Woman in the Labor Market: Uzbekistan and World Practice

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Абдуллаева M. (2020). Woman in the Labor Market: Uzbekistan and World Practice. in Library, 20(3), 2138–2144. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/8764
Мавлюда Абдуллаева, Университет общественной безопасности Республики Узбекистан

к.э.н., доцент, старший преподаватель военно-технического института

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Аннотация

The published article reveals the relevance and necessity of researching the gender aspects of the economy. Gender economics analyzes the differences in the economic situation of men and women. Particular attention of the author is concentrated on the position of women in the labor market. The main socio-economic problems of women's employment in the labor market, including Uzbekistan, are investigated. Analytical data on women's participation in the global economy are presented. The author concludes that the status of women and their status have undergone significant changes, caused not only by legislative norms, political processes, but also by changes in the social consciousness, which was the result of economic processes that swept Uzbekistan.

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Jour of Adv Research in Dynamical & Control Systems, Vol. 12, 07-Special Issue, 2020

DOI: 10.5373/JARDCS/V12SP7/20202333
ISSN 1943-023X

2138

Received: 20 May 2020/Accepted: 20 June 2020

Woman in the Labor Market: Uzbekistan

and World Practice

Abdullaeva Mavluda Sadykovna, PhD in Economics, Associate Professor, Senior Lecturer of the Military Technical Institute of

the National Guard of the Republic of Uzbekistan. E-mail: mavluda755@mail.ru

Abstract---

The published article reveals the relevance and necessity of researching the gender aspects of the

economy. Gender economics analyzes the differences in the economic situation of men and women. Particular
attention of the author is concentrated on the position of women in the labor market. The main socio-economic
problems of women's employment in the labor market, including Uzbekistan, are investigated. Analytical data on
women's participation in the global economy are presented. The author concludes that the status of women and their
status have undergone significant changes, caused not only by legislative norms, political processes, but also by
changes in the social consciousness, which was the result of economic processes that swept Uzbekistan.

Keywords---

Labor, Labor Potential, Labor Market, Woman, Gender Inequality, Woman Entrepreneur, Women's

Economic Activity, Female Labor, Discrimination, Digital Economy.

I.

Introduction

The functioning of the labor market is based on the fact that the population, in order to conduct normal life

activities, is forced to sell their labor for a fee, where a specific product is a certain set of intellectual, spiritual,
physical abilities of a person, which, in general, represent an individual labor potential. The labor market itself is a
sphere of the formation of supply and demand for labor. As a result of this mechanism, the equilibrium price is
determined and the level of employment of the population is established.

Today, the labor market is one of the indicators by which one can judge the well-being and stability of the

country.

A market economy forces an individual to upgrade qualifications, acquire knowledge and skills, and build up

experience. Today, the more a person can, knows, knows how to compare with surrounding applicants
(competition), the more chances he has to get the desired job with high pay. However, in the twenty-first century,
often about myself, I began to recall the fact - shortening the life cycle of professions. With the rapid development
of the digital economy, some activities in the near future may be doomed to disappear due to the emergence of new
machines, equipment, technologies that replace a person and leave him without work. Among the specialties that
require complex preliminary training, the so-called intellectual ones, everyone connected with the systematization of
data came under attack - it is these employees who can replace computers most quickly.

II.

Main Part

The list of departing already contains professions: dispatchers, tour agents, realtors, the need for which is

disappearing with the advent of Internet services that allow people to directly contact hotels, buy airline tickets, and
sellers and home buyers to communicate with each other. Soon, estimates, decoders, translators, archivists, notaries,
analysts, as well as public service operators may soon be a thing of the past. In addition, economists, managers,
accountants are traditionally at risk. Therefore, an undoubted attribute of every economically active person today
should be a tendency to adapt and adapt to environmental changes, in particular, retraining.

Labor is a basic human need and a basic form of activity, thanks to which a person was formed, and a society

arose. The sphere of labor and employment is the basis for a prosperous life for individuals and social groups that
make up modern society, which means that the development of the whole society, in which a woman plays a
significant role, depends on the stability of the labor market. At present, it is impossible to underestimate the fact
that the empowerment of women and girls has a multiplier effect and helps to stimulate economic growth and
development in all areas.

