Роль этнической культуры в формировании идеологического иммунитета молодежи

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Нишанова, О. (2023). Роль этнической культуры в формировании идеологического иммунитета молодежи. in Library, 1(2), 27–30. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/21844

Аннотация

В статье рассматриваются внутренние, имманентные черты узбекской этнокультуры, аспекты, связанные с национальной идеей. Раскрывается национальная идейно мировоззренческая сущность художественно-эстетических образов и образов в узбекской этнокультуре. Формирование эстетического идеала – основная функция узбекской этнокультуры. В статье исследуются особенности этой функции, вопросы более широкого использования этнокультурных возможностей для ее формирования с точки зрения национальной идеи и идеологии.

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Zien Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities ISSN NO: 2769-996X

https://zienjournals.com Date of Publication: 07-06-2023

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Peer Reviewed International Journal [27]
Volume 21

The Role of Ethnic Culture in Formation of Ideological

Immunity in the Youth

Nishanova Ozoda Jaliloddinovna

Doctor of Philosophical Sciences, Professor

National University of Uzbekistan

ORCID ID: orcid.org/ 0000-0002-7242-9557

Annotation.

The article examines the internal, immanent features of Uzbek ethnoculture, aspects related to

the national idea. The national ideological and ideological essence of artistic and aesthetic images and
images in Uzbek ethnoculture is revealed. Forming an aesthetic ideal is the main function of Uzbek
ethnoculture. In the article, the features of this function, issues of wider use of ethnocultural possibilities
for its formation are studied from the point of view of national idea and ideology.


Keywords:

Uzbek, ethnoculture, national idea, ideology, aesthetic ideal, ideological immunity, youth,

artistic-aesthetic

Introduction

In the words of the well-known art critic and philosopher M.S. Kagan, "from the intuitive perception of

the whole to the theoretical understanding that it is a very complex and multifunctional system" [1; -p.9] there
is a need for transition, without such an approach, it is impossible to stop the spread of conflicting, and
sometimes completely incorrect, unrealistic, unscientific views about material culture and spiritual culture,
civilization and culture, types, manifestations, and architecture of cultural activities. "What is culture?" The
epistemological question requires axiological differentiation of "true culture" from "false culture". Such a
distinction, in turn, answers the question "what kind of culture should be and how will it be?". These questions
are not the product of epistemological research, fantasy games, and purely metaphysical observations. Human
development, "clash of civilizations", national, religious, ideological and social conflicts arising in different
regions make it necessary to positively solve the issue of culture. It is also an axiom that only culture can save
humanity from destruction, destructive wars, and conflicts [1; -S.13]. It is for this reason that the search for
ways to effectively use the positive experiences in the morals, manners, customs, traditions, works, oral and
written works created by the people, in short, the national culture (ethnoculture) is a requirement of social
development, an objective necessity.


Materials and methods

Foreign scientists G. Gadamer, K. Lévi-Strauss, A. Toynbee, Y. Heizinga, O. Spengler, primitive ideas,

customs, way of life, stages of formation of consciousness, creation of labor tools, language, socio-historical
processes, ethics, who researched some ethnocultural processes related to society and development. Their
scientific conclusions serve as a theoretical basis for the study and objective assessment of ethnocultures. At
the same time, in them, on the one hand, some empirical materials, ethnocultural processes are presented as a
criterion applicable to all mankind, and on this basis, a desire to draw a global conclusion, on the other hand,
to abstract the subject, to interpret subjective opinion as a single scientific truth is visible. A holistic approach
to ethnoculture requires ensuring coherence of subjective opinion with empirical material.

CIS scientists L.N. Gumilyov, S.N. Ikonnikova, M.S. Kagan, L.N. Kogan, D.S. Likhachev, M.O.

Shavaeva conducted research in various directions related to the topic. L. N. Gumilyov's research on the role
of ancient Turkic tribes in the formation of Eurasian civilization stands out from the others.

Among Uzbek scientists, U. Karaboev analyzed Uzbek ethnoculture in connection with rituals and

holidays, traditional games, folk entertainment, folk medicine, folk art, folk pedagogy (ethnopedagogy), folk
applied art, national costumes and dressing culture, ecology and the development of folk household culture. .
He emphasizes that ethnoculture is a reality related to science, enlightenment, religion, literature, art,
creativity, folk traditions, and all spheres of human life [2]. U. Mengligulov studied the ethnoculture of the


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Zien Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities ISSN NO: 2769-996X

https://zienjournals.com Date of Publication: 07-06-2023

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Peer Reviewed International Journal [28]
Volume 21

Surkhan oasis, tried to preserve the national identity in the multi-ethnic area, reveal the socio-cultural aspects
of the ethnocultural traditions [3].

