marubakaido (Ma) (Malus prunifolia 'Ringo') и M.9. Результаты показали резкие изменения в росте корней с марта (средняя длина корня менее двух см до марта) по май (средняя длина корня более 10 см) для обоих подвоев. Кроме того, влажность ствола со временем увеличилась (51,8% в январе и 56,1% в мае на М.9). Хотя рост корней произошел у молодых яблонь, неизвестно, началось ли поглощение корневой воды до или одновременно с ростом корней. Рост корней развивался благоприятно благодаря влажности почвы, образующейся в результате зимних осадков. Мы обнаружили удовлетворительный рост корней и изменения содержания влаги в деревьях, использованных в исследовании, что побудило нас рекомендовать зимнюю посадку в районах, где водные ресурсы ограничены в незимние месяцы.

Похожие статьи


background image

International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology (2021) Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 227-233

227

International Journal of Horticultural Science and

Technology

Journal homepage:

http://ijhst.ut.ac.ir

Root Growth Changes in the Winter Planting of Young
‘Miyabi Fuji’ Apple Trees

Alisher Botirov

1

and Osamu Arakawa

2*

1. The United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Iwate University, Morioka, Iwate 020-8550, Japan
2. Faculty of Agriculture and Life Science, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8560, Japan

ARTICLE INFO

ABSTRACT

Article history

:

Received: 17 November 2020
Received in revised form: 5 February 2021
Accepted: 19 February 2021

Article type:

Time of planting is a normal part of any agricultural operation. It

has a particularly importance in water-challenged areas where soil

moisture is an issue. During the winter months in these areas, there

is usually sufficient precipitation to maintain adequate water

content levels in freshly planted trees. However, during the

summer and early autumn, there is very little precipitation. This

can adversely affect young trees. In this study, measurements were

taken to determine root growth and variations in the upper parts of

apple trees that were planted in the winter, compared to those

planted in the spring when planting usually takes place. To do so,

one-year-old 'Miyabi Fuji', grafted onto Marubakaido (Ma) (

Malus

prunifolia

'Ringo') and M.9 rootstocks, were examined from January

through May. The results showed dramatic changes in root growth

from March (average root length less than two cm before March) to

May (average root length longer than 10 cm) for both

rootstocks. Furthermore, trunk moisture content increased over

time (51.8% in January and 56.1% in May on M.9). Although root

growth in the young apple trees occurred, it is unknown if root

water absorption began before or at the same time of the root

growth. Root growth developed favorably because of the soil

moisture generated by the winter precipitation. We found

satisfactory root growth and tree moisture content changes in the

trees used in the study, leading us to recommend winter planting in

areas where water resources are limited in the non-winter months.

Research article

Keywords:

Growing season,

Rootstock,

Water content,

Root growth,

Shoot growth.


Introduction

The apple (

Malus domestica

Borkh.) is one of the

worlds’ most widely cultivated fruits (

van

Vuuren et al., 2006). Commercial apple
production takes place mostly in temperate
climate areas where snowfall normally falls
during the winter. Young apple trees are usually

*

Corresponding Author

ʼ

s Email: oarakawa@hirosaki-u.ac.jp

planted in early spring or late autumn, although
planting times differ depending on weather
conditions (Arakawa et al., 2014). In recent
years, the spring planting of fruit trees has
become a normal practice in temperate areas as
well as in arid areas with limited water
resources (Kikuchi et al., 2003). However,
planting in water–challenged areas impacts
young plant's root, especially those of young


background image

Alisher Botirov & Osamu Arakawa

Int. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 2021 8(3): 227-233

228

apple trees in certain areas of Central Asia.
There, apple trees are grown under dry and hot
summer conditions. However, in winter,
temperatures often fall far below freezing and
there is a significant amount of snowfall-
generated moisture (Hu et al., 2016). In these
areas, water availability and its efficient use
after planting are critical factors for favorable
tree growth. Therefore, to determine optimal
planting time and the best tree management
practices,

understanding

the

physical

development of newly-planted trees is essential.