Over the past twentieth century, the image of an Uzbek woman has changed dramatically. The crown of the

struggle for women's equal rights in Uzbekistan was the campaign for the removal of the burqa. On March 8, 1927,
on the Registan Square in the city of Samarkand, thousands of Uzbek women threw off their burqa. In the middle of
the twentieth century, she was already different from that painstaking, clogged woman, but continued to be the


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guardian of the family hearth. An Uzbek woman of the 21st century is a completely different type. This trend has
especially intensified with the advent of modern technology. She has not only duties, but also the rights enshrined in
law, she is actively involved in the activities of socio-political life.

Strengthening the role and status of women in state and public construction is one of the main state priorities of

the Republic of Uzbekistan. Modern state policy of the country is aimed at implementing the principle of equal
rights and freedoms, creating equal opportunities for women and men in accordance with the Constitution of
Uzbekistan. The principle of equal rights for men and women is enshrined in article 18 of the Constitution of the
Republic of Uzbekistan.

1

These issues are also reflected in family, labor, civil, criminal codes and other legislative

acts. The Labor Code of the Republic of Uzbekistan does not contain gender-discriminatory legal norms.

2

All this is evidence that today society lives in an environment where it is no longer possible to talk about the

need to choose a woman between family and work. The combination of these two aspects is a reality: it is both a
necessity and a need not only for a woman, but also for the state, family, and society. In a word, the state needs
women as a labor force: working women make up a significant part of this force, and without them the development
and functioning of the economy is impossible. It is no coincidence that the employment of women is highlighted in
five initiatives of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

3

In recent years, significant changes have occurred in the economic psychology of people, including women and

their loved ones. In Uzbekistan, women make up almost half of the working population. The current population of
Uzbekistan includes 16,064,193 women (estimated at 12/12/2019), which is 50.5% of the population.

4

The proportion of women among the economically active population exceeds 46 percent. In general, the share of

women in the economic activity of Uzbekistan is as follows:

Healthcare - 80%;
Education - 81%;
Financial activities - 67%;
Trade - 62%;
Industry - 38%.
Agricultural industries - 45%.

Least of all women work in financial, IT, transportation and construction [10].

5

As you can see, the vast majority of them are employed in such fields of activity as education, healthcare,

financial activities and trade. The increase in the number of times wages for teachers and health workers is likely to
increase the number of women in these areas in the future. In the context of Uzbekistan entering the innovative
development path, it seems interesting that women are increasingly starting to participate in the development of
high-tech sectors of the economy. For example, on May 15, 2020, a video conference on the topic “Achievements of
women in the field of development, science, education, culture and innovative technologies” was held in Tashkent,
which spoke about the increasing role of women in the application of innovative technologies for the development
of science, education, culture and entrepreneurship, support for their activities, strengthening the role of the family
and society.

New opportunities are opened by the Republic's Development Strategy for 2017-2021 adopted in the country. It

provides for large-scale measures to increase the level of education and economic activity of women, to strengthen
their role in public and public administration, small business and private entrepreneurship.

6

The ongoing reforms in the economy of Uzbekistan have provided certain opportunities for a more complete

manifestation of the economic potential of women. The government allocates considerable funds in this direction. In
2019 alone, the Uzbek authorities allocated more than $ 12 million for the development of female entrepreneurship,
while at least 50% of them will go to the business of women living in rural areas. For business women across the
country they create Entrepreneurship Centers with the status of NGOs. They are engaged in retraining and

1

Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan. - T.: Uzbekistan. 2018.

2

Labor Code of the Republic of Uzbekistan. - approved by the Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan of 21.12.1995.

3

Sh. Mirziyoyev “Five initiatives of Sh. Mirziyoyev”04.2019.

htt://countrumeters.info

5

State Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan on statistics.

6

Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan “On the Strategy for the Further Development of the Republic of Uzbekistan” No.

UP-4947 dated 02/07/2017.


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counseling for women. In 2020, 100 billion soums of soft loans will be allocated for the implementation of business
projects of 5.5 thousand women.

7

In line with the ongoing large-scale changes, the process of the establishment of female entrepreneurship is

ongoing. Nowadays, the makings of women that were formed by the previous history of the development of gender
relations are becoming more and more in demand. While engaged in housekeeping, women have gained significant
organizational and entrepreneurial experience, and today it can be widely used not only in the family. In Uzbekistan,
much attention is paid to this problem. Small business in the republic today is also “with a female face”.