F. Atamuratova, U. Otanova and G. Shodimetova's researches promoting the integral connection of

Uzbek culture with the spiritual culture and the processes of forming a perfect generation during the years of
independence were expressed. In particular, U. Otanova categorizes folk culture into socio-economic,
agricultural, urban life, politics, society and state management, democracy, enlightenment and education,
education, household life, literature and art, amateur creativity [4]. The researcher comes to the conclusion
that as long as a person, a nation, a people exist, their characteristic ethno-cultural signs will not disappear.


Main part

Ethnoculture is the result of a person's subjective activity aimed at epistemological understanding of the

world, social existence. This subjective basis of ethnoculture comes as an expression of certain ideas and
ideology in material and spiritual wealth. Even weapons and artifacts aimed at utilitarian purposes carry not
only aesthetic, but also social, economic, and even political views and thoughts of the subject. It should be
noted that the purpose of Uzbek hat is not only to protect the head from heat and cold, but also it has become
a symbol of national pride and national identity. It is possible to distinguish representatives of existing ethnic
groups in society by their appearance, local-ethnographic signs, clothing culture, and even kinesics and
gestural behavior. This is not only the effect of physiological, biological, but also "cultural determinism" [5].
This influence creates certain stereotypes in mentality, behavior, and relationships. By studying this situation,
following the "template", we know to which ethnicity and ethnoculture a person belongs, by analyzing his
clothes, kinesics, aesthetic taste, and what social ideas he is a supporter of. It is true that we may be mistaken
in these ideas, but we will not stop striving to know and understand a person's inner world, ethnoculture, and
aesthetic taste from stereotypes. Especially when a person directs his actions to create something, he "spends"
his inner thoughts, ideas and views, aesthetic taste on that thing. In this way, the objectification of
consciousness and taste occurs.

Uzbek ethnoculture has not always had a national idea and ideology in the current sense. Some

researchers derive the roots of the national idea and ideology from the culture of antiquity, from our ancient
narratives. In our opinion, in earlier societies, the national idea and ideology did not exist as a theoretical-
philosophical concept as it is now, but in the form of ideas, approaches, and goals that led to the formation of
Uzbek and other peoples of our country in the form of social unity. Although the national idea and ideology
turned into a theoretical-philosophical concept, a recognized doctrine with the full formation of the Uzbek
nation, it has always existed within the Uzbek ethnoculture as a component of it. Therefore, it is a mistake to
separate ethnoculture from the national idea and ideology, to build a "Chinese wall" between them.

Ethnoculture is essentially related to the national idea and ideology. Thoughts, ideas, goals for which

the hero fought, images, lines, even colors in patterns, their use, technology inform about national spirituality.
Heart-warming, mournful melodies in Uzbek music, ibo in the movements of the dancers, elegance,
gentleness, and even submissive meekness indicate the influence of social ideas, aesthetic views, in short,
ideological factors in the ethno-aesthetic heritage of our people.

The national idea and ideology should make the nation a nation and the nation a nation. Uzbek ethno-

cultural heritage consistently describes the aspirations of our people to realize and preserve their identity. First
of all, this is manifested in works of folk art and creativity depicting the struggle for the freedom of the
Motherland and the people. The main heroes of folk epics such as "Alpomish", "Kirkkiz", "Gurugli",
"Yodgorkhan", "Rustamkhan" are characters who instilled the feeling of patriotism in their hearts. In
particular, Gurugli unites representatives of different peoples, gathers them around him, and opposes the
enemies of his homeland. When he "grew up and became an adult, he became a mediator connecting blue and
earth, more precisely, a savior who repels the evil forces that invade and threaten the people of the earth. He
guided people and started them on the right path. He will establish justice in the derailed society and spread
enlightenment" [6].

The struggles for the freedom and independence of the country and the people depicted in the folk books

and epics are exaggerated and hyperbolic, the main character or a group of wrestlers fights with an entire army
of enemies and ultimately defeats them. This artistic image inspires admiration, but does not forget how the
heroes of the people are fighting against the evil and brutal force. Such a force can be defeated and crushed


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Zien Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities ISSN NO: 2769-996X

https://zienjournals.com Date of Publication: 07-06-2023

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Peer Reviewed International Journal [29]
Volume 21

only by a stronger and more powerful force, a hero who has the freedom of his country and people in his heart.
Bringing the main characters as extremely strong, powerful, who single-handedly digs a ditch in the mountain
and carries water, stands "against thousands of armies", "works day and night", "covers a distance of forty
days in one moment" is a social, artistic and aesthetic image of the people. according to the ideal. The people
inculcates their ideological, cultural and aesthetic views on the main characters, their struggle for the freedom
of the homeland and the people.