Most commercially grown nursery trees

have weak root systems and show pruning
damage, which affects shoot growth. Previous
studies have reported that a healthy root
system promotes shoot growth, i.e., the
number of shoots and the height of trees in
one-year-old apple trees (Arakawa et al.,
2014), as well as root growth and shoot
growth in citrus trees (Bevington et al., 1985).
Budiarto et al. (2019) described the potential
benefits of citrus root pruning to manage plant
growth. Arakawa et al. (2014) reported the
impact of winter and fall planting on root
growth and the impact of the roots on shoot
growth. In contrast to spring-planted apple
trees, whose shoots start to grow less than one
month after planting, the buds do not start to
grow on winter-planted trees until after shoot
growth because of the dormancy that caused
by the cold weather conditions. If planted in
the spring, root growth is delayed until after
shoot growth, which commences one month
after planting.

The rootstocks onto which the young trees

are grafted are also important for the
development of the young trees after they are
planted. Soejima et al. (1998) reported that
Marubakaido (Ma) (

M. prunifolia

Borkh.

var.

Ringo

Asami), a semi-vigorous rootstock for

apple trees, is used in most of the apple
orchards in Japan. The advantages of semi-
vigorous Ma are its perfect anchorage, early
and heavy production, resistance to burr root,
crown rot, wooly aphids, tolerance to wet soil

conditions, and ease of propagation with
hardwood cuttings. There is no detailed
research or experiments that have been
conducted regarding root growth that is
related to the physiological changes in apple
trees planted in early winter.

Therefore, the aim of this study was to

investigate the root growth in one-year-old
‘Miyabi Fuji’ and the impact of the physical
growing environment, compare to the semi-
vigorous Marubakaido (Ma) (

Malus prunifolia

'Ringo') with dwarfing M.9 rootstocks under
cold winter conditions. The planting season
and the environmental conditions after
planting affect root growth, shoot growth and
tree architecture. The results showed that root
growth occurred from March, with significant
differences in the two rootstocks.

Materials and Methods

Plant materials and experiment design

One-year-old 'Miyabi Fuji' (a bud sport of 'Fuji'
having good fruit coloration) apple trees,
grafted onto Ma and M.9 rootstocks, were
planted on November 25, 2019. They were then
observed over the winter and during the spring
growing season. The experiment design was as
follows: five measuring dates (January 27,
February 27, March 27, April 27, May 28), two
rootstocks (Ma and M.9), and 15 young trees
planted on each of the two rootstocks. All 30
trees were purchased from "HARADA NURSERY
Co., Ltd, Japan and the experiments were
conducted on the campus of Hirosaki
University. Before planting, all apple saplings
were scaled to the same size by cutting them to
70 cm; roots were pruned to 10 cm (Fig. 1A, B).

On November 25, the young apple trees

were placed in 11 L black plastic nursery pots
that contained a mixture of one-part potting soil
used for trees and two parts black volcanic soil.
These were then placed in a specially designed
hole (Fig. 1C) that would prevent them from
freezing during the winter. In mid-April, the
potted trees were placed above ground.


background image

Alisher Botirov & Osamu Arakawa

Int. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 2021 8(3): 227-233

229

Daily temperature alterations are shown for

the period of the experiment in Figure 2. The
average monthly temperatures and total
precipitation for the period during which the
experiment was conducted is also shown in
Figure 2. In December, the average monthly
temperature was 1.7 °C and precipitation was
145.5 mm. In January, the average
temperature was 0.3 °C and the precipitation

101 mm. In February, the average temperature
was 0.5 °C and precipitation was 144.5 mm. In
March, the average temperature was increased
to 4.9 °C, while the precipitation was dropped
to 84.5 mm. In April, the average monthly
temperature was increased to 7.5°C and
precipitation was elevated slightly to 98 mm.
Finally, in May, the average temperature was
15 °C and total precipitation was 54 mm.

Fig. 1.

One-year-old ‘Miyabi Fuji’ before and after planting; (A) semi-vigorous Ma; (B) dwarfing M.9; (C)

specially designed hole to prevent winter freezing

Fig. 2.

Daily, maximum, minimum temperatures and total precipitation in Hirosaki, Japan during the experiment period.

