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I.G‘ofurov, O.Mo‘minov, N.Qambarov. Tarjima nazariyasi. - Toshkent:
―Tafakkur bo‘stoni‖, 2012, 13-bet.
Muhammadjon Xolbekov. Jahon adabiyoti jurnali. – 2013-4
Newmark P. A. Approaches of translation. London. 2001.
Ochilov Ergash. Tarjima nazariyasi va amaliyoti (o‘quv qo‘llanma). –
Toshkent: 2012, 4-bet
Rahimov G‘. Tarjima nazariyasi va amaliyoti. – Samarqand: 2016 – 5-6 betlar
Salomov G‘. Tarjima nazariyasiga kirish. – Toshkent: ―O‘qituvchi‖, 1978, 18-
Nida E., Taber Ch. The theory and practice of translation. – Leiden. 1969.
FEATURE OF THE GUIDE-TRANSLATOR'S RHETORIC.
Modern conditions of social, political and economic reality are cha-
racterized by an active growth of acts of intercultural interaction. In recent
years, the state has paid great attention to the development of domestic
and foreign tourism in Uzbekistan. There is a need for guides-translators
who are ready and able to establish and maintain mutual understanding
etween the parties of intercultural communication. The need to study the
regularities of professional training of guides and translators determines the
identification of tools that increase its effectiveness. The active development
of tourist activity causes an increased interest of tourists to the objects of
tourism not only in their own country, but also, above all, in a foreign
country as an object of a different culture, a different language and other
traditions. The task of effectively transmitting qualitatively new information
about another culture, as well as the task of forming a correct and positive
image of another culture in a tourist is performed by a guide-translator.
A guide-translator is a professional language person who has a
certain set of actions, strategies and competencies for implementing cross-
cultural communication in the process of getting acquainted with the
cultural realities of another country. This type of language personality
reveals the synergy of the guide's language personality and the translator's
language personality. Tourism is not going through the best of times due
to the pandemic. However, the interest in traveling and learning does not
weaken. New routes appear, and States become more accessible to
explore their attractions more fully. And the main thing in this process are
guides and translators. They are always represented as the face of their
state, bringing ideology, culture, and high moral values to every person,
whether a citizen of our state or a foreigner (guest) who wants to learn
about the cultural and historical traditions of our country. The guide-
interpreter is considered an elite employee of the service sector, as he
provided foreign guests with comprehensive information about their
country. The boundaries of direct communication with tourists passed into
indirect communication, only when the guide performed only a translation
role for broadcasting the guide's monologue. The profession of a guide
interpreter more than the profession of a guide requires a fairly diverse set
of competencies (language, cross-cultural, translation).
A key figure in the process of foreign tourists ' knowledge of the
country, its culture, historical past, and everyday life is a guide-translator.
It is an intermediary for transmitting and receiving information between
the tourist and the reality that interests him. To do this, the guide-trans-
lator uses knowledge of a foreign language and knowledge related to the
information of interest, but not only. For successful work, a guide-trans-
lator must use a set of other knowledge (psychology, pedagogy, ethics,
local history, country studies, guided tours), skills (communication,
interactive, organizational), skills (translation, documentation), and use
personal qualities. The professional activity of a guide-translator is a
complex set of actions determined by his ability to implement this activity
(knowledge, skills, personal qualities), and the profession of "guide-trans-
lator" requires a detailed and versatile study. Despite the high prestige of
the profession, its popularity and social necessity, there are no conceptual
studies of the profession of "guide translator"in professional pedagogy.
When studying the professional activity of a guide-translator as a system
of professional actions, it should be taken into account that it is based on
the interaction of the guide with other participants of the trip. The main
area of such interaction is interaction with a group of tourists. This
interaction occurs at various levels. Identification and characterization of
individual components of the professional activity of a guide-translator
allows you to search for pedagogical ways to form the competence of a
specialist in the field of excursion support.
The following components can be distinguished in the activity of a
guide-translator: psychological, speech, communicative, interactive, so-
cial, cognitive, ethical, organizational, and reflexive. The characteristics
of each component will allow for a more detailed consideration of the
features of the guide-translator's work with groups of foreign tourists.
Rhetoric is a Greek word that means "oratory". This is a philological
discipline that studies the rules for constructing artistic speech, i.e. the art
of eloquence. The speech component of the guide-translator's activity
includes his / her language competence and ability to communicate in a
language that is understandable for the tourist group. Language is a means
of communication and is implemented in speech (making a speech act in
oral or written form). The difference between the concepts of "language"
and" speech " is the understanding of language as a system of signs, with
the help of which speech activity is carried out.