The Number of Women Entrepreneurs (% of Employed Women) is the Percentage in Uzbekistan by years.

The World Bank

Time period Qty Time period Qty
2006

32,782

2007

32,23

2008

29,672

2009

28,7

2010

28,169

2011

27,598

2012

27,353

2013

27,118

2014

27,12

2015

26,927

2016

25,883

2017

25,303

The number of women entrepreneurs (% of employed women) in Uzbekistan in 2017 reached 25%, which is

0.579 pp less than in 2016 (25%).

From 2007 to 2017, the Number of women entrepreneurs (% of employed women) in Uzbekistan decreased by

6.9 percentage points. The average annual change in the number of women entrepreneurs in Uzbekistan over this
period was 0.577%.

The maximum increase in the number of women entrepreneurs in Uzbekistan from 2007 to 2017. was recorded

in 2014: 0.002 percentage points, the maximum decline was observed in 2008: - 2.55 percentage points The
maximum value of the number of women entrepreneurs in Uzbekistan was achieved in 2006: 32%, the minimum
was observed in 2017: 25%.

8

According to the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Uzbekistan, the share of women engaged in

entrepreneurship is about 10 percent.

It is gratifying that the provision of employment for women and college graduates, their involvement in

entrepreneurial activities, and support for women entrepreneurs in Uzbekistan are provided for by the State Program
approved by the Government in February 2017. If in 2018, according to a special targeted program, 10 thousand
poor women were employed, then in 2019 a list of 13 thousand women was compiled, the employment of which will
be provided in the first place. To do this, a program has been developed at the government level and funds have been
allocated to create specific jobs..

9

With the assistance of the ILO, in 2019 a study will be carried out in the country on the gender gap in wages

and employment of women in general. Such an analysis has never been carried out in Uzbekistan. Its findings will
be taken into account in the development of policies to promote gender equality and women's employment in
particular..

10

7

Sh. Mirziyoyev Message to the Oliy Majlis. 01/24.2020.

8

Trendеconomy.ru World Bank Data. 03.2018 г.

9

Materials of the seminar of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Republic of Uzbekistan and UNDP "Business Forum of

Uzbekistan (phase III)." 04/17/2019.

10

T. Narbaeva Report at the international conference on 12.2018 “The future of the world of work: initiatives to ensure decent employment

on the eve of the 100th anniversary of the international labor organization” T.: 12/15/2018.


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Whatever important social and economic consequences the growth of female activity in the economy is

accompanied by, it is necessary to take into account its influence on the demographic consequences, and, first of all,
on fertility indicators.

As of January 1, 2020, the population of Uzbekistan was 33 905 800 people and increased by 2 percent

compared to the previous.

11

Despite the ongoing work, it should be noted that the modern market of Uzbekistan has revealed a pronounced

gender focus on changes in the structure of employment in the labor market: a decrease in the share of women in
many sectors of the economy, in jobs requiring high professional skills and knowledge, especially in the field of
intellectual labor. Gender asymmetry has shifted sharply in favor men ”and created a qualitatively new situation in
the labor market, employment and professions. That is why the problem of women's economic activity, which is
based on her employment, remains important for modern society and the state, and in a market economy, it is
women's employment that is a little protected area.

Social discrimination against women manifests itself in the fields of labor and employment; distribution of

power and property; loans; culture and education; political and spiritual life of society. Despite the positive
economic and sociocultural trends in the development of society, which contribute to expanding the field of
women's realization of their own potential, they occupy a less favorable position in the field of employment than
men. In addition, in modern Uzbekistan there is an acute problem of employment associated with competition for
jobs, requiring professionalism, knowledge and skill. In modern conditions in Uzbekistan there has been a tendency
towards the lack of demand for the high educational and professional potential of women.

Women are less active in the entrepreneurial environment due to the lack of start-up capital, lack of knowledge

and necessary skills in doing business. As noted above, the number of women entrepreneurs is about 10% of all
business entities.

