Меры борьбы с эхинококком и ценурозом животных в Узбекистане

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Аминжонов , Ш. (2024). Меры борьбы с эхинококком и ценурозом животных в Узбекистане. in Library, 16(4), 58–62. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/30577
Шерзод Аминжонов , Ветеринарный научно-исследовательский институт
Кандидат ветеринарных наук, старший научный сотрудник Узбекского научно-исследовательского ветеринарного института (Самарканд), Узбекистан
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Аннотация

The article includes the results of heatth measures against sheep echinococcus and coenurosis, dog echinococcus andmulticeptosisinfarms "Pachkamar", "Guzor" and "Nishon" in Kashkadarya region. prior tu rhe implementation of our measures, echinococcus infestation of sheepwere 14.6 %, 16.6 N oni i.i ozb; coenurosis infestationwere 1l'6 %, 18-2 %, 13.5 in "Pachkamar", "Guzor" and "Nishon" farms respectively. Also dogs echinoJoccus infestation were 10.4 %, 1I-4 %, 6.1 % and coenurosis infestation were 17.6 %, Is.i % ani tt.z ok in aforementioned farms respectively. By the end of the research, in 4-5 year of imptementation of measures, it has not been registered sheep echinococcus and coenurosis, dog echinococcus andmilticiptosis. The ffictiveness of activities was 100%.

Похожие статьи


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58

UDC 631

MEASURES AGAINST ECHINOCOCCUS AND COENUROSIS OF ANIMALS IN UZBEKISTAN

Sh.M. Aminjonov,

Candidate of Veterinary Sciences, Senior Researcher

Uzbekistan Research Veterinary Institute (Samarkand), Uzbekistan

Abstract.

The article includes the results of health measures against sheep echinococcus and coenurosis, dog

echinococcus and multiceptosis in farms 'Pachkamar", “Guzor” and “Nishon” in Kashkadarya region. Prior to the
implementation of our measures, echinococcus infestation of sheep were 14.6 %, 16.6 % and 4.5 %; coenurosis infestation
were 11.6 %, 18.2 %, 13.5 in “Pachkamar", “Guzor" and “Nishon"farms respectively. Also dogs echinococcus infestation
were 10.4 %, 11.4 %, 6.1 % and coenurosis infestation were 17.6 %, 18.5 % and 18.2 % in aforementioned farms respectively.
By the end of the research, in 4-5 year of implementation of measures, it has not been registered sheep echinococcus and
coenurosis, dog echinococcus andmulticeptosis. The effectiveness of activities was 100.0 %.

Keywords:

echinococcus, coenurosis, multiceptosis, protoskolex, ovum, larvae, invasiveness, imaginal and larval

dehelmintization (worming).

Breeders and specialists of veterinary services for a long time have known echinococcus and coenurosis, which were

the cause of huge economic losses to livestock.

For the first time, Russian scientist A.P. Fedchenko (1879-1886) has studied these diseases in the territory of

Uzbekistan. He conducted research in Bukhara, Samarkand and Tashkent regions. He could not bring his research to an end
because of the death after the accident. His rich helminthological studies were completed by another scientist G. Krabbe
(1879) in Denmark.

After A.P. Fedchenko, academician K.S. Skryabin continued researches on helminthiasis of animals, particularly

echinococcus and coenurosis. Data on the subject written in the monograph of K.I. Skryabin - “Fauna of helminths in
Turkestan” which was published in 1916.

With the opening of helminthological department at the Uzbek Scientific Research Veterinary Institute, in 1930,

head of this institution, Professor V.S. Ershov tested 70 sheep for slaughter and 30 fallen sheep at the farm “Koson Uzbek”.
Echinococcus was detected in 28 sheep, which is 40.0 % of all studied livestock. In addition, he set 167 cases of sheep
echinococcus among 230 sheep, which amounts to 75.2 %.