Language and speech. It is important not to confuse the concepts of
"language" and "speech", which are closely related.
Language is an existing possibility that manifests itself in the presen-
ce of certain conditions: knowledge of phonetic, lexical, grammatical ru-
les; ability to think and speak, to reach mutual understanding with other
people. Language is a specific social means of storing and transmitting
information, as well as managing human behavior.
Speech is the realization of the possibility of language, a form of
communication between people, "concrete speaking" that takes place in
time and is expressed in sound (including internal pronunciation) or
Knowledge of vocabulary, grammar, and phonetics is a language
competence, and the ability to Express thoughts freely is a speech compe-
tence. The main form of speech in professional communication of a
guide-translator is oral speech. For speech that sounds, requirements are
put forward regarding the normativity of the language, phonetic require-
ments, rhetorical skills and abilities. Voice, diction, intonation, breathing,
and the use of nonverbal means of communication are important for the
design of sounding speech. Signs of speech culture are compliance with
language norms, content, logic, lexical richness, expressiveness. High
requirements for sounding speech determine
the whole complexity of the speech activity of the guide-translator,
since his communication with tourists is conducted in a foreign language
in a bilingual situation. The oral speech of the guide-interpreter can be di-
vided into prepared and spontaneous. Prepared speech is implemented in
voicing travel information, conducting sightseeing tours. Spontaneous
speech is implemented in other communication situations (answers to
questions, assistance in settlement, food selection, shopping), translation
of Museum tours, and contacts with the local population. Therefore, the
guide-translator must constantly work on improving the language and
The guide-translator needs to understand the meaning of language
and speech, their relationship. The speech of a guide-translator is a purpo-
seful activity aimed at realizing the capabilities of the language. The suc-
cess of this activity depends on how much attention the guide-translator
pays to improving their speech skills. The main thing is constant practice.
For one guide-translator-this is the assimilation of various forms of
speech animation, for another-the fight against parasitic words, for a
third-the identification and elimination of errors in the language, for many
- the elimination of tautology in speech
1. Ulezko G.M. Gigiena golosa. (Metodicheskie ukazaniya dlya lis golosovix
professiy: vokalistov, akterov, prepodavateley, lektorov, ekskursovodov,
http://www.fonoped.ru/hygiene-of-voice.php (data obraщeniya: 26.05.2015).
https://m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Didakticheskie_igri (data obraщeniya: 26.05.2015).
3. Aristova Ye.A. Formirovanie foneticheskix i fonasionnix navikov
inoyazichnoy ustnoy rechevoy deyatelnosti u studentov neyazikovogo vuza:
avtoref. dis. ... kand. ped. nauk. - Perm, 2005.
4. Protopopova O.V., Aristova Ye.A. Golosovaya kultura ustnogo
perevodchika-permyaka // Industriya perevoda: mater. mejdunar. nauch.-prakt.
konf. (Perm, 3-5 iyunya 2013 g.) - Perm, 2013. - S 77-84.
XITOY TILIDA [A
KONSTRUKSIYASI VA TARJIMA MUAMMOLARI
, TDSHU, tadqiqotchi
Qiyoslash mazmunidagi gaplar xitoy tilida
bǐjiào jù atamasi or-
qali ifodalanadi. Xitoy tilida bunday gaplar sifat va darajalarning o‗zaro
farqini, baland yoki pastligini ifodalash uchun qo‗llaniladi. Asosan ikki
kishi, ikki predmet yoki ikki holat darajalaridagi farqlani o‗zaro taqqos-
lashda qo‗llaniladi.Ushbu maqola qiyoslash mazmunidagi gaplardagi xato
va kamchiliklarning tahlili hamda ularni oldini olishga qaratilgan.
Qiyoslash mazmunidagi gaplar to‗rt a‘zoga ega bo‗ladi: 1) taqqosla-
nayotgan narsa yoki subyekt, 2) unga qiyos bo‗luvchi narsa yoki obyekt,
3) qiyos belgisi va 4) shakliy ko‗rsatkich. Sof qiyoslash mazmunidagi
gaplarda bir predmet, jarayon, hodisalar ikkinchisi bilan o‗xshatish maq-
sadida emas, balki birini ikkinchisidan farqlash maqsadida qiyoslanadi.
Bunda taqqoslanayotgan predmetlarning har ikkalasi ham ayni bir belgi,
xususiyatga ega bo‗ladi. Ammo bu belgi taqqoslanayotgan predmetlarga