In Uzbekistan, there is a trend of crowding out women in lower-wage industries. They often occupy low-paid

positions or are involved in areas where wages are lower. According to statistics, women's salaries are 35 percent
lower than men. Moreover, as experts say, women themselves are no less affected by gender stereotypes than men,
passing them on to their children.

The vast majority of employed women in the economy are self-employed, and only a small number of them are

employers.

Sometimes the ill-conceived "protection" of the interests of women "only harms them. Especially when the costs

of "protection" are passed on to others. For example, in Uzbekistan, the responsibility for paying maternity benefits
lies with employers, and this, as a result, affects the fact that employers are reluctant to hire young women for fear
that they might take maternity leave.

Higher education makes it possible to apply for more high paying job. Despite the complex of measures aimed at

the widespread involvement of female youth in higher educational institutions of the country over the past three
years, unfortunately, so far, the proportion of women with higher education lags behind men. Given that girls started
families immediately after graduating from colleges and lyceums, the vast majority of them were left without higher
education. But at present, there is an assumption that the equation of the minimum age of marriage from 1.09.2019,
the implementation of reforms in the education system as a whole, the expansion of the network of higher
educational institutions, the introduction of part-time and evening education in universities, the level of education of
women will increase.

12

The ousting of women from the labor market inevitably leads to numerous negative consequences: undermining

opportunities for self-realization, lower per capita incomes and, accordingly, impoverishing families, and in the long
term, losing a significant part of the educated and highly qualified labor potential accumulated in previous decades.
In matters of modernization of the economy, its stabilization and improving the quality of life of the population,
including the role of women in this process, there is an urgent need to study the experience of other countries,
which, unfortunately, is not used enough in Uzbekistan for various reasons.

Women make up half of the world's able-bodied population, but their contribution to the economy remains

below the potential level, despite the fact that the full participation of women in labor relations could increase the
size of the world economy by 2025 by 20 percent at once. Representation of women in the labor market is 50% of

11

State Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan on statistics.

12

Telegram-channel "Legal information" on 22.04.2019


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the maximum possible, and this indicator stagnates over the past 20 years, analysts say, and a complete reduction in
the gender gap could increase Germany’s GDP by 11.2% in the next 15 years and France by 9.4%, and in Italy - by
22.5%. “Even a 50% reduction in this gap will lead to an increase in GDP of 5.6%, 4.7%, 11.2%, respectively,” the
researchers add. In addition, an increase in the level of education has become one of the main reasons for economic
growth in the countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) over the past 50
years, and women spend most of their income on the education of children, including girls, which causes a potential
positive effect.

13

In the West, women often run firms. At the same time, it was noted that in these firms there are practically no

strikes, less often bankruptcy occurs. A female leader does not put herself above her team, she is more sociable,
democratic, eagerly in touch with subordinates, well informed about what is happening in the company, and delves
into all the little things in production. In Canada, for example, women own 1/3 of small and medium-sized
enterprises. Entrepreneurial Canadians created more jobs than the 100 largest companies combined in 1997. In the
United States, women own 40 percent of all firms in the country with one in five employees. The American
women's business organized 18.5 million jobs, bringing annually $ 2.3 trillion (US) to the country's economy.

As noted by well-known American journalists Jessica Bennett and Jess Ellison in their article “Women Will

Rule the World,” published in Newsweek magazine, women are already “breadwinners” or one of the breadwinners
in two thirds of American households. It was women who managed to occupy 75% of the 8 million jobs created
since 2000. Economists predict that by 2024 the average woman in the United States and a number of rich countries
in Europe will earn more than the average man. And it is she who, spending money, will become the locomotive of
growth in consumer demand, driving the economy forward. This, in particular, is stated in the book “Influence: How
Growing Women's Economic Power Will Change Our World for the Better”, recently published by Hyperion New
York. Women in the United States already account for 83% of all consumer purchases, 89% of accounts opened
with American banks, 51% of all personal wealth; their consumer spending exceeds 5 trillion. dollars, which is more
than the entire Japanese economy. At the global level, women are the largest emerging market in the history of the
planet, twice the size of India and the united China.