V.S. Ershov proposed the scheme of measures against aforementioned diseases, which consists of three items, where

has given the high prevalence of sheep echinococcus:

1.

Registration of all the dogs, and compulsory deworming of cloving dogs;

2.

Deworming of new dogs before receiving them to the flocks;

3.

Organizing exams on veterinary and sanitation for breeders.

After B.C. Ershov, research on echinococcus and coenurosis received a comprehensive study in many state farms

of Uzbekistan. In particular, M.I. Sopelchenko (1939) investigated the echinococcus and coenurosis in the farm “Ak
Kapchigay” where the disease prevalence was 27.3 %. Author carried out recreational activities on the territory of the farm,
which consist of the following stages:

1.

3 times worming of all dogs, in particular, in April, July and September;

2.

The destruction of stray and homeless dogs;

3.

Head of sheep affected sheep coenurosis subjected to incineration after slaughter.

Similar studies were carried out by F.S Sarimsakov (1949-1951) at the farm “Nishon”, by I.H. Irgashev (1963) in

the farm “Karnab

1

, by Sh. Azimov (1960) in “Khavast”, by N.M. Matchaiov (1961, 1969) in the “Keles” block in Tashkent

region and throughout the Bukhara region, by A. Murtazaev (1966) in the Republic of Karakalpakstan. As a result, they
proposed measures against coenurosis and echinococcus among animals. This led to a reduction of infection among animals.
There were not coenurosis cases in Bukhara region among sheep.

An analysis of studies conducted over 50 years in Uzbekistan have shown that the coenurosis and echinococcus

cases among animals decreased. But the weakening of the measures led to an increase in the disease among animals. It argues
that the proposed control measures are not enough against echinococcus and coenurosis among animals. In this connection,
it is required to find new effective methods to combat these diseases.

Materials and methods of the research

On this basis, it has been held works in three farms of Kashkadarya region, in particular in the “Pachkamar”, “Guzor”

and “Nishon” farms. These farms adjacent to each other, and borders with farms “Talimarjon”, “Amudarya” and “Kuhi
tong”of Turkmenistan from the west side. In these farms of Kashkadarya region, measures against echinococcus, and
coenurosis were carried out, which includes 8 points, which is quite different from the previous methods:

1.

Registration of all dogs;

2.

Registered dogs are dehelmintizated 8 times a year, including 4 times of imaginal and 4 times of preimaginal

© Aminjonov Sh.M. / Аминжонов Ш.М., 2016


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59

dehelmintization.

Pre;—

agi.-.a'. worming

differs from the imaginal that the dog was not tethered and every 45 days after the

imaginal;

3.

Dehelmintizat:

:n was

carried

out with drugs - arecoline hydrobromide and praziquantel;

4.

All

stray and homeless

dogs

were eliminated in the farms;

5.

Sheep

diseased with

coenurosis were separated according to the veterinary sanitation, head of these sheep

subjected to

incineration after

slaughter;

6.

Lambs aged

2.0-2.

5 months

immunized against coenurosis once a year and twice against echinococcus in a dose

of 1.0

ml.

intramuscularly;

7.

In flocks,

dead animals

with internal organs and heads were burned in the concrete furnaces;

8.

Explanatory

work

was

systematically carried put for the breeders about the nature of ongoing health measures

against

echinococcus,

coenurosis and multiceptosis;

In

addition, dead animals

among farms established echinococcus prevalence and coenurosis. Identified bubbles with

protoskolex

parasite examined

for invasive. For what, this stuff deliberately infected dogs free from these diseases. Thus,

resulted

protoskolex

placed in a solution consisting of 1: 1 from the bile of cattle and saline for 15-20 min. al a temperature

of +36-38 °C.

The solution is in protoskolex movement felt alive. They were dark black in color with well- developed hooks.

Dogs

infected with

echinococcus and multiceptosis determined by their worming and ’opening the small intestine.