Studied traits

On January 27, 2020, the first measurements
were done and were repeated on the 27

th

of

each ensuing month until May 28. The young
trees were removed from their pots each time
before taking the measurements. The roots
were separated from the soil and washed, and
their average length was measured with a
caliper. The tree samples were classified into

the following parts: trunks, rootstock stems,
and roots. All of the parts were weighed, and
then dried in an oven at 80 °C for 48 to 60 hr.
After being dried, all samples were again
weighed and measured for moisture content
(MC). MC was determined using the following
equation (1) where FW is the fresh weight of
the sample and DW is the dried weight of the
sample (Turner, 1981):

A

B

C


background image

Alisher Botirov & Osamu Arakawa

Int. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 2021 8(3): 227-233

230

100

basis

FW

FW

DW

MC

FW

(1)

Data analysis

The observations regarding the effects on MC
were analyzed by one-way ANOVA (the
difference between dates) and a Tukey test.
Moreover, the effect of rootstocks and dates
were analyzed by a two-way ANOVA. New
shoot length was analyzed using the Student's
t-test. All of the above analyses were
performed using the R studio version 1.3.1073
(© 2009-2020 RStudio, PBC) software.

Results

Root growth

Root growth change was examined between
January and May 2020 for the ‘Miyabi Fuji’ trees
that were grafted onto the Ma and M.9
rootstocks (Table 1). Observations on January 27
and February 27 did not show any root growth
for either rootstocks. On March 27, only root
hairs and root caps less than or equal to two cm
were observed. On April 27, these root hairs and
root caps were grown in length to 10 cm or
more. Then, on May 28, primary, secondary, and
tertiary roots showed vigorous growth.

Table 1.

Root growth for ‘Miyabi Fuji’ on semi-vigorous Marubakaido (Ma) (

Malus prunifolia

'Ringo') and

dwarfing M.9 rootstocks in January through May, 2020

Months

Root growth starting (cm)

a

Parts of the root

b

Ma

M.9

January 27

NG

NG

All

February 27

NG

NG

All

March 27

≤ 2

≤ 2

Root cap

April 27

≤ 10

≤ 10

Root cap

May 28

≥ 10

≥ 10

All

Note: a-average length of new root growth, b-the new root growth occurred by the root area, NG-not growth. All-
primary, secondary, tertiary root and root region.

Moisture content changes in separate
parts of the trees

The changes in moisture content in the trunk
and the results of the ANOVA are shown in
Table 2. The moisture content of the trunks
was increased significantly from January to
May for the trees on both rootstocks. There
was, however, a statistical difference between
the two rootstocks; the MC of M.9 was higher

than that of Ma (P

0.01). The percentage

change in MC for Ma in May was higher than
that recorded in January, February, and
March. The MC for the trunk on dwarfing M.9
increased significantly from January to April
and May. There was no significant difference
statistically between the interrelation of
rootstocks and the months in which they were
measured for trunk MC.

Table 2.

Changes in trunk moisture content for ‘Miyabi Fuji’ on semi-vigorous Marubakaido (Ma) (

Malus

prunifolia

'Ringo') and dwarfing M.9 rootstocks in January through May, 2020

Rootstocks

Moisture content (%)

January

February

March

April

May

Ma

50.9 ± 0.52a

49.7 ± 0.43a

50.3 ± 0.78a

53.1 ± 0.2ab

55.8 ± 1.4b

M.9

51.8 ± 0.15a

52.1 ± 0.03ab 52.1 ± 0.05ab

53.0 ± 0.3b

56.1 ± 0.4c

P value

Significance

Rootstock (R)

0.008026

**

Date (D)

9.297e-08

***

R x D

0.239132

ns

Note: Means ± standard error and different letters indicate statistically significant differences among the months
according to the Tukey test; (*) – P

0.05, (**) – P

0.01, (***) – P

0.001, (ns) – not significance, (n=3).


background image

Alisher Botirov & Osamu Arakawa

Int. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 2021 8(3): 227-233

231

Rootstock stem MC changes and the

results of ANOVA are shown in Table 3. The
MC of the rootstock stem increased from
January to May on both rootstocks, and
changes in rootstock stem MC was markedly
in different months during the experiment
period. There was a statistically significant
difference between the rootstocks; the MC of
the M.9 rootstock stems was higher than that
of Ma (P

0.0001). The Ma MC decreased

markedly from January to February, then
increased dramatically in March and April,
and increased even more in May. Alteration
of MC for M.9 was notably higher in May
when compared to the earlier months. There
was no statistically significant difference

between the effects of rootstock and the date
for rootstock stem MC.