14

At the same time, having analyzed the statistics of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

(OECD) for 95 countries that produce 97% of world GDP, we can say that there is still a long way to real gender
equality in the world. It is not found in any region: in India, the Middle East and South Asia, women participate in
the creation of about 20% of GDP, in North America this figure reaches 40%. Inequality arises from the fact that
women are less active in the labor market. Part-time work is more often and moreover than men, employed in low-
productive sectors of the economy. In addition, women carry out a large percentage of all unpaid work: this is caring
for children and the elderly, cleaning, cooking. According to analysts, part of this homework may well be paid or
shared equally between men and women. They estimated the cost of such labor at $ 10 trillion. per year - this is
about 13% of global GDP. Researchers modeled what would happen if the situation changed, and got two scenarios.
“Ideal” implies the full participation of women in the economy and leads to an increase in world GDP by 20% (by $
28 trillion). The second, “relatively realistic” scenario is calculated based on the smooth growth of women's
participation in labor relations and their employment in highly productive sectors. This would add 8% to the global
GDP ($ 12 trillion). Such a path would require investments of $ 3 trillion, aimed at education and job creation in
high-productive sectors. The issue of greater women's participation in the economy is especially important for
countries with aging populations..

15

According to British human rights organizations, women suffer most from the economic recession. Families who

are impoverished due to the recession stop the formation of older daughters so that they help with the household. In
some countries, young girls are married in order not to spend money on them. According to the report, under the
influence of the recession, the fundamental rights of women and girls are increasingly violated. The empowerment
of women is, in fact, not only a moral challenge, but also a completely obvious economic solution. First, women's
empowerment spurs economic growth. For example, it is estimated that if the number of working women increased
to the number of working men, GDP would increase by 5% in the United States, by 9% in Japan and 27% in India.
These estimates, of course, are indicative, but they are quite significant and large, so they should be taken seriously.
This is especially true in countries where potential growth is declining due to an aging population. Secondly, more
reliable and well-paid jobs for women increase overall per capita income. In Turkey, estimates of gender equality in

13

www.mqI5.com журнал Newsweek. "Women will rule the world." Jessica Bennet and Jess Allison

14

There

15

Там же


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employment could increase per capita income by 22%. A similar increase could be achieved by many other
countries.

Third, greater gender equality not only increases absolute income levels, but also helps reduce income

inequality. Improving the opportunities for women’s education and employment can increase income equality that
has taken decades to achieve. And fourthly, empowering women can reduce poverty. Thus, according to the Food
and Agriculture Organization, if women were given equal access to agricultural resources as men, the growth in
production of this sector in developing countries could reach 4%, which would save more than 100 million people
from hunger.

16

The analysis allows us to state that despite the existing practice of the West and Europe in promoting women in

the labor market, on the whole, we have to admit a tough reality: female labor is not in great demand, and its price
remains too low. Forecasts for the future are also rather unfavorable: possible economic growth, according to
estimates, will require an increase in the number of male job vacancies (primarily in raw materials and
manufacturing industries). In this regard, the reform of the system of regulation of labor relations taking into account
changes occurring in the post-industrial world should be a priority measure to eliminate the economic foundations of
gender inequality.

As for Uzbekistan, the country must be more attentive to the individual, her individual needs. The work carried

out here should help to achieve equal opportunities for men and women in the world of work. State support for
women's employment, its social and protective role in the labor market will expand the freedom of choice of life
path and ways of personal fulfillment.

III.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it should be noted that the relevance of the topic is associated with a number of problems of

female employment in the labor market of Uzbekistan. Firstly, in spite of published research papers, including
articles, insufficient theoretical and practical knowledge of the indicated problem can be noted. Secondly, in the
conditions of modern economic instability, there is an urgent need to develop measures to eliminate and prevent
gender discrimination in its various manifestations in the labor market. Thirdly, in connection with the special socio-
economic conditions of modern society, there is a need to identify features of the problems of female employment,
which, in turn, will help to develop the most effective methods of combating gender discrimination in the labor
market.

Solving the problems of female employment at the same time at all levels will, in our opinion, mitigate many of

the negative consequences in the socio-economic life of society, and mitigate the demographic situation in the
country.

References

[1]

Abdulaeva Z.Z. Socio-economic problems of women's employment in the labor market.

Issues of

structuring the economy

-2012.-№3

[2]

Aghabekyan R.L. The modern theory of employment.

Textbook for high schools.