These ethno-cultural and ethno-aesthetic features of the idea of freedom of the homeland and the people

were transferred to the national idea and ideology formed during the years of independence. That is why
experts interpret the idea of patriotism by connecting it with the historical feats of our ancestors, images,
images, motives created in ethnoculture, especially in folklore, epics and songs, in short, exemplary plots and
works that instill national pride and patriotism in the representatives of the nation and young people. Because
the social ideas embedded in the works of the people create impressive and emotional images with the help of
artistic and aesthetic means, they quickly and effectively affect people's minds, moods, and relationships. "The
fact that in the past there were people like Shiroq, Spitamen, Jalaluddin Manguberdi, who were ready to
sacrifice their lives for the protection of the Motherland and the peace of the country, strengthens people's
confidence in the future" [7; -B. 152-153]. Based on this theoretical-philosophical concept, researchers define
patriotism in the national idea and ideology:

"- knowing the history of one's people well and being proud of it;
- preserving the material and spiritual heritage created by the great ancestors like the apple of an eye and

passing it on to future generations;

- to study the traditions, customs and traditions of ancestors, and to continue the valuable part of it;
- means the future of our country, stability of independence, sincere feeling of the greatness of the future,

earnestly helping to build such a future" [7; -B.153] they argue.

Uzbek national culture was formed on the basis of its core. Therefore, the Uzbek ethnoculture and its

fundamentally important ideas, values, views are the root of today's national idea and ideology. Therefore, it
is necessary to look for the fundamental values and conceptual views expressed in the content of the national
idea and ideology from ethnoculture, ethnocultural and ethno-aesthetic heritage.

"A person always feels the need for a certain idea in relation to his life activity, society, state, and the

people around him. Consequently, a person accepts thoughts that meet his needs. However, it is worth noting
that these ideas cannot be outside the moral, political, artistic, aesthetic standards established in society. In
order for an idea to serve the life and development of a person, first of all, it must represent the interests of the
people, the nation, which is its subject and consumer, and reflect its moral needs" [8; -B.95]. Here we are
talking about the moral and spiritual heritage and values that are unique to the Uzbek people, deeply embedded
in their ethno-culture. Therefore, the main goal of the national idea and ideology is to satisfy the moral and
spiritual needs of society and man [8; -B. 38].

Ethical and spiritual values are in the central place in Uzbek ethnoculture. In the struggle between

goodness and evil, greatness and baseness, nobility and inferiority, ambivalent, antagonistic phenomena such
as elegance and rudeness, the high moral and spiritual qualities that express the ideal of the people prevail and
win. It is almost rare to celebrate such immoral events and traits as evil, baseness, meanness, and rudeness in
folk creativity and art. It should be noted that in some episodes they are superior to high moral and spiritual
qualities, positive, they make the protagonists sad, they are exposed to danger, ignorance, arrogance, but the
hero of the people overcomes them through noble and beautiful goals and actions. .

"National idea, ethnic roots, history, culture, motherland, faith, spirituality, economic life, values,

traditions and customs, is a spiritual factor that unites people of the same blood and soul in the path of specific
goals and interests, common activities and directs them" [9]. The nature of the national idea, which unites
ethnic groups and peoples to specific, strategic goals, is reflected in the integration, commonalities and
commonalities of the ethno-culture.

In the Uzbek ethnocultural and ethno-aesthetic heritage, special attention is paid to the depiction of a

person, his beautiful, noble qualities, love and affection for his relatives and others. Man, his beautiful and
noble spirituality, inner world has not escaped the attention of subjects of folk creativity and art. The main
goal of Uzbek ethnoculture was to depict a perfect person, to create a spiritually mature generation. Because,


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Zien Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities ISSN NO: 2769-996X

https://zienjournals.com Date of Publication: 07-06-2023

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Peer Reviewed International Journal [30]
Volume 21

"The idea of a perfect person is a noble idea that has both a national and a universal essence, embodies the
highest spiritual and physical perfection of a human being, and always motivates him to be good.