The changes in MC in the root and the

results of ANOVA are shown in Table 4. The
MC in the roots underwent considerable
changes during the experiment period; MC
increased from January to May for both
rootstock trees. There was statistical
significance in the effects of the rootstocks.
The root MC of M.9 was higher than that of
Ma (P

0.05). The root MC of M.9 increased

significantly from January and February to
March and even more in April, then from April
to May it decreased greatly. There was no
significant difference between the interaction
of rootstock and the date for the root MC.

Table 3.

Changes in rootstock stem moisture content for ‘Miyabi Fuji’ on semi-vigorous Marubakaido (Ma)

(

Malus prunifolia

'Ringo') and dwarfing M.9 rootstocks in January through May, 2020

Rootstocks

Moisture content (%)

January

February

March

April

May

Ma

47.7 ± 0.1b

46.0 ± 0.3a

47.6 ± 0.4b

48.7 ± 0.5b

51.4 ± 0.19c

M.9

48.2 ± 0.6a

48.6 ± 0.4a

48.7 ± 0.6a

50.1 ± 0.7a

52.7 ± 0.34b

P value

Significance

Rootstock (R)

0.0001374

***

Date (D)

1.281e-08

***

R x D

0.2879832

ns

Note: Means ± standard error and different letters indicate statistically significant differences among the months

according to the Tukey test; (*) – P

0.05, (**) – P

0.01, (***) – P

0.001, (ns) – not significance, (n=3).

Table 4.

Changes in root moisture content for ‘Miyabi Fuji’ on semi-vigorous Marubakaido (Ma) (

Malus

prunifolia

'Ringo') and dwarfing M.9 rootstocks in January through May, 2020

New shoot growth for 'Miyabi Fuji'
trees on Ma and M.9

New shoot growth in the trees and results of the
T-test are shown in Figure 3. The new shoots on
the trees were significantly different for the Ma

and M.9 rootstocks, and the growth of new
shoots commenced in May for both Ma and M.9.
There was a statistical difference among the
rootstocks; the total number of new shoots for
Ma was higher than those for M.9 (P

0.05).

Rootstocks

Moisture content (%)

January

February

March

April

May

Ma

55.0 ± 3.3a

54.1 ± 1.4a

60.6 ± 1.1a

61.0 ± 1.6a

56.3 ± 5.4a

M.9

55.3 ± 19.4a

56.8 ± 11.3a

65.8 ± 9.2bc

67.4 ± 7.7c

58.7 ± 7.5ab

P value

Significance

Rootstock (R)

0.044436

*

Date (D)

0.002475

**

R × D

0.759174

ns

Note: Means ± standard error and different letters indicate statistically significant differences among the months
according to the Tukey test; (*) – P

0.05, (**) – P

0.01, (***) – P

0.001, (ns) – not significance, (n=3).


background image

Alisher Botirov & Osamu Arakawa

Int. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 2021 8(3): 227-233

232

Fig. 3.

Total new shoot length for ‘Miyabi Fuji’ on semi-vigorous Marubakaido (Ma) (

Malus prunifolia

'Ringo')

and dwarfing M.9 on May 28, 2020. Columns shows means ± standard error and different letters indicate

statistically significant differences among the rootstocks according to a T-test P

0.05, (n=3)

Discussion

In cold weather areas, nursery apple trees are
usually planted in the early winter months,
just before snowfall. However, there is no
detailed research or experiments that have
been conducted regarding root growth related
to the physiological changes in apple trees
planted in early winter. Our findings proved
that no root growth occurred in the winter
time, January to February. The roots started to
grow slowly from March to April, whereas in
May vigorous root growth was observed. Van
et al. (2011) reported that root growth for
dwarfing M.9 occurred from December (early
spring time in New Zealand), although they
did not check or mention winter time root
growth. Temperature change is also vital for
root growth. During the experiment period,
the average daily temperature in March was
4.9 °C, which impacted root growth.
Lopushinsky and Max (1990) found that, for
forest trees, root growth occurs when soil
temperature is 5 °C or above.