Dogs were

dehelmintizated

by arecoline hydrobromide 5 mg. per kg of div weight in a 0.1 % solution twice. In this case,

the detected echinococcus andmulticeptosis subjected to the study.

The results of research

On the study were subjected to 384 sheep in the farm “Pachkamar”, 452 sheep in the “Guzor” and 651 sheep in the

farm “Nishon” regardless of age. In addition, these farms were examined for infestation of 125, 184 and 132 dogs respectively.
The study results are given in Table 1.

Table 1

Name of farm Age of sheep Studied

sheep

including affected

Studied

dogs

including affected

echinococcus

%

multiceptosis

%

echinococcus

% megrims

%

Pachkamar

Older than 3

years

142

40

28.4

-

-

Up to 3 years

78

11

14.1

4

5.1

Up to one

year

164

5

3.0

24

14.6

Only:

384

56

14.6

28

11.6

125

13

10.4

22

17.6

Guzor

Older than 3

years

156

46

22.5

-

-

Up to 3 years

85

11

27.0

3

3.5

Up to one

year

211

5

2.8

51

24.2

Only:

452

75

16.6

54

18.2

184

21

11.44

34

18.5

Nishon

Older than 3

years

250

18

7.2

-

-

Up to 3 years

150

6

4.0

8

5.3

Up to one

year

251

5

1.9

46

18.3

Only:

651

29

4.5

54

13.5

132

8

6.1

24

18.2

Total

1487

160

10.8

136

9.1

441

42

9.5

80

18.1

Research Analysis of Table 1 shows that these sheep farms infected with echinococcus by 10.8 %, 9.1 %, coenurosis,

dogs infected with echinococcus by 9.5 % and with multiceptosis 18.1 %, regardless of age before the introduction of
measures. If we analyse these numbers in every farm, in the farm “Pachkamar” these numbers were 14.6 %, 11.6, 10.4and
17.6 %, respectively. “Guzor” farms indexes were - 16.6 %, 18.2%forthe sheep and 11.4%and 18.5% for the dogs
respectively. In “Nishon” farm

-

4.5 % and 13.5 % in sheep and 6.1 %, 18.2 % in dogs. As for the sheep older than 3 years,

the infection with echinococcus was the following: on the farm “Pachkamar”

-

28.4 %, “Guzor” — 22.5 % and “Nishon”

-

7.2 %. In the farm “Pachkamar”, sheep under 3 years infected with echinococcus by 14.1 %, and coenurosis by 5.1 %, these
indexes of “Guzor” farm are 27.0 % and 3.5 % also, for “Nishon” farm 4.0 % and 5.3 % respectively. The infection with the
echinococcus and coenurosis of sheep up to 1 year in farms are following: “Pachkamar” farm

-

3.0 % and 14.6 %, “Guzor”

farm - 2.8

%

and 24.2 %, and “Nishon” farm 1.9 % and 18.3 % respectively.


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Thus, the infection of sheep with echinococcus and coenurosis farms in foothill and mountain areas, which include

“Pachkamar” and “Guzor” in comparison with “Nishan” which located in the desert and pasture area was higher for 10.0-
11.0%.

A year after the introduction of the sheep research showed that the infection of echinococcus and coenurosis

decreased in animals.

The dramatic decline was observed among dogs. So, prior to the introduction of measures in dogs echinococcus

infection was 9.5 %, a year later it was equal to 4.0 %, multiceptdsis infection decreased from 18.1 % to 4.9 %. Such a drop
was recorded in dogs in all three farms of the region. For example, in the farm “Pachkamar” the index decreased from 17.6
% to 7.8 %, in the “Guzor” from 18.5 to 3.2 % and in “Nishon” farm from 18.2 to 4.6 %.

The research results for two years after implementation of the developed measures against echinococcus, coenurosis

and multiceptosis among animals are listed in Table 3.