This idea led not only individuals, but entire nations to high development, inspired them to unparalleled

achievements in spirituality and enlightenment" [7; 56 pp.].

In the ethnocultural and ethnoaesthetic heritage, the nationality of the heroes is rarely mentioned. For

folk creativity and art, a person, his spiritual and moral qualities, beautiful behavior are important. This
universal approach does not reject the ethnic and national symbols in folk creativity and art, but indicates their
harmony with universal values. None of the heroes of the people puts their ethnic origin above the ethnic
characteristics of others, does not indulge in ethnocentric sentiments, does not promote the idea of nationalism.
For them, ethnicity means serving the Motherland, the people, and protecting their interests. This means that
the creation and art of the people originates from universal human goals, that its genesis lies in the goal of
glorifying man, turning him into a creative, creative subject.


Conclusion

The ideogenesis of Uzbek ethnoculture (origin, basis of aesthetic views) is not aimed at supporting the

ideas, interests and interests of narrow, class or certain groups. He is alien to classism, sectarianism, even
raising his views to the level of dogma and forcing other ethnic groups to accept him. Neither the Uzbek
people nor their ethnoculture tried to assimilate other peoples, they did not forcibly introduce their heritage,
values, and concepts into different ethnocultures. Its characteristic tolerance allowed free use of existing
artistic-aesthetic methods and images. Therefore, motifs, plots, styles, expressions and compositions
characteristic of the cultures of Greek, Iranian, Arab, Mongolian, and Russian peoples can be found in the
Uzbek ethnocultural and ethnoaesthetic heritage. At the same time, it cannot be said that the themes and
pictorial styles encountered in ideogenesis did not enter. The material and spiritual wealth, artistic and
aesthetic experiences acquired by the nation have been transferred from its historical-cultural paradigm,
synthesis of ideological and spiritual values. This did not allow foreign, destructive, non-national views,
invitations and experiences to enter the Uzbek ethnoculture. So, the ideological immunity we mean now is a
gradual continuation of traditions and experiences in our ethnoculture.


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Библиографические ссылки

Каган М.С. Философия культуры как теоретическая дисциплина // Философия культуры. Становление и развитие. -СПб.:Изд. «Лань», 1998. -9 с.

Қорабоев У. Одатнома. – Тошкент: Ўзбекистон, 2016. Т. 1. – 388 б.; Одатнома. –Тошкент: Ўзбекистон, 2018. Т. 2. – 285 б.

Менглиқулов У.М. Сурхон воҳаси этномаданияти (генезиси, хусусиятлари ва ривожланиш тенденциялари): Фалс. фан. бўй. фалс. док. (PhD) ... дис. –Тошкент, 2022. -134 б.; Ёшлар маънавиятининг шаклланиши ва ривожланишида этномаданиятнинг ўрни // ЎзМУ хабарлари. – Тошкент, 2022. – № 1/6/1. – Б. 120-124; O‘zbek etnomadaniyatining o‘ziga xos xususiyatlari // Academic Research in Educational Sciences (ARES). – Тоshkent, 2022. – № 11. – P. 90-100.

Утанова У. Халқ маданияти: тарихи, назарияси, муаммолари. – Тошкент, 2007. -82 б.

Клакхон М. Зеркало для человека. Введение в антропологию. –СПб.: Евразия, 1998. –42 с.

http://www.til-adabiyot.fan.uz/Turdimov_Sh.pdf. –Б. 20-21.

Миллий истиқлол ғояси: асосий тушунча ва тамойиллар. –Тошкент: Янги аср авлоди, 2001. –Б. 152-153.

Бойтемирова З. Ахлоқий эҳтиёжлар. –Тошкент: Фан, 2007. –95 б.

Юсупов Э. Миллий ғоя ва мафкура: моҳияти, ижтимоий-тарихий илдизлари, аҳамияти. – Шимкент, 2001. –37 б.

Jumaniyazova D. Spiritualistic Approaches in Eastern Philosophy and Their Religious-Philosophical Essence.Central Asian Journal of Literature, Philosophy and Culture. 2023/1/20. -P. 114-117.

Dr. Dilfuza K. Djumaniyazova, & Munisa S. Muxamedova (2022). APPLICATION OF SCIENTIFIC TERMINOLOGY IN THE STORAGE AND RESTORATION OF WORKS OF ART IN MUSEUMS. CURRENT RESEARCH JOURNAL OF HISTORY, 3(03). 40–44. https://doi.org/10.37547/history-crjh-03-03-07

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