We measured the MC changes in the below

and above parts of the trees to determine the
relationship between the root condition and
growth of different parts of the tree. The MC of
the trunk increased slowly from January to
May. Root MC increased from January to April
when the new roots appeared. These findings

suggest that these MC changes are related to
root growth and root activity (water
absorption by root). Increase of trunk and
rootstock stem MC may be related to cold-
related damage in young trees during the
spring, since it has been suggested that the
cold hardiness of woody plants is related to
water relations parameters (Anisko and
Lindstrom, 1996).

In our study, root MC decreased when

shoot growth occurred in May on the young
apple trees. Diminishing root MC did not affect
root growth in May and the growing process of
the root went on vigorously. We found that
budburst occurred at the end of April (data not
shown), while total new shoot length was
observed at the end of May (Fig. 3). This
suggests that, in May, the development of
shoots on trees grafted onto semi-vigorous
rootstock take longer than those on dwarfing
M.9. Bevington and Castle (1985) reported
that root growth declined during shoot
elongation for citrus trees when there is no soil
temperature or WC issues.

It is essential to manage soil and water to

promote root growth even after planting. It
appears that both rootstock selection and
winter planting are essential for root growth
when young apple trees are planted in areas
where moisture is provided by snowfall in the


background image

Alisher Botirov & Osamu Arakawa

Int. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 2021 8(3): 227-233

233

winter but suffer from a shortage of water
during the non-winter months.

Conclusion

This research study investigated the effects of
winter planting on root growth and certain
physical features of one-year old ‘Miyabi Fuji’
apple trees during the winter and spring. We
found that winter planting affected root growth
and that the MC of the trees changed from
February to March. Accordingly, significant
physical changes were observed in the trees.

Hence, winter planting in areas with

limited water-resources would ensure that
there would be sufficient soil moisture to
support root growth and encourage budbreak.
Therefore, in the future, we intend to extend
the scope of our research to water-challenged
areas. The obtained finding of present study
provide insights for apple growers in such
areas regarding the most effective planting
times and the impact of planting time on shoot
growth and growth of the upper and lower
parts of young trees.

Conflicts of Interest:

The authors indicate

no conflict of interest for this work.

References

1.

Aniśko T, Lindstrom O.M. 1996. Cold hardiness

and

water

relations

parameters

in

Rhododendron cv. Catawbiense Boursault

subjected to drought episodes. Physiologia

Plantarum,

98

(1), 147–155.

2.

Arakawa O, Xu J, Asada T. 2014. Effect of

Planting Season and Root Removal on Shoot

Growth on One-year-old Apple Trees.

Horticultural Research (Japan), 13(3), 261–265.

3.

Bevington K.B, Castle W.S. 1985. Annual root

growth pattern of young citrus trees in relation

to shooting growth, soil temperature, and soil

water content. Journal of the American Society

for Horticultural Science, 110(6), 840–845.

4.

Budiarto R, Poerwanto R, Santosa E, Efendi D.

2019. A Review of Root Pruning to Regulate

Citrus Growth. Journal of Tropical Crop Science,

6(01), 1–7.

5.

Hu Z, Hu Q, Zhang C, Chen X, Li Q. 2016.

Evaluation of reanalysis, spatially interpolated

and satellite remotely sensed precipitation data

sets in central Asia. Journal of Geophysical

Research-Atmospheres, 121(June), 5648–5663.

6.

Kikuchi T, Shiozaki Y, Adachi T, Yassunaka F.S,

Otake, Y, Nishide T. 2003. Growth responses

from one-year-old apple branches to heading as

a factor governing terminal shoot length in

cultivars

with

different

branching

habits. Journal of the Japanese Society for

Horticultural Science, 72(6), 473-481.

7.

Lopushinsky W, Max T.A. 1990. Effect of soil

temperature on root and shoot growth and on

budburst timing in conifer seedling transplants.

New Forests, 4(2), 107–124.

8.

Soejima J, Bessho H, Tsuchiya S., Komori S, Abe

K., Kotoda N. 1998. Breeding of Fuji apples and

performance on JM rootstocks. Compact Fruit

Tree, 31(1), 22–24.