The results of researches on animal for two years after the introduction against cestodosis are the following:

Table 2

Name of farm

Age of

sheep

Investigated,

heads

including affected

Studied dogs,

animals

including affected

echinococcus

%

multiceptosis

% echinococcus

% megrims

%

Pachkamar

Older than 3

years

108

24

22.2

-

-

Up to 3

years

52

3

5.8

1

1.9

Up to one

year

56

1

1.8

1

1.8

Only:

216

28

13.0

2

0.9

128

2

1.5

2

1.6

Guzor

Older than 3

years

126

16

12.7

-

-

Up to 3

years

85

4

4.7

2

2.3

Up to one

year

224

-

-

1

0.4

Only:

435

20

4.6

3

1.0

187

2

1.1

3

1.6

Nishon

Older than 3

years

157

6

3.8

-

-

Up to 3

years

52

2

3.9

1

1.9

Up to one

year

142

1

0.7

3

2.1

Only:

351

9

2.6

4

1.1

214

4

1.9

3

1.4

Total

1002

57

5.7

9

0.9

529

8

1.5

8

1.5

The results of researches oh animals in the second year after the implementation of measures revealed that the

infestation of sheep with echinococcus decreased up to 5.7 %, coenurosis up to 0.9 %. Echinococcus and multiceptosis among
sheep decreased twice, coenurosis from 9.1 % to 0.9 %, the echinococcus of dogs decreased up to 1.5 % and dog multiceptosis
decreased from 18.1 to 1.5 %. The dramatic decline of echinococcus and coenurosis was registered from 11.6 to 0.9 % in
sheep farm “Pachkamar”, in “Guzor” farm echinococcus is from 16.6 to 4.6 %, coenurosis is from 18.2 to 1.0 %, in “Nishon”
echinococcus in average is from 4.5 to 2.6 %, coenurosis is from 13.5 to 1.1 %.

The research results on the third year of implementation are shown in Table 3.
The results of animal studies in the third year of implementation against cestodosis

Table 3

Name of farm

Age of sheep

Investigated,

heads

including those affected

Studied

dogs,

animals

including those affected

echinococcus

multiceptosis

echinococcus

megrims

Pachkamar

Older than 3

years

115

14

12.2

-

-

Up to 3 years

68

1

1

1

1.5

Up to one year

48

14

-

Only:

231

15

6.5

1

0.4

128

2

1.6

-

-


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61

Table 3

(continued)

Name of farm Age of sheep

Investigated,

heads

including those affected

Studied

dogs,

animals

including those affected

echinococcus

multiceptosis

echinococcus

megrims

Guzar

Older than 3

years

142

8

5.6

-

-

Up to 3 years

92

-

-

-

-

Up to one year

233

-

-

1

0.4

Only:

467

8

1.7

1

0.2 190190

1

0.5

-

-

Nishan

Older than 3

years

160

5

3.1

-

-

Up to 3 years

54

-

-

-

-

Up to one year

148

-

-

1

0.7

Only:

362

5

1.4

1

0.2 216216

1

0.5

-

-

Total

1060

28

2.6

3

0.2 534534

4

0.7

-

-

Animal studies in the third year of implementation showed that in 1060 studied sheep, echinococcosis

disease

found

in 28 sheep, that is 2.6 %, coenurosis found in 3 sheep, that is 0.2 %, among the lambs, coenurosis was found

in

one head in

the farms “Guzor” and “Nishon”. Among the sheep up to 3 years, echinococcosis infextion case

was just

one in the farm

“Pachkamar”. Cases of infection with echinococcosis of dogs found in 4 dogs. That is 0.7 %

and there

was no multiceptosis

cases at all.

Discussion

Implemented studies showed that for the period of 3-4 years after the introduction of our proposed

measures

led to

a sharp reduction of echinococcosis and coenurosis among the sheep, andmulticeptosis and echinococcosis

in

dogs.

Specifically, in the farm “Pachkamar”, infection of sheep with echinococcosis was 14.6 %, with coenurosis

11.6

% before

the introduction of measures; by the end of the introduction of measures these indexes equaled 2.6 and

0.2

%,

respectively.