2016 year

[3]

Jessica Bennet and Jess Allison.

Newsweek magazine.

"Women will rule the world." www.mqI5.com

[4]

Starovoitov L.I. Employment and its regulation.

Textbook for high schools.

2011 year

[5]

Mirziyoyev Sh. M. Speech at the meeting on the discussion of the implementation of five initiatives,
creating conditions for the upbringing and education of young people, increasing women's employment. T.:
04/03/2019

[6]

Mirziyoyev Sh. M. Five Initiatives of Sh. Mirziyoyev 04.2019.

[7]

Mirziyoyev Sh. M. Message to the Oliy Majlis. 01/24/2020.

[8]

Narbaeva T.K. report at the international conference “The Future of the World of Labor: Initiatives to
Ensure Decent Employment on the Eve of the 100th Anniversary of the International Labor Organization”

T.: December

15, 2018.

[9]

Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

T.: “Uzbekistan”

2018.

[10]

Labor Code of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

- approved by the Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan dated

12/21/1995.

16

Там же


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Jour of Adv Research in Dynamical & Control Systems, Vol. 12, 07-Special Issue, 2020

DOI: 10.5373/JARDCS/V12SP7/20202333
ISSN 1943-023X

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Received: 20 May 2020/Accepted: 20 June 2020

[11]

Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan “On the Strategy for the Further Development of the
Republic of Uzbekistan” No. UP-4947 dated 7.02.2017.

[12]

Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan “On measures to further strengthen guarantees of
labor rights and support for women's entrepreneurial activity” No. PP-4235 of March 7, 2019.

[13]

The State Program on ensuring employment of women and college graduates, their involvement in
entrepreneurial activity, support for women entrepreneurs in Uzbekistan. 2017-02.

[14]

Report by McKinsey, an international consulting company. 04/30/2015

[15]

Materials of the International Conference of the Association of Business Women of Uzbekistan “Tadbirkor
Ayol” “

Innovations and investments as an effective basis for the development of women's entrepreneurship

in domestic and international markets”

11/23/2018.

[16]

Materials of the seminar of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Uzbekistan and UNDP "Business
Forum of Uzbekistan (phase III)" in conjunction with the Committee of Women of Uzbekistan with the
assistance of the Central Bank of the Republic of Uzbekistan. 04/17/2019.

[17]

@ 2018 TrendEconomy.ru World Bank Data. 03.2018 g.

[18]

Trendеconomy.ru World Bank Data. 03.2018 g.

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[20]

Statistical data of the State Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan on statistics. T.: 2018,2019.

[21]

Telegram-channel "Hukuyi Akhborot" from 04/22/2019

[22]

demoscope@demoscope.ru Demoscope Weekly ISSN 1726-2887

[23]

htt: //countrumeters.info

Библиографические ссылки

Abdulaeva Z.Z. Socio-economic problems of women's employment in the labor market. Issues of structuring the economy-2012.-№3

Aghabekyan R.L. The modem theory of employment. Textbook for high schools. 2016 year

Jessica Bennet and Jess Allison. Newsweek magazine. "Women will rule the world." www.mqI5.com

Starovoitov L.I. Employment and its regulation. Textbook for high schools. 2011 year

Mirziyoyev Sh. M. Speech at the meeting on the discussion of the implementation of five initiatives,

creating conditions for the upbringing and education of young people, increasing women's employment. T.: 04/03/2019

Mirziyoyev Sh. M. Five Initiatives of Sh. Mirziyoyev 04.2019.

Mirziyoyev Sh. M. Message to the Oliy Majlis. 01/24/2020.

Narbaeva T.K. report at the international conference “The Future of the World of Labor: Initiatives to Ensure Decent Employment on the Eve of the 100th Anniversary of the International Labor Organization” T: December 15, 2018.

Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan. T: “Uzbekistan ” 2018.

Labor Code of the Republic of Uzbekistan. - approved by the Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan dated 12/21/1995.

Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan “On the Strategy for the Further Development of t Republic of Uzbekistan” No. UP-4947 dated 7.02.2017.

Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan “On measures to further strengthen guarantees labor rights and support for women's entrepreneurial activity” No. PP-4235 of March 7, 2019.

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demoscope@demoscope.ru Demoscope Weekly ISSN 1726-2887

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