9.

Turner N.C. 1981. Techniques and experimental

approaches for the measurement of plant water

status. Plant and Soil, 58(1), 339–366.

10.

Van Hooijdonk B, Woolley D, Warrington I,

Tustin S. 2011. Rootstocks modify scion

architecture, endogenous hormones, and root

growth of newly grafted "Royal Gala" Apple

Trees. Journal of the American Society for

Horticultural Science, 136(2), 93–102.

11.

van Vuuren, D.P., Sala, O.E. and Pereira, H.M.,

2006. The future of vascular plant diversity

under four global scenarios. Ecology and

Society, 11(2).

Библиографические ссылки

Aniśko T, Lindstrom O.M. 1996. Cold hardiness and water relations parameters in Rhododendron cv. Catawbiense Boursault subjected to drought episodes. Physiologia Plantarum, 98(1), 147–155.

Arakawa O, Xu J, Asada T. 2014. Effect of Planting Season and Root Removal on Shoot Growth on One-year-old Apple Trees. Horticultural Research (Japan), 13(3), 261–265.

Bevington K.B, Castle W.S. 1985. Annual root growth pattern of young citrus trees in relation to shooting growth, soil temperature, and soil water content. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 110(6), 840–845.

Budiarto R, Poerwanto R, Santosa E, Efendi D. 2019. A Review of Root Pruning to Regulate Citrus Growth. Journal of Tropical Crop Science, 6(01), 1–7.

Hu Z, Hu Q, Zhang C, Chen X, Li Q. 2016. Evaluation of reanalysis, spatially interpolated and satellite remotely sensed precipitation data sets in central Asia. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 121(June), 5648–5663.

Kikuchi T, Shiozaki Y, Adachi T, Yassunaka F.S, Otake, Y, Nishide T. 2003. Growth responses from one-year-old apple branches to heading as a factor governing terminal shoot length in cultivars with different branching habits. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 72(6), 473-481.

Lopushinsky W, Max T.A. 1990. Effect of soil temperature on root and shoot growth and on budburst timing in conifer seedling transplants. New Forests, 4(2), 107–124.

Soejima J, Bessho H, Tsuchiya S., Komori S, Abe K., Kotoda N. 1998. Breeding of Fuji apples and performance on JM rootstocks. Compact Fruit Tree, 31(1), 22–24.

Turner N.C. 1981. Techniques and experimental approaches for the measurement of plant water status. Plant and Soil, 58(1), 339–366.

Van Hooijdonk B, Woolley D, Warrington I, Tustin S. 2011. Rootstocks modify scion architecture, endogenous hormones, and root growth of newly grafted "Royal Gala" Apple Trees. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 136(2), 93–102.

van Vuuren, D.P., Sala, O.E. and Pereira, H.M., 2006. The future of vascular plant diversity under four global scenarios. Ecology and Society, 11(2).

inLibrary — это научная электронная библиотека inConference - научно-практические конференции inScience - Журнал Общество и инновации UACD - Антикоррупционный дайджест Узбекистана UZDA - Ассоциации стоматологов Узбекистана АСТ - Архитектура, строительство, транспорт Open Journal System - Престиж вашего журнала в международных базах данных inDesigner - Разработка сайта - создание сайтов под ключ в веб студии Iqtisodiy taraqqiyot va tahlil - ilmiy elektron jurnali yuridik va jismoniy shaxslarning in-Academy - Innovative Academy RSC MENC LEGIS - Адвокатское бюро SPORT-SCIENCE - Актуальные проблемы спортивной науки GLOTEC - Внедрение цифровых технологий в организации MuviPoisk - Смотрите фильмы онлайн, большая коллекция, новинки кинопроката Megatorg - Доска объявлений Megatorg.net: сайт бесплатных частных объявлений Skinormil - Космецевтика активного действия Pils - Мультибрендовый онлайн шоп METAMED - Фармацевтическая компания с полным спектром услуг Dexaflu - от симптомов гриппа и простуды SMARTY - Увеличение продаж вашей компании ELECARS - Электромобили в Ташкенте, Узбекистане CHINA MOTORS - Купи автомобиль своей мечты! PROKAT24 - Прокат и аренда строительных инструментов