Echinococcosis in dogs decreased from 9.5 % to 0.7 %. At the end of the study, there were no

multicepto

sis cases in dogs.

Similar results were obtained from the implementation of measures in the farms “Guzor” and “Nishon”.

So.

prior

to the introduction of measures infection of sheep with echinococcosis were 16.6 and 4.5 %, coenurosis — 18.2

and

13.5 %

respectively, dog echinococcosis were 11.4 and 6.1 %,multiceptosis

-

18.5 and 18.2 % respectively

in two

farms; at endpoint

of infestation, these figures were 2.6 and 0.2 % in sheep and dog echinococcosis - 0.7 %

respective

ly. In the fourth year of

implementation of measures, there were no cases of infestation among sheep and dogs.

From the fifth year of the study vaccination of sheep and dogs has not been implemented against echinococcosis.

Immunization of sheep against coenurosis stopped from the second year. Dog dehelmintization against

cestodosis

was carried

out twice a year from this year, instead of 8.6 and 4 times in previous years. Immunization against

dog

echinococcosis and

multiceptosis implemented once a year. Similar measures were carried out systematically in

the

following years.

Conclusion

We can conclude that on the basis of the research:

1.

The proposed measures have been very effective in the fight against echinococcosis, coenurosis and

multiceptosis in animals.

2.

Implementation of control measures led to recovery of the animals from cestodosis within 4-5 years.

3.

The effectiveness of the vaccine against echinococcosis, coenurosis and multiceptosis of animals was

equal

to

78-85 %.

4.

In the first year, vaccine against echinococcosis animal was carried out twice, coenurosis

once

and multiceptosis

two times.

REFERENCES

1.

Azimov, Sh. A. Epizootiology of the most important geobiogelmintozov horned cattle in Uzbekistan / Sh. A. Azimov

et

al.

//

Mathematics and Scientific Conference on helminthology.

-

1963. — P. 10-12.

2.

Crab, P. Journey to Turkestan. Worms (Wermes). Belt (Cestoidies), Proceedings of the Imperial Society of Natural

His

tory,

Anthropology and Ethnography

/

P. Crab, A. P. Fredchenko. - 1879. T. 3 B2-book 1, Moscow - Berlin.

3.

Fredchenko, A. P. Journey to Turkistan

/

A. P. Fredchenko

//

Issue Zoogeographical study, roundworms, and flukes. - Volume

II Issue 18, 1886.

4.

Irgashev, I. H. Fighting lavralnymi cestodosis sheep at the farm “Kamab” and its economic efficiency

/

1. H. Irgashev. - Tr.

SamSKHl T. XIV. - P. 37^16. - 1963.

5.

Matchanov, N. M. Experience in dealing with megrims and echinococqosis in Keles massif of Tashkent region

/

N. M.

Matchanov// Veterinary Medicine. - 1961, № 4. -P. 51-52.


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ISSN 2311-2158. The Way of Science. 2016. № 11 (33). Vol. I.

62

6.

Matchanov,

N. M. Organization to combat megrims animals on a scale

of

experience, and the elimination of this disease in

the

territory of

Bukhara region. Abstract of doctoral dissertation

/

N. M. Matchanov.

-

1969. - P. 31.

7.

Sarimsakov,

F.

S. Study megrims and echinococcus in the state farm “Nishan” and the development of measures to combat

these

helminthes.

Booklet/ F. S. Sarimsakov. - 1949-1951.

8.

Skryabin,

К. I. Characteristics of helminth pets Turkestan. Publishers of scientific and practical practice of veterinary medicine

/

К. I. Skryabin.

9.

Sopelchenko,

M. I. The experience of recovery from sheep farming and megrims echinococcus

/

M.

I.

Sopelchenko

//

Veterinary

Medicine.

— 1930, № 5. - P. 51.

10.

Working 83

rd

EIT in Kasan karakulevodcheskom Uzbekgostotorga economy. Tr. Central Asia. - NIVI, 1933, T. II. - V.

2. - P. 79-96.

Материал

поступил

в редакцию 26.10.16.

ОСОБЕННОСТИ МЕР БОРЬБЫ С ЭХИНОКОККОЗОМ

И ЦЕНУРОЗОМ ЖИВОТНЫХ В УЗБЕКИСТАНЕ

Ш.М.

Аминжонов,

кандидат ветеринарных наук, старший научный сотрудник

Узбекский

научно-исследовательский ветеринарный институт (Самарканд), Узбекистан

Аннотация.

В статье приведены результаты оздоровительных мер борьбы против эхинококкоза, це-

нуроза овец, эхинококкоза и мультицептоза собак в хозяйствах «Пачкамар», «Гузар» и «Нишане» Кашкадарь-
инской области.

До

внедрения наших мероприятий пораженность овец эхинококкозом в хозяйстве «Пачкамар»

составляла

14,6

%, в «Гузар» 16,6 %, в «Нишане» 4,5 %, ценурозом — 11,6 %, 18,2 %, 13,5 %, собак эхинококкозом

-

10,4 %,

11,4

%, 6,1 %, ценурозом — 17,6 %, 18,5 % и 18,2 % соответственно. К концу исследования на 4-5 годд

внедрения мероприятий среди овец эхинококкоз и ценуроз и среди собак эхинококкоз и мультицептоз не
регистрировались. Эффективность мероприятий составляла 100,0 %.

Ключевые слова:

эхинококкоз, ценуроз, мультицептоз, протосколекс, яйцо, личинки, инвазионность,

дегельминтизация, имангинальная, преимагинальная.

Библиографические ссылки

l. Azimov, Sh. A. Epizootiology of the most important geobiogelmintozov homed cattle in Uzbekistan / Sh. A. Azimov et al. // Mathematics and Scientific Conference on helmintholo gy . - 1963 - - P. l0-12.

Crab,P. Joumey to Turkestan. Worms (Wermes). Belt (Cestoidies), Proceedings of the Imperial Society of Natural History, Anthropology and Ethnography / P. Crab, A. P. Fredchenko. - 1879. T. 3 B2-book l, Moscow -Berlin.

. Fredchenko, A. P. Journey to Turkistan / A. P. Fredchenko // Issue Zoogeographical study, roundworms, and flukes. -Volume II Issue 18, 1886.

Irgashev, I. H. Fighting lavralnymi cestodosis sheep at the farm "Karnab" and its economic effrciency / I. H. Irgashev.-Tr. SamSKHI T. XIV. -P.3746.-1963.

Matchanov, N. M. Experience in dealing with megrims and echinococqosis in Keles massif of Tashkent region / N. M. Matchanov // Veterinary Medicine. - 1961, N 4. - P. 5 l-52.

Matchanov, N. M. Organization to combat megrims animals on a scale of experience, and the elimination of this dis-ease in the territory of Bukhara region. Abstract of doctoral dissertation / N. M. Matchaov. - 1969. - P. 31.

Sarimsakov, F. S. Study megrims and echinococcus in the state farm 'Nishan" and the development of measures to combat these helminthes. Booklet / F. S. Sarimsakov. - 1949-1951.

Skryabin, K. I. Characteristics of hekninth pets Turkestan.medicine / K. I. Skryabin.Publishers of scientific and practical practice of veterinary

Sopelctrenko, M. I. The experience of recovery from sheep arniing and megrims echinococcus / M. I. Sopelchenko //Veterinary Medicine. - 1930, ll! 5. - P. 51.

Worki-ag 83'd EIT in Kasan karakulcvodc*reekom Uzbekgostotorga eoonomy. Tr. Central Asia. - NIVI, 1933, T. II. - V.2. -P.79-